SCHIZOPHRENIA: FORTY YEARS OF THE DOPAMINERGIC HYPOTHESIS FROM THE MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY POINTOFVIEW. Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness that affects 1-2% of the world population and continues as a challenge to neuroscience. In this work, we describe an account about the historical evolution of the dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia discussing, from the medicinal chemistry pointofview all different classes of antipsychotic drugs, emphasizing the rational design, structure activity relationships (SAR) and physico-chemical properties related with its molecular mechanism of action.
In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the pointofviewof various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological efects on eating behavior are introduced – for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes ater eating. hird, these topics are integrated and are applied to food businesses. Two conclusions can be drawn: (1) understand- ing human eating behavior leads one to understand human beings themselves; (2) a psychological understanding of eating behavior not only gives one broad knowledge of psychology but also provides businesses and governments with hints for improving quality of life.
Taking as a premise the fact that the majority of blood donations are linked to a receiver, that is, the donation act generally occurs in situations where someone needs the blood, this investigations objective was: to comprehend the signification of the donation blood act in respect to the people involved in this process. The interest in effecting a study with this pointofview came from the need to know the signification of the donation blood act, and to try to discover ways that can give contributions to strategies to attract qualified blood donors. This is a prospective qualitative study where a semi-structured interview was used for data collection and thematic analysis for data handling. In this view, the article shows the significance
This study aimed to analyze the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) associated to Point-of-view Video Modeling (POVM) on the performance of the communicative skills of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Complex Communication Needs, as well as involve the parents, teachers and trainees of these children throughout the process. The specific objectives for the primary participants with ASD were: to analyze the performance during the intervention, to ascertain the level of independence, to monitor the vocabulary, to demonstrate the communication skills; for participants parents, trainees and teachers: to analyze the training given to the communication partners about the intervention, evaluate the performance of the communication partners during the PECS and POVM implementation, to develop a PECS Maintenance Guide for communication partners; to verify the intervention social validity. Three children with ASD with ages ranging from four to six years old and their respective parents, trainees and teachers, participated in the study. For data collection, the following instruments were used: Vocabulary selection worksheet; Participant Performance Record Sheet; Vocabulary Registration Sheet; Communication Skills Questionnaire; Questionnaire referring to the contents taught in the Theoretical Preparatory Course; Communication partners performance record sheet; Social Validity Questionnaire. The experimental design of multiple baseline design by subjects combined with the alternate treatments was used, PECS was associated to POVM being the independent variable and the communication skills were the dependent variable. Data were analyzed considering aspects such as: participants' performance percentage of correct responses; level of independence; vocabulary number expressed; percentage of participants
Abstract: Brazil’s Southeast region has been facing water supply challenges, especially concerning the metropolitan region of São Paulo, since 2014. We adressed the water crisis from the disaster’s pointofview, considering that one of the guiding features to characterize a disaster is the amount of affected people and the losses associated. In the situation under review, there are people directly affected, because of intermittent house water supply, and indirectly affected by the increase of prices for goods, since their pro- duction and manufacturing depend on the availability of water. We presented each of the stages of a disaster risk management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. The risk of water scarcity in São Paulo is only one aspect of the discussion involving the effectiveness of management processes and the need for investments in the area, especially in reducing wasteful distribution.
Quality of the company’s website can be evaluated on basis of what options it offers. Due to variety of industries our researched companies come from, we have focused on the possibil- ity to download messages and documents and possibility of filling out various forms online. We have found out that although many websites offer this option, there is still a number of companies whose website does not provide it. This means that some managers put emphasis on the possibility for employees and existing and potential customers to download messages and documents and fill in various forms online. This service makes the whole administra- tion process substantially easier. In spite of the fact that most responses were positive, many respondents perceive it rather negatively, which means that some managers do not consider important to have documents available online and to enable their downloading. Probably, the fact that users will read the documents online is satisfactory enough for these managers. This is quite a negative attitude also from the pointofviewof students who very often download various document samples from the company’s websites, which they need for their schoolwork or student papers. As to online filling-in of documents, the situation is much better. We can say that a lot of managers do care about having the option of filling in e-forms directly on the company’s website. There can be different types of forms, e.g. supplier’s e-catalogues with an option to choose the preferred product, accepting orders from customers, accepting payments from customers via internet banking through cooperation with banks, obtaining a feedback from customers. We have found out that it is mainly managers of SMEs in the western part of Slovakia who put great emphasis on the possibility to fill in the company’s forms online. Managers in Central and Eastern Slovakia still need to improve this service. The research also showed some differences between individual industries. Most companies which use e-forms on their websites are operating in the field of health and social care and manufacturing industry. This can be caused by the fact that there is quite a large number of different forms that are used within various activities in these industries. In health and social care it is mostly applica- tions for financial and material help, forms of medical and social insurance and other forms used in financial transactions. In the manufacturing industry it is mainly forms and orders for suppliers and buyers, product offer and other documents. This is a very important function of company’s website and it makes organizing and evaluating of processes easier for managers to perform.
becomes a document authorizing the use of specified roads during the rest of the accounting period. If we consider that the business entity would not charge already incurred costs of a motorway sticker (until the day of exchange of the windscreen), then a single vehicle would have for a concrete period two or possibly even more stickers. In terms of the claim of deduction of the VAT would be the bussiness entity suppossed to pay this tax two- or possibly several times during the accounting period. from this follows that the calculation of a tax-inefficient cost should be based on the formula: price of the annual sticker / 365 days x number of days remaining until the end of the year (or the calculation of tax expense recognized, which is probably correct, because the exchange of the windscreen, respectively a car repair is not suppossed to be done on the day, when the damage occurred: price of the annual sticker / 365 days x number of calendar days until the date of damage). Of the amount of the days remaining of the period of a down state of sticker should be payed the VAT. Costs 538 - Other taxes and fees should be reduced by the amount of the the days remaining of the period of a down state of sticker by charging to account 569 - Deficit and damage on the date of damage of the glass, but no later than on the date of submission of automobile for repair, or the date of obtaining a written entry from the police. From the tax impact of this entry to the account 569 - deficit and damage follows an increase of the corporate tax base (which the business units try to avoid).
Unquestionably, lay readers expect a kind of “fi delity” between original and translation, as if a linear, one-to-one equivalence could actually be possible. Equivalence has been considered by researchers on translation a controversial concept, since it is arguably that either linear correspondence between cultures is not possible, on the one hand, or that cultural manifestations are not easily realised in texts, on the other hand (see Kenny 1998 and Yallop 2001 for discussions on equivalence). In this respect, the idea of texts as both artefact (culturally valued) and specimen (systemically formed), as discussed by Halliday & Matthiessen (2014:3), obviously grounded on the work of Halliday & Hasan (1985), offers a signifi cant contribution to how translations are regarded as they should be in the light of how originals are culturally valued as they positively are in their (source) contexts. Even having in mind this very important and intricate aspect, translators should
IbnSina in the third chapter of his treatise, talks about the existence of love in inorganic souls that the population includes three components: the power supply and development, power of development, power of production. Each power is keen to be filed with the performance to his purpose. While the material needs food and love in nutrition and development power is the source of his zeal to food and to maintain and store it in the body. Growth power in terms of growth of nominal corps, look forward to increased food and as a source of power of reproduction is willing to appearance, generate an animal. Similarly, stimulating animal activities, including all the powers is an instinctive love. As these forces have a natural tendence that is the source of innate love, natural disdain that the origin lies in inherent hatred. The lack of the powers of desire and hatred means independence of the powers. For example, the external senses to avoid dangerous or threatening things for the body,protect the man against things that hurt him. Power of anger causes the human to avid weakness and humility because of the desire for revenge and domination. And in the appetitive part of the soul, love is divided into two parts:
Floral resources mediate the mutual interactions between plants and pollinators. In an optimal manner, the investment of flowers in the production of resources is rewarded by floral visitors through adequate transport of pollen among conspecific individuals. However, visitors can obtain resources in different ways, with different implications in the pollination process and floral integrity. A range of terms and concepts has been used for the diversity of behaviors involved in floral larceny, but the main terms are consolidated after the seminal paper by David W. Inouye in 1980. Many studies in pollination biology in Brazil deal with these concepts adequately, however, the use of terms in Portuguese such as nectar thief and robber are inconsistent. I here suggest definitions and terms in Portuguese for floral larceny based on the concepts of legitimate and illegitimate visits.
The findings confirm the literature review in some aspects, such as the obligation for organizations to offer challenging work to knowledge workers. All the interviewees confirmed this aspect as the most valuable factor. In general the study suggests that not all the strategies are suitable to every worker. Three kinds of groups were identified. In the consulting and banking sector, the specific variables which seem to be more effective in retaining workers are reputation and benefits respectively. For workers on a later career development stage, company brand and status are the strategies seen as most effective, while in the early stages other variables such as co-workers are seen as having more impact on their retention. In fact, the importance of “peaceful harmony” from the early career stages seem to change over time towards a “boxing game” where personal competition rules. Therefore, Human Resource Managers need to be aware of those distinctions in order to use the best strategies to retain their knowledge workers and be able to identify different segments of employees and offer them what best suits them.
Sharply progression and development in different aspect of technology and science in the field of medicine and sanitation bring many challenges in biological moral and social aspects of the life. Meanwhile statistical problems of this subjects will be rised. Study and researches on embryonic stem cells are one of this specimens. Religions and different ideological views in vast human cultures associated with various laws in different countries of the world, made moral and biological argues. Methods:
The relationship between students and their teachers should be included in a formal relationship as teachers are the people whose position and status are higher than those of the students’. In this relationship, a student should use saya to refer to himself. However, there are some phenomenon that there is a shift from the word saya into aku in the communication between students and teachers. Examples: Ma’am, ‘‘aku’’ mau ngambil pelajaran di semester depan, . . . . ‘‘aku’’ juga mau tanya .... Mama bilang ‘saya’ memang keras kepala .... ‘saya’ kalau belajar suka ingat masalah ‘saya’.... Aduuh gimana ya Ma’m padahal ‘‘aku’’ ingin lulus .... Kata mama ‘saya’ sih memang keras kepala ..... (Dewi, 2007). In this example, we can see that the expressions aku and saya in the communication between students and their teachers have been used interchangebly without any specific reason.
Objective: Understanding the meaning of scientific research in nursing for students and teachers with sights to construction of scientific knowledge in education and in professional practice. Method: It’s a qualitative research and used phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz. The population of research subjects was composed of thirteen teachers and ten students from of nursing course of a public federal institution of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Referring to the phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz, emerged the following categories: scientific research as a process and product; scientific research as a result of building up knowledge in nursing; scientific research as one of the elements which propitiates the construction of scientific knowledge in nursing. Results: Through categories, it was possible to verify that both segments converged on the understanding research as a way to broadened knowledge and improve professional practice. Conclusion: Points to the understanding that scientific research to enhance knowledge and professional staff, allowing professionals to adopt a critical stance in everyday practice. Descriptors: Nursing, Research, Knowledge.
format allows to find WOM information online far more voluminous in quantity compared to information obtained from traditional contacts in the offline world because investigators can easily get a multitude of EWOM information and examine their characteristics such as the number of emotional words, the style of the message and the number of likes etc. (Park et al., 2007). The abundance, the form, and the constancy of the EWOM messages have made them more observable (Chatterjee, 2001). EWOM exists in online space, which can be accessed, linked and searched. Therefore a control is possible by using technical of the information system to moderate feedbacks in the virtual social communities. These feedback mediators automatically are implemented to choose who can participate, what kind of information is needed from users, how it is assembled and what sort of information is made public etc. By designing these mediator tools properly, the system designers can control precisely different parameters that were difficult or impossible to drive in the traditional social environment. For instance, feedback mediators can introduce a large amount of various statistics to illustrate a person’s feedback history, apply filtering algorithms to delete suspicious ratings and impolite comment or nuancing ratings depending on communicator’s trustworthiness, reputation etc. This large possibility of control can affect the social communication and transformed the problem of social science in a designing technical problem. All the design possibilities have to be concerned before choosing the specific design and understanding the different impact on the social outcome.
This article presents a study carried out in a school in Campinas/Brazil, and also data from a research developed in a school in Porto/Portugal, both referring to how families see the quality of public schools. In each municipality, one school was selected based on a socioeco- nomic level (NSE); and questionnaires with items on the researched subject were applied to the students’ families. Similarly, in both surveys, Brazilian and Portuguese families em- phasized the importance of quality teaching and the school-community relations. However, the relationship established with the school was characterized differently. For Portuguese families, besides the activities promoted by the school unit, the actions developed by the community itself contribute to the quality of the school. Brazilian families, although they also mention the school-community relationship, only reported on the activities developed by the institution. The data from the studies allow us to reflect on the families’ views and their participation in public school, in the sense of a socially referenced quality development,
The municipal teaching network of Fortaleza has 9,191 teachers, and 7,653 are female. In elementary and junior high school, teachers belong predominantly to the age group 46 to 49 years. The most frequent schooling levels are undergraduate (3,773) and specialization (3,625) programs and the majority of the teachers have been working for a period of time ranging from zero to five years (3,347), followed by the period of ten to 15 years (2,840). Another characteristic of this public is the hour load in the classroom, as 4,314 teachers work for eight hours every day.
A general perspective on the behaviour of the bone compared to the behaviour of any construction material at the action of external forces shows that the material deforms in a passive way (elastic or plastic deformation) or, in the case of extreme strain, it breaks, while the bone tissue reacts in a totally different manner. Pauwells (cited by Panait, Gh. et alii 1997) shows that the bone is in a fluctuating equilibrium, there taking place either an increase in the deposit of the bone tissue in the regions where the tension is stronger, or an increase in its resorption in the regions where the tension is smaller or where it surpasses certain limits. Everything relies on a feed.back mechanism, which ensures a differentiated adaptation, according to the functional strains.
brain metastasis early. The interaction between SCLC and brain metastasis affected patients is poor. Therefore the mechanism of metastasis is required to be improved the present therapies and treatment by new modalities .elevated level PLGF are identified which are associated with SCLC brain metastasis and are inversely related with SCLC outcome of the clinical results  an effective treatment for SCLC the response rate of 50% and 10.3 month in patient for refractory disease isimportant ,the activity of additional studies in patients with SCLC, especially for patients who have done therapy as a single agent or combination is important for target base agent .
Understanding the diversity and robustness of the metabolism of bacteria is fundamental for understanding how bacteria evolve and adapt to different environments. In this study, we characterised 121 Streptococcus strains and studied metabolic diversity from a protein domain perspective. Metabolic pathways were described in terms of the promiscuity of domains participating in metabolic pathways that were inferred to be functional. Promiscuity was defined by adapting existing measures based on domain abundance and versatility. The approach proved to be successful in capturing bacterial metabolic flexibility and spe- cies diversity, indicating that it can be described in terms of reuse and sharing functional domains in different proteins involved in metabolic activity. Additionally, we showed striking differences among metabolic organisation of the pathogenic serotype 2 Streptococcus suis and other strains.