Luis et al. studied 200 obese individuals and reported that the equation of the World Health Organization (WHO)  was the one that least underestimated the energyexpenditure of these participants . This finding was also reported by a Brazilian study with women whose mean body mass index (BMI) indicated overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m 2 ) . However, another study with subjects which had the same BMI mean showed that the equation of WHO overestimated REE values .
The changes in EE after biliopancreatic diversion are consistent with our findings after RYGB  and both operations share the feature of nutrients rapidly entering the jejunum (ali- mentary limb). The altered anatomy after RYGB changes the gastrointestinal and central neu- roendocrine signalling after food ingestion, which in turn may induce the increase in energyexpenditure. Postprandial release of bile acids and gut hormones such as GLP-1, glucagon and oxyntomodulin are markedly enhanced after RYGB  and may together and in concert influence total energyexpenditure both locally in the gastrointestinal tissues and at distance, e.g. in brown adipose tissue (BAT) [36–39]. Vosselman et al have shown that glucose uptake in BAT increases after a meal in un-operated humans which indicates a potential for BAT . In rats duodenal exposure to lipids activates vagal afferents which in turn activate thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) . If such a mechanism exists also in man, it may be specu- lated that the neural activation of BAT becomes enhanced when the nutrients instead enter the jejunum after RYGBP.
The SAB and the DW spring-levered pedometer used in this study underestimated SC when compared to the criterion method. These results corroborate previous findings. 12,31 A probable explanation for this finding is that the SAB is worn around the upper part of the arm, which is not an ideal placement site for step detection, although the mechanism of step detection in the SAB is not clearly described by the device’s manufacturer. In terms of step detection in healthy subjects, the DW was previously suggested as superior to Table 4 Comparison of energyexpenditure (kcal) registered by three methods for each activity and during the entire protocol (sum of all activities).
To further explore the relationship between TEE and short stature in adults, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to determine the association between TEE and height while controlling for potential confounding factors, including age (years), LBM (Kg), and triio- dothyronine concentrations. These specific factors were included in the analysis as they are independent predictors of total energyexpenditure [37,38]. We did not include any physical activity measure, such as PAL, in the model as physical activity is not a predictor of TEE, but is an integral component of TEE. Also, while dietary intake is associated with TEE, it is not a a true confounding variable as it may be part of the causal relationiship between short stature and energyexpenditure. Moreover, the methods used to assess dietary intake are generally much less accurate relative to using DLW to estimate TEE. The assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes between the covariates was tested. We adopted an α value of 5% for all analy- ses. The analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences v20.0 (IBM Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
tain limits, cane length does not modify energyexpenditure during gait. However, that study was conducted on healthy individuals, so their results may not apply to individuals with gait motor disturbances. We therefore believe that cane length should be taken into account for patients with knee osteoarthritis in order to minimize the increase of energyexpenditure during gait. Only a few studies have analyzed energyexpenditure during cane-assisted walking, and to our knowledge, none have involved patients with knee osteoar- thritis. This prevents any comparison of the present results with those in the literature.
concluding that such movements call for great metabolic demand and elevated cardiovascular response. However, there is no study that investigated the energyexpenditure during backward movements in soccer referees. Da Silva et al. (13) have investigated the energyexpenditure, reported as kilocalories (kcal), and metabolic equivalents of task (METs) of referees during the motor activities performed in ofﬁcial matches. A major limitation of these studies was that energyexpenditure was predicted based on mathematical equations instead of direct measure- ments, such as indirect calorimetry (with gas exchange analysis). Thus, it is necessary to directly determine oxygen consumption in soccer referees during each motor activity (including backward movements) by using an open circuit spirometry.
Twenty-five complications-free people with type 1 diabetes were recruited in our open, non-randomised and observational study. The object of the study was to observe a varied cohort spanning the spectrum of energyexpenditure from sedentary to more active individuals. Potential volunteers were identified from those attending the Diabetes Resource Centre at the Royal South Hants Hospital, Southampton, England. Subject selection criteria were non-stringent only requiring the participant to be on multiple insulin injections (and not on an insulin pump) and have no other acute problems. Invitation to participate was made directly by letter with a verbal explanation and patient information sheet before recruitment. Data from 23 (12 women) subjects are reported (one individual withdrew for personal reasons after recruitment and one individual had problems using the CGMS) as reported in the CONSORT diagram in Figure 1. The study protocol and TREND checklist are available as supporting information (Protocol S1 and Checklist S1). After giving signed consent, the participants undertook a number of clinical tests to determine total body fat and CRF. The participants were then issued with a multi-sensory physical activity monitory device and CGMS for free-living monitoring. Volunteers were recruited between 8 th July 2008 and 4 th December 2009 – there was no period of follow up.
Measuring the energyexpenditure of sea turtles has a number of important applications in terms of understanding their ecology as well as informing their conservation. For instance, a particularly urgent example is ascertaining the survival time of sea turtles trapped in fishing nets (shrimp trawls, pound nets, bottom gillnets).  estimated that nearly 900,000 sea turtles interact with U.S. based shrimp fisheries yearly resulting in 80,000 mortalities. While U.S. federal regulation requires turtle excluder devices on all otter trawls, several other trawl types are exempt (e.g., skimmer, butterfly nets, pusher head) being limited by tow time. Similarly, licensed bait shrimpers are regulated by tow time. Presently it is assumed that trapped turtles consume Figure 2. Simulation demonstrating the accuracy of predictions of rate of oxygen uptake from ODBA in green turtles using prediction equation 1, at different values of ODBA, for different sampling scenarios. The three scenarios are: (1) six turtles measured for one hour each; black dashed lines, (2) one turtle measured for one hour; grey dashed line, (3) 20 turtles measured for one week each; grey stippled lines. In each case, each 10 min period of data is averaged. (a) The 95% confidence intervals. The black solid line represents prediction equation 1 (see Fig. 1). (b) The relative standard error of the estimate ( = SEE/predicted rate of oxygen uptake6100).
The lack of positive change with EE and symptoms during assisted walking in the controls would be more likely related to a sort of ‘‘obstacle-effect’’ when using the aid device. In this population, pulling the wheeled cart on the floor translated in additional work, symptoms and energyexpenditure; similar (and even worse) results were found when breathing room air, thus excluding the possible bias effect of oxygen inhalation on EE measurement.
metabolic rate (Figure 2A and 2B). Furthermore, metabolic analysis indicates that the higher energyexpenditure could be largely attributed to increased use of fat as fuel in these mice (Figure 2C and 2D), as synaptotagmin-7 KO mice show upregulation of lipolytic enzyme (Figure 3A) and increased capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation (Figure 3B-D). In addition, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit non-inflammatory hyperthermia due to mitochondrial uncoupling, possibly through increased UCP3 expression (Figure 4B), or increased fatty acid oxidation . These metabolic alterations are contributing factors to the observed lean phenotype in the synaptotagmin-7 KO mice.
It should be noted that all of the above studies that were conducted were limited to simple techniques such as heart rate and blood pressure for the determination of intensity during sexual activity. It is also important to indicate that sexual activity is a non-steady-state activity. Thus, the heart rate-blood pressure relationship may not remain linear during sexual activity, suggesting that these physiological parameters might not be primary indicators for the measurement of energyexpenditure and/or intensity for this type of activity. In addition, these studies had important environmental and methodological limitations. That is, the experiments, in general, were performed in the laboratory rather than in the couple’s usual and natural environment (i.e. home). Moreover, the equipment that was used to measure exertion in these studies could have affected the ability to perform a sexual activity (i.e. mask placed on the mouth for the measurement of oxygen consumption as well as electrodes, cuffs and cables placed on the body during sexual intercourse). Taken together, performing these studies in the laboratory setting and the potential interferences due to the equipment used, minimize the chances to re-enact the normal intimacy observed in real-life conditions. Furthermore, most of the framework of knowledge of the physiological responses during sexual activity was gathered in studies that were conducted more than a quarter of a century ago. Thus, the conclusions that were made in these older studies may not be as representative in our modern times due to the wider acceptance of sexuality in today’s society. Also, the previous studies used couples that had a wide range of age and did not report the differences between ages from both individuals in the couple, which could be a confounding factor (younger vs. older individuals). Finally, no study, to our knowledge, has investigated the amount of energyexpenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity and has compared this energyexpenditure, using the same subjects, to a regular exercise which could provide valuable clinical information to health professionals. There is even a myth which suggests that
After the data acquisition during the experiments, the processing of the data was performed, obtaining the results presented in the Table 2, presenting the mean ± standard deviation values of the size of magnitude of vector (MV) and the amount of energyexpenditure (EE) obtained during the performance of the activi- ties, verifying that a correlation between the mean of MV and the EE does not exists, because the EE de- pends on the movement along the acquisition time, and only in running activity the EE significantly increases, and the EE for other activities is around 120 kcal/h. In Fig. 3(a) and (b), the mean values of MV and EE are presented, verifying that high values of the mean values of MV, increases the EE less than expected, be-
mice have normal PVH cellularity, normal PVH projections and these neurons respond normally to stimuli such as hypertonic saline [23,24]. These neurons fail to respond normally to melanocortin agonist activation and the mice are resistant to melanocortin-mediated anorexia but have normal melanocortin- mediated induction of energyexpenditure . These results suggested that the transcription factor Sim1 serves a postnatal physiologic function in feeding regulation but not in energyexpenditure regulation. We showed that MC4R expression and OXT expression are reduced in the PVH of postnatal Sim1 deficient mice [24,49]. This taken together with the fact that Sim1 deficient mice have normal energyexpenditure while Sim1 neuron ablated mice have a reduced energyexpenditure suggests that the transcription factor Sim1 may not be necessary in adult mice for regulating energyexpenditure. By contrast, the current study suggests Sim1 neurons have a critical role in energyexpenditure regulation. Although this work demonstrates a role for Sim1 neurons in regulating energyexpenditure, it does not identify the PVH as the site where Sim1 neurons regulate energyexpenditure. However, when considered in the light of previous work, it is unlikely that the medial amygdala, SON or NLOT are involved in energyexpenditure regulation. The neuron subsets within the PVH that regulate energyexpenditure are not known and our results do not address the question of neuron subtypes. Previous evidence points to TRH and OXT neurons as possibilities in this regard. TRH neurons in the PVH that project to regions regulating thermogenesis may be partly responsible for energyexpenditure regulation by the PVH. TRH neurons in the anterior parvocellular PVH receive a robust innervation from NPY/AgRP and a-melanocyte stimulating hormone/cocaine-and amphet- amine-regulated transcript neurons in the arcuate [50,51]. These are non-hypophysiotropic as they do not project to the median eminence and are not regulated by thyroid hormone. These apPVH TRH neurons project to both the POA and the DMH . Injection of TRH into the POA inhibits heat sensitive neurons and activates cold sensitive neurons resulting in increased body temperature through increased thermogenesis and periph- eral vasoconstriction [15,52]. In addition, injection of TRH into the DMH increases rectal temperature and BAT temperature even more potently than injection into the POA . Regulation of PVH TRH neurons by leptin may be one mechanism mediating reduced thermogenesis in leptin deficient states and diet-induced thermogenesis.
A standard 12 h light/dark cycle was maintained throughout the calorimetry studies. Prior to data collection, all animals were acclimated to home cages with running wheels; for the first 3 days the running wheels were locked, and during the subsequent 7 days the mice had free running wheel access. Mice were subsequently placed in metabolic cages located in the Animal Studies Core of the Nutrition Obesity Research Center (NORC) at the University of Washington. Energyexpenditure measures were obtained using a computer controlled indirect calorimetry system (PromethionH, Sable Systems, Las Vegas, NV). The calorimetry system consists of 16 metabolic cages (identical to home cages with bedding) each equipped with water bottles and food hoppers connected to load cells for food and water intake monitoring, and all animals had ad libitum access to standard rodent chow and water throughout the study. All cages contained running wheels (4.5 0 (11.5 cm) diameter, MiniMitter, Bend, OR) wired to record revolutions/ second continuously using a magnetic reed switch, and all mice had been adapted to running as described above. Eight cages apiece are contained in two separate temperature- and humidity- controlled temperature cabinets (Caron Products & Services, Marietta, OH). The air within the cages is sampled through microperforated stainless steel sampling tubes located in the inner bottom rim of the cages to ensure that temperature inside the cages does not exceed the temperature within the chamber. Ambulatory activity and position are detected with XYZ beam
The inclusion criteria, besides an age between 18–50 years and a BMI between 20–30 kg/m 2 , were a good health, non-smoking, not using a more than moderate amount of alcohol (,10 consumptions per week) or caffeine-containing beverages (,2 cups per day). Subjects had to be weight stable (weight change ,3kg during the last 6 months), not using medication except for oral contraceptives in women and had to be dietary unrestraint. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to determine eating behaviour . Only non-restrained eaters (,10 scores on factor 1), these are persons who are not consciously occupied with food or who are caloric restricted, were selected. Subjects had to be moderately active (,5 hours exercise per week) and used to consuming spicy foods on a regular basis (1–2 days per week, in a low dosage with one meal/day). Pregnant or lactating women were also excluded. Individuals with allergies for the food items used in the study were excluded from participation. Subject sample size was calculated where a was 0.05, b was 0.95 using energyexpenditure changes from past papers  to calculate the effect size. The sample size was finalized as 14 subjects. The a- level was two-sided.
Introduction: Physical activity has become less frequent since the 1980s, even among more active children. Ob- jective: To analyze excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and total energyexpenditure (TEE) in children during and after three different activities. Methods: Sixteen healthy children (9.6±0.1 yrs.) randomly underwent the following procedures lasting 30 minutes on different days: (a) traditional games (PLAY), (b) active video game (Dance Dance Revolution; DDR), and (c) watching television (TV). Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) was measured at rest, at the
Methods: Participated in the study individuals able to interrupt ventilation support, admitted at the center of intensive care of the Hospi- tal de Clínicas de Porto Alegre – RS, between August 2006 and January 2007. Energyexpenditure was mea- sured by indirect calorimetry using a specific monitor, as well as estimated by the Ireton-Jones formula. Values found were analyzed using the Stu- dent’s t test and the Bland and Alt- man method and expressed in mean, ± standard deviation with a signifi- cance level of p<0.05.
he PPS group showed a negative correlation between occupational physical activity, from 21 to 30 years of age and the age of acute poliomyelitis, indicating that those who had polio later had less energyexpenditure in their occupational activities in the period. herefore, the age of the acute polio- virus infection negatively afected the work performance of patients, corroborating the statement about the severity of sequelae and physical losses of those patients with PPS.