Reading and writing skills and literacy

Top PDF Reading and writing skills and literacy:

Phonological Processing and Reading and Writing Skills in Literacy

Phonological Processing and Reading and Writing Skills in Literacy

Finally, considering the predictor variables correlations among themselves, all naming speed measures presented moderate to strong significant correlations. However, of the four RAN measures, only letters naming presented moderate correlation and statistically significant with phonological awareness measurements (PA syllables, PA phonemes and PA total); a weak correlation between RAN color and PA phonemes also occurred, therefore, with few correlations between the rapid naming tests and the other studied phonological processing measures, contrary to the hypothesis of Wagner and Torgesen (1987), which include naming speed as part of phonological processing skills. On the other hand, naming speed was also not correlated with visual processing skill, a hypothesis suggested by Wolf and Bowers (1999). The exploratory factor analysis corroborated these data, identifying three factors, one of them being more loaded with the Memory of digits, Total memory and PA total variables (which could correspond to the latent “phonological processing” factor), another more loaded factor of the RAN Letters, RAN digits, RAN colors, and RAN objects variables (this factor corresponding to the naming speed) and a third most loaded factor of the Visual Processing variable. Thus, the data of this study seem to agree with the results of the study by C. N. G. Justi, Roazzi, F. R. Justi, Henriques et al., (2014) that question the inclusion of RAN measures in phonological processing, suggesting that this is a skill more specifically related to the cognitive processing speed. Likewise, it was not possible to group RAN measures with Visual Processing skills, at least in the way they were evaluated in this research.
Show more

8 Read more

Literacy in early childhood education

Literacy in early childhood education

Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in early childhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
Show more

10 Read more

The impact of reading and writing skills on a visual-motor integration task: a comparison between illiterate and literate subjects

The impact of reading and writing skills on a visual-motor integration task: a comparison between illiterate and literate subjects

son & Reis, 2006; Petersson et al., 2001). Most of these studies have documented the influence of reading and writ- ing skills on language related cognitive functions (Morais et al., 1979; Petersson et al., 2000; Rosselli et al., 1990). One reason for this bias is a claim that non-verbal cognitive functions and consequently non-verbal cognitive tests are relatively independent of cultural and educational factors. However, Rosselli and Ardila (2003) recently argued that a significant effect of educational level on non-verbal neuro- psychological tests can be found in individuals within the same cultural group. In this context, it is important to note that learning to read and to write—the acquisition of literacy—is not just learning how to match a phoneme with a grapheme. Among other things, subjects also become over- trained on how to write with pen and pencil and how to visually scan information using a preferred spatial (e.g., left-to-right) direction. From a neurobiological perspective, it is possible that the acquisition of reading and writing promotes an increased asymmetry in information transfer
Show more

6 Read more

Skills for the literacy process

Skills for the literacy process

Purpose: Examine a set of competencies in children beginning the process of literacy and find whether there is positive correlation with their level of writing. Methods: Study conducted with 70 six-year-old students enrolled in the first year of Elementary School in municipal schools. The children were submitted to the Initial Reading and Writing Competence Assessment Battery (BACLE) and the Diagnostic Probing Protocol for classification of their level of writing. Descriptive statistical analysis and the Spearman coefficient were used for correlation between instruments. Results: The students presented satisfactory performance in the tasks of the BACLE. Regarding the writing hypothesis, most children presented syllabic level with sound value. Significant positive correlation was observed between body scheme/time-space orientation and language skills. Conclusion: The group of schoolchildren performed satisfactorily on tests that measure pre-reading and writing skills. The areas of body scheme/time-space orientation and language presented significant correlation with the level of writing hypothesis, indicating that children with higher scores in these areas present better levels of writing. Identification of the necessary competencies for learning of reading and writing can provide teachers and educational audiology professionals with conditions for evaluation and early intervention in certain abilities for the development of reading and writing.
Show more

7 Read more

Enhancing children’s literacy learning: from invented spelling to effective reading and writing

Enhancing children’s literacy learning: from invented spelling to effective reading and writing

Letters and sounds play a crucial role in young children’s early literacy development (Treiman, 2006). When asked to write something down, preschoolers generally rely on their (insipient or more advanced) knowledge and metalinguistic skills to repre- sent different speech units in print. They frequently produce recognisable symbols from their own writing system and place them along a line (Rowe, 2015). Children need to learn the visual shape of letters, their names and sounds, as well as the seg- mentation of words in smaller linguistic units and the understanding of grapheme- phoneme correspondences. This knowledge should be activated when learning in order to build memory connections between writing, reading and meaning. The ac- quisition of orthographic knowledge and decoding requires close attention to both letter order and spelling-sound mapping. In this sense, spelling provides a strong self- teaching tool in consolidating orthographic representations (Shahar-Yames & Share, 2008).
Show more

24 Read more

Estud. psicol. (Campinas)  vol.33 número1

Estud. psicol. (Campinas) vol.33 número1

The other study was carried out in the same service center evaluating the patients treated in 2006. It was shown that 46.0% of the referrals were due to learning difficulties (reading, writing, calculation, literacy problems, and problems with keeping up with school work), 19.0% were due to attention and memory problems, 15.0% to behavioral problems (hyperactive or aggressive behavior), 9.0% to oral language problems (exchanges and/or omissions), 5.0% to problems with social and interpersonal skills, 4.0% to psychological issues (irritability, sadness, fear, anxiety), and 2.0% to motor skill problems (coordination). Thirty nine percent of the diagnoses made were related to learning difficulties (neurological, psychological, and pedagogical problems), 21.0% were learning disorder and 9.0% were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Lima et al., 2006a).
Show more

12 Read more

Measuring media and information literacy skills: construction of a test

Measuring media and information literacy skills: construction of a test

In short, this study makes some notable contributions to the field of media and information literacy. The aim of this project was to construct a media and information literacy test informed by assessment frameworks used in other large-scale studies. Findings show that it is possible to design good quality test items using the conceptual framework we adopted. Results also show that the test discriminates well among people with low and medium proficiency levels, but less well among people with higher ability levels. In this sense, if the aim is to capture the skill level of high-ability adults, it is desirable to design items that can discriminate among subjects at higher ability levels. Future research should address this issue and also try to incorporate tasks that assess digital media abilities. Our instrument included an item that called for writing a tweet, but did not test the ability to actually post it. However, research indicates that digital skills and competences can be intertwined with literacy skills. For exam- ple, in the 2012 digital PISA round, the higher the quality of internet navigation (e.g., number of clicks to relevant links), the higher students scored in reading, even after controlling for their print reading skills (OECD, 2015). A policy rele- vant message from this finding is that, as Hatlevik, Guðmundsdóttir and Loi (2015) highlight, the development of digital competences implies strategic use of information. In this sense, educational policies that encompass teaching dig- ital skills from an early age should be encouraged so that the citizens of tomor- row can critically interpret and create media messages.
Show more

27 Read more

Assessing early literacy skills to prevent problems in reading and writing

Assessing early literacy skills to prevent problems in reading and writing

Problems in reading and writing acquisition are not rooted in elementary school instruction but of- ten in lacking literacy experiences in the family of origin. Although knowledge of print and narra- tive skills are well-documented predictors of later literacy acquisition in school, reliable und valid diagnostic instruments are missing in Germany. The EuLe 3-5 (Meindl & Jungmann, in prep.) is sup- posed to fill this gap. Its conception is grounded in theory and based on established Anglo-Ameri- can tests. We tested its applicability and quality on a construction sample of N = 658 preschool children in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and Berlin. To determine construct validity, we adminis- tered the SSV or the SETK 3-5 and the nonverbal scales of the K-ABC additionally in subsamples. Item analysis (r it = .40 - .61) and results on objectivity (ICC one-way, random = .96), reliability (Cronbachs
Show more

16 Read more

Measuring media and information literacy skills: construction of a test

Measuring media and information literacy skills: construction of a test

In short, this study makes some notable contributions to the field of media and information literacy. The aim of this project was to construct a media and information literacy test informed by assessment frameworks used in other large-scale studies. Findings show that it is possible to design good quality test items using the conceptual framework we adopted. Results also show that the test discriminates well among people with low and medium proficiency levels, but less well among people with higher ability levels. In this sense, if the aim is to capture the skill level of high-ability adults, it is desirable to design items that can discriminate among subjects at higher ability levels. Future research should address this issue and also try to incorporate tasks that assess digital media abilities. Our instrument included an item that called for writing a tweet, but did not test the ability to actually post it. However, research indicates that digital skills and competences can be intertwined with literacy skills. For exam- ple, in the 2012 digital PISA round, the higher the quality of internet navigation (e.g., number of clicks to relevant links), the higher students scored in reading, even after controlling for their print reading skills (OECD, 2015). A policy rele- vant message from this finding is that, as Hatlevik, Guðmundsdóttir and Loi (2015) highlight, the development of digital competences implies strategic use of information. In this sense, educational policies that encompass teaching dig- ital skills from an early age should be encouraged so that the citizens of tomor- row can critically interpret and create media messages.
Show more

28 Read more

Rev. CEFAC  vol.17 número3

Rev. CEFAC vol.17 número3

identify differences in development at the early stages of Reading acquisition. Result: it was found that some subjects of 1st and 2nd grades show performance below the mean for their group, in the skills considered predictors for literacy. This low performance was identiied by the percentage of total correct answers at the evaluation Instrument and the classiication in percentiles. There were no differences in between the two grades in terms of the Oral Language and Knowledge of print. The groups differentiated only on tasks included in the ¨Reading and writing¨, as well as ¨Phonological Processing¨ with better performance for 2 nd grade students in the following tasks: (a) word reading, (b)
Show more

10 Read more

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

People learn to read their irst language (L1) in a wide variety of cir- cumstances. Children are prepared for reading at an early age by listening to stories, being read to, and interacting with adults and others about the stories they hear. When children start to learn to read in their L1, they already have a large vocabulary, good control of the grammar of the language, have had many stories in that language read to them, and know the discourse (Nation, 2009). However, when these children start to read in a foreign language, i.e. L2 (or English in this study), learning to read in an L2 involves a great deal of language learning. Unlike in their L1, in the L2 learning, oral language and literacy com- petencies develop simultaneously. Children need grammatically and lexically controlled texts, a greater amount of pre-reading activities; they have to learn a diferent orthographic system; and they need to process the meaning of words while trying to achieve the same main goal of reading as in L1: text comprehen- sion. All these principles draw on one’s cognitive resources (capacity of working memory) that are limited at any given moment; therefore, by learning to read quickly, accurately, i.e. luently, and not thinking about orthography, vocabu- lary and syntax, suicient mental resources become available for higher-level processes, such as overall reading performance and reading comprehension. Reading luency has been associated with reading comprehension in English L1 contexts (Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins, 2001); however, simply applying the indings from L1 research to the case of L2 readers is inadequate. he nature of L2 reading development is diferent from that of L1. L2 reading luency alone does not account for the variance of explaining reading performance in L2. Di- verse abilities reading in one’s own L1, distance between L1 and L2 orthographic systems, L2 vocabulary knowledge, cognitive measures, and metalinguistic awareness afect reading performance in L2 (Koda, 2010). Nonetheless, luency explains signiicant variance in reading ability (Hoover & Gough, 1990) and problems in acquiring word-level and contextual-level reading are the principal diiculties faced by children who encounter reading problems (Grabe, 2009). However, when reading in an L2, the distance between L1 and L2 writing sys- tems also plays a signiicant role in word recognition, and consequently on text comprehension (Koda, 2010).
Show more

21 Read more

SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING SKILLS

SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING SKILLS

"While trying to improve math, science, and technology in our schools, we've neglected writing," said Commission member Gaston Caperton, president of the College Board, which founded the Commission on writing in America 118 . "Writing is a fundamental professional skill. Most of the new jobs in the years ahead will emphasize writing. If students want professional work in service firms, in banking, finance, insurance, and real estate, they must know how to communicate on paper clearly and concisely." 119 And this is said by Americans about English, their native language. Writing in a foreign language poses a lot more other problems, as speakers of different languages have different writing challenges that come form their own native language. Writing well in English can make the difference when finding a job. Speaking of jobs, nowadays applicants are asked for proofs, real document to support their declared knowledge of English. So learners have to sit for all kind of tests that assess their ability to use English, writing skills included.
Show more

7 Read more

Learning away from home: the BEFARe project

Learning away from home: the BEFARe project

NFE is a cornerstone of any early response, and also forms part of the long-term response to a refugee crisis and early reconstruction. BEFARe’s NFE programme started in 1989. Over the years, the programme has expanded in the number of learners, range of activities, and quality and quantity of teacher training courses and teaching materials. It includes a wide range of activities, such as basic literacy, civics education, mother and child health care, home schools for girls and boys, vocational and skills training, teacher training courses and community development activities for adolescents and adults. More recently, special atention has been given to psychosocial aspects, human rights, peace education, democratisation and conlict resolution. However, due to low priority by donors, by the end of 2005, the NFE Programme had been reduced to a side-activity with a small budget and vastly reduced number of learners.
Show more

1 Read more

Health And Wellbeing Impact And Treatment of Nocturia – A Review of The Literature

Health And Wellbeing Impact And Treatment of Nocturia – A Review of The Literature

It is now recognised that the volume of nocturnal urine produced is a critical aetiological factor in many individuals with nocturia. Global polyuria (GPu) is the overproduction of urine occurring over 24 hours (>2.8 litres of urine/24 hr or >40 ml/ kg). A common cause is diabetes mellitus, where high circulating glucose levels lead to an osmotic diuresis. In diabetes insipidus (DI) the kidneys are unable to suiciently concentrate the urine due to a lack of arginine vasopressin (AVP) (or anti-diuretic hormone) production in the posterior pituitary gland (cranial DI), or loss of renal sensitivity to the hormone (renal DI). Other causes include excessive drinking (either habitual or due to psychiatric causes) and an excessive intake of protein drinks, causing an osmotic diuresis.
Show more

6 Read more

LER E ESCREVER: (in)formação de leitores na alfabetização de adultos READING AND WRITING: (in)formation of readers by means of adult literacy

LER E ESCREVER: (in)formação de leitores na alfabetização de adultos READING AND WRITING: (in)formation of readers by means of adult literacy

A prática de leitura precisa ser realizada através da diversidade textual, pois sem ela pode-se até ensinar a ler, mas certamente não se formará leitores de fato. Portanto, a leitura co[r]

11 Read more

Skills for the literacy process

Skills for the literacy process

O grupo de escolares em início de alfabetização teve desempenho em nível satisfatório em provas que aferem pré-competências para a leitura e escrita, sugerindo que as escolas estão des[r]

7 Read more

The New Cambridge English Course 4

The New Cambridge English Course 4

Grammar (tenses); vo abulary; reading and listening for gist and for detail; Writing a story from several sour es.. .Wo k.[r]

116 Read more

Audiol., Commun. Res.  vol.19 número1

Audiol., Commun. Res. vol.19 número1

potentials and to compare data from these measures in students with and without learning disabilities. Methods: Thirty students, 15 with learning disorder (study group) and 15 typical without learning problems (control group), of both genders, aged 7-14 years, mean age 10 years. They underwent clinical assessment in a clinic belonging to a public university in the state of São Paulo. Following, audiological assessment was performed to determine normal peripheral auditory system and electrophysiological assessment by examining the long latency auditory evoked response. Results: The results showed that there are functional differences between the groups. Increased latency components of long latency auditory evoked potential was observed in the study group com- pared to the control group. Longer latency values of these components were observed in the left ear when stimulated in the study group. Con- clusion: This study contributed to better understanding of the auditory
Show more

6 Read more

TRENDS AND ISSUES OF E-LEARNING IN LIS-EDUCATION IN INDIA: A PRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE

TRENDS AND ISSUES OF E-LEARNING IN LIS-EDUCATION IN INDIA: A PRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE

Open Source Educational Resources Animation Repository (OSCAR) that provides web-based interactive animations for teaching. The OSCAR provides a platform for student developers to create animations based on ideas and guidance from instructors. The funding for the Ekalavya and OSCAR project comes mainly from private industry. The ekalavya portal is an attempt to generate an interactive platform for the creation, absorption, dissemination and usage of knowledge for the well-being of the individual and the society. It is a significant step forward to bring together students, teachers, and working professionals to meaningfully enhance the productivity of the group and spread knowledge. The Ekalavya portal aims at a free exchange of knowledge and ideas, by placing all the relevant academic material in the Open Source, thus making considerable contribution to society. It is envisaged that the ekalavya project will become an all-encompassing activity over the years, using IT effectively for education. It aspires to build large collaborative communities where seekers are matched by the givers. Its eOUTREACH programme creates high quality digital text, audio, video and HTML contents of educational value for knowledge dissemination. This initiative of the Project ekalavya has been funded and supported by the Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council (EKALAVYA, 2004).
Show more

20 Read more

Relations Between Reading, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in low-Income Children

Relations Between Reading, Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in low-Income Children

In this study, the following instruments were used: Raven’s Progressive Matrices, adapted to Portuguese by Angelini, Alves, Custódio, W.F. Duarte and J.L.M. Duarte (1999). It is intended to assess children’s intellectual development. The instrument consists of three series of 12 items, arranged in increasing order of difficulty. In each item, a colored matrix is presented with one part missing. Under this matrix, six alternative matrices are displayed to complement the missing piece in the model matrix, only one of which completes it correctly. Then, the child is asked to choose one option for each item and the option chosen is marked on a specific protocol. The detailed description of the tasks, the instructions for their execution and the psychometric properties of this test are available in Angelini et al. (1999).
Show more

10 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...