As for the studies that had elementary school stu- dents, we found researches directed at the early years (Borges & Santos, 2016; Bortolanza & Cotta, 2012; Carvalho, Monteiro, Alcará & Santos, 2013; Cunha & Santos, 2015; Gomes & Boruchovitch, 2011; Machado & Capellini, 2016; Monteiro & Santos, 2013; Mota et al., 2012; Mota & Santos, 2014; Oliveira, Santos, Boruchovitch & Rueda, 2012b; Suehiro & Santos, 2015; Witter & Silva, 2011), final years (Baptista et al., 2016; Joly & Piovezan, 2012; Joly et al., 2014; Oliveira et al., 2012a) and in both modalities (Oliveira et al., 2016). It is also noteworthy that among the reported stud- ies, the study of reading comprehension was related to several variables such as gender, school year, type of school, writing skills, metatextual awareness, differen- tial operation by Cloze test items, schoolperformance, among others.
The channels through such difference may act are differential effort levels between treated and control groups. Students now have a better predictor of their school quality and will react to it. We see from Figure 14 that the average scores of schools on the right side of the discontinuity are way below the rest of student population. In that relative sense, and because ENEM is an entrance exam for higher education, students that receive this less noisy signal of the quality of their school will exert positive levels of effort in order to increase their admission chances. Note that because students in private schools have better scores, they have more competitive profiles than students from public schools. That is a possible explanation for differences found in private but not in public schools.
The anamnesis was carried out addressing data on neu- ropsychomotor development, current health status, acquired diseases, hearing and schoolperformance. Only complaints of learning impairment reported in the application of a ques- tionnaire with parents / guardians, created for this present study, were considered for the analysis, and addressed issues related to disapprovals, teachers’ complaints regarding student learning, learning impairment in comparison to other students, difficulties in specific school subjects, among other.
(35 girls) with mean ages of 8.2, 9.2, and 10 years, respectively, with typical development in the SchoolPerformance Test. Half of the sample underwent the reading comprehension test using the question-and-answer method and the other half took the test using the Cloze technique. All students completed the Teste de Vocabulário por Figuras USP (TVFUSP) with 139 stimuli. Results: The schoolchildren presented good performance in receptive vocabulary despite their low socioeconomic level. Better performance was observed in explicit questions compared with that in implicit questions. Students demonstrated more homogeneous and similar performance between the school years in the Cloze technique. No conclusive results were found regarding the correlation between receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension by the two methods. Conclusion: There is evidence of the influence of receptive vocabulary on the reading comprehension of texts, mainly in the question-and-answer method. The prepared instrument, including both assessment methods of reading comprehension, is efficient to investigate and characterize the reading comprehension of 3 rd to 5 th -grade Elementary School students, and
Purpose: To describe the performance of individuals with myelomeningocele regarding psycholinguistic and scholastic abilities. Methods: Participants were five individuals with myelomeningocele and lumbar sacral abnormalities, and chronological age between 9 years and 10 months and 11 years and 7 months (Group 1 – G1); five subjects with typical development (Group 2 – G2), matched to G1 for age, gender, and educational level. The evaluation consisted of interview with parents/caregivers, and application of the following tests: Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA); SchoolPerformance Test; Speed Reading Test; and Rapid Automatized Naming Test. Results: The between-groups comparison in the ITPA subtests showed that the maximum values obtained by G1 corresponded approximately to the minimum values obtained by G2, confir- ming the difference between the groups, except for the auditory closure subtest. In the Scholastic Performance Test, significant alterations were observed on the performance of G1 in all tasks. In the Speed Reading and Rapid Automatized Naming tests, individuals in G1 also presented considerable deficits, making more mistakes and spending more time than G2 to perform the same tasks. Conclusion: Individuals with myelomeningocele present deficits in psycholinguistic abilities, schoolperformance, reading speed, and rapid automatized naming.
Abstract: Family and school are considered essential environments for human development and it is desirable that a close bond be established between them. Based on this premise, this study analyzes the relationships established between school and the families of children with low schoolperformance in a context in which the school adopts the Continuous Progression system – an educational system that avoids holding students in the same grade at the end of the school year. Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological perspective is the theoretical framework used in this study. Six children, their parents or caretakers, and teachers participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and observation were used for collecting data, which were then evaluated regarding two categories: involvement and communication. Even though the results highlight communication as the main means of exchange between both contexts, communication still needs to be improved. Families and schools understand they must collaborate with each other, but such a relationship needs to be re-constructed because it is currently asymmetrical and loaded with prejudice.
The results of the present study warrant further studies in order to conirm the association between overweight and schoolperformance. The cross-sectional study design of this study made it impossible to establish a relation of causality between the analyzed variables. A longitudinal study, however, would enable closer monitoring of the children’s schoolwork and nutritional status, and the identiication of other factors, such as a home environment providing little cognitive stimulation and an unfavorable socioeconomic-cultural setting, both of which could impact schoolperformance. So far, it has not been possible to observe the children in their daily lives at home and the relationship with their parents, essential aspects of the investigation of the causes of student underachievement 30 .
Purpose: To characterize the proile of patients with cochlear implant as proposed by the International Classiication of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Methods: This is a descriptive, cross- sectional retrospective study, which examined 30 medical records of patients using the cochlear implant of Centro de Pesquisas Audiológicas. To characterize the proile of the patients, the ICF-CY was used. Regarding the assessment, researchers relied on procedures performed in clinical routine, besides information registered in the medical record. After reviewing the information, it was related to codes from the ICF-CY; with the addition of a qualiier afterwards. Results: Overall, 55 codes from the ICF were related to the instruments to characterize this population. Regarding the Body Functions ield, most participants did not have disabilities related to reception and expression of oral language and auditory functions, with only written language disabilities being found. These same indings were observed in the Activity and Participation Field. Regarding environmental factors, noise and the non-availability of technology resources to assist in the auditory comprehension of noise were characterized as a barrier, as well as the absence of speech therapy. Conclusion: This study concluded that most of the participating children showed no deiciency in the body functions, with dificulties being only reported in relation to schoolperformance. Environmental factors (noise, non-availability of technological resources, absence of speech therapy) were characterized as a barrier. The need to expand assessments in the clinical routine was also noted.
Little explored in literature, the daily home-school traveling reflects a spatial incoherence between the distribution of the school age population and basic education schools (secondary level) in Natal, Brazil. In this paper, we explore the profile of the commuters (students) from an intra-municipal political and administrative perspective. Thus, we were able to capture the daily flows of students among Natal neighborhoods. For this, we use the concept of living space as theoretical foundation and the school census database in 2012. Thus, the correlation between the place of residence and student studies showed a relationship between the traveling to school and schoolperformance, measured by age-grade distortion in a logistic regression model. We identified
participants. In other words, oral language in general, and, specifically, PA and vocabulary are important predictors (regarded as precursors) of reading proficiency (Capovilla & Dias, 2008; Cutting et al., 2009; Dias & Seabra, 2012; Kairaluoma et al., 2013; Mokhtari & Niederhauser, 2013; Scarborough, 2009; Seabra & Dias, 2012a; Skibbe et al., 2008). Reading skills, in turn, are developed during the elementary years (EF-I in Brazil), and they are also related to schoolperformance (Dias et al., 2015). Therefore, it is possible that the reading skills were not yet consolidated in this sample of 5th graders and can be mediating this result. In older students, who already have good reading skills, this ability, and consequently oral language abilities, may exert a less significant effect on schoolperformance. Accordingly, although there is evidence that the PA is a predictor of reading proficiency, even in adolescents (Kairaluoma et al., 2013), its relationship with schoolperformance found in the present study was stronger than expected. Thus, it is possible that reading proficiency (in terms of word recognition) was not yet fully developed in the sample studied, which would explain the still major role played by PA in the performance of those students. This fact may reflect a sampling bias or a problem in most Brazilian schools, where children reach the last grade of elementary school (EF-I in Brazil) without complete mastery of the written code. Another hypothesis is that the PA measure used has other requirements, which will be discussed further ahead. Another noteworthy finding is related to the contribution of EF to the model. As expected, there was a unique contribution of EF to schoolperformance, showing that these skills are indeed of great importance for the learning process (Blair & Diamond, 2008; Diamond, 2013; Fonseca et al., 2015; Seabra et al., 2014). Cognitive flexibility, proved to be specially linked to schoolperformance. This may suggest that the students which are more able to handle two or more sources of information simultaneously (such as paying attention to the teacher while taking notes) or those who are able to consider different approaches (e.g., trying different alternatives to solve a problem) are those who get better grades.
We can resume the hypothesis previously raised, which indicates that the non- continuity of the relations obtained in the former education levels in higher education is due to new types of performance being required. In fact, the continuity of the performance in team sports in the three educational levels evaluated and the correlation between schoolperformance and team sports performance on higher education, as shown in Table 1, might show the proximity of the skills required for these two activities in higher education: more pragmatism, specializing and well-defined objectives. Considering the highlighted statement by Adorno (1995d) regarding the continuity of education for either critical-thought or for mere rebellion, this result would indicate that higher education requires qualities associated with adapting rather than critical-thinking. On one hand, the initial quotation by Adorno states that well-behaved students in the early years of school tend to be autonomous and the rebel students criticize all forms of authority because they feel excluded from the culture. On the other hand, those who can join higher education are not necessarily more autonomous but more adapted to what is socially valued, i.e., to these students it is necessary to excel in every form of performance, school, emotional and sports.
Lexical development is directly associated with the ability to understand and produce various types of meaning. Mental lexicon is accessed to represent an object, an attribute or any other information. The word learning and association processes are necessary for lexical development. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compile indings about the relationship between lexical development, speech disorders, phonological awareness, schoolperformance and auditory processing through literature review. The scientiic productions found in this review suggest the relevance of lexical development to phonological acquisition and to the subsequent written language acquisition. As for phonology, the articles expose the importance of appropriate lexical development to efective phonological acquisition.
To select the subjects of this study without indica- tions of reading and writing disorders, the following inclusion criteria were adopted: Regular enrollment in the fourth year of elementary school; approval of the parents and/or guardians through signature of the Informed Consent Form; absence of complaints or indications regarding hearing, vision, neurological, behavioral, or cognitive disorders, veriied through the recommendation of teachers who have attested the absence of such claims from themselves and their parents in the school chart; and average or above average scores on the SchoolPerformance Test (SPT) 18 . Membership in the group with indications
Background: Rolandic Epilepsy is the most common form of childhood epilepsy. It is classified as idiopathic, age-related epileptic syndrome with benign evolution. The absence of neuropsychological impairment is part of the criteria of benignity of this epilepsy syndrome. Recently, however, several deficits related to attention and language have been suggested. Aim: to assess schoolperformance and to investigate praxis problems in patients with rolandic epilepsy in comparison to a control group of normal children, paired by age, gender and educational level. Method: nineteen patients aged between 7 and 12 years underwent clinical neurological evaluation, psychological assessment, through the Weschsler Scales of Intelligence, and language evaluation, to assess the academic performance and to investigate the presence or absence of praxis difficulties. Result: the obtained data indicate that although intellectual efficiency (measured through the Intelligence Quatient - IQ) was within average, children with rolandic epilepsy presented a significantly poorer performance when compared to the control group in tests involving writing, arithmetic and reading. Another important aspect was the absence of orofacial apraxia in children with epilepsy. Conclusion: the results of the study suggest that the assessment of children with epilepsy is necessary to investigate specific deficits that require appropriate professional assistance. Regarding the presence of oral language and/or writing disorders in these children, academic, social and emotional deficits can be avoided. The prognosis of epileptic syndrome does not exclusively depend on the control of the crises, since social or cultural problems can interfere in life quality as much as the crisis. Key Words: Epilepsy; Language; Children; Praxis.
Abstract — This study was designed to analyze the association between motor skills and schoolperformance in elementary school children with attention deicit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two groups of children were evaluated. The experimental group contained 55 students of both sexes, age 7 to 10, who had been clinically diagnosed with ADHD; the control group consisted of 55 children with typical motor development. The results showed no association between motor skills and schoolperformance in the experimental group, although there was a statistically signiicant difference between manual dexterity and writing performance in the control group. Although we found no relationship between motor skills and schoolperformance in children with ADHD, we believe that having specialized professionals monitor these children may be beneicial. Early diagnosis of impaired motor skills and poor schoolperformance may lead to better developmental opportunities and a better quality of life.
NOVA School of Business and Economics João Salvador Page 22 “the costs of creating such system, would be never compensated by the potential profits”. A management contract is one different possibility where Dom Pedro Hotels can provide managerial assistance, technical advice or any specialized service for a period of time in exchange of a payment of a fee. This is not typically used in the European market, but is becoming a common practice in the Brazilian market. Basically investment funds build the hotels and sell the properties (it is a pure real estate business), the new owners want to capitalize their investments and ask to the investment funds to look for potential managers (hotels). Sometimes are the hotel chains that look for these opportunities in the market and approach the owners. One of the advantages of this mode of entry is that Dom Pedro does not have to pass through all the bureaucracy that building a new hotel implies; the main disadvantage is the reduction of the profit margin, because the agreement requires a payment to the owner of the property.
demonstrated no comprehension of local issues or concerns. It is worth noting that this urban neighborhood had no leisure or cultural facilities at all, no playgrounds and no parks. The only facilities belonged to the school and were fenced off. Further more, the principal’s speech and attitude clearly located the causes for school failure with the students and the surrounding community. Although race was never mentioned, it also became evident that “bad socio-economic background” was in fact a racialized concept, as all students and residents of the neighborhood were black. The principal engaged in strong symbolical distancing from this reality. Asking her if she lived in the neighborhood, she vehemently asserted that she lived “in a good neighborhood” far way from this one. Her dress code and hairstyle further contributed to this symbolic distancing. Her new car was parked within the school ground like a reminder of her superior social position. Instead of approximating schools with parents and communities, the school administration of most public schools we visited made every effort to distance themselves from the “bad neighborhoods” that surrounded them. Doing so, a false distinction was created and sustained between “bad” neighborhoods” and “good” schools that needed to be protected against those neighborhoods. Fencing and higher investment in security were the common attitudes towards parents and communities. Students, who lived in these neighborhoods, were thereby transformed into suspicious and potentially dangerous individuals.