Teacher training and knowledge

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REFLEXÕES SOBRE A FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES E SABERES DOCENTES NO PARFOR / REFLECTIONS ON TEACHER TRAINING AND TEACHING KNOWLEDGE IN THE PARFOR

REFLEXÕES SOBRE A FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES E SABERES DOCENTES NO PARFOR / REFLECTIONS ON TEACHER TRAINING AND TEACHING KNOWLEDGE IN THE PARFOR

Based on the declaration of Public Health Emergency of National Importance (ESPIN) due to the human infection with the new Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Brazilian territory, the Ministry of Health implemented measures to deal with it, such as interrupting the process of face-to-face education, determining the closure of part of the trade in strategic periods, social isolation, quarantine and mandatory use of masks in public and public spaces. Based on the change caused by the pandemic, a reflection was made on the use of ICTs in Brazilian education. This study presents an analysis of public policies and legislation designed to encourage the use of ICT in education. To this end, a bibliographical and documentary research was carried out, using qualitative, exploratory and descriptive methods to better understand the use of ICTs and their contribution to the teaching and learning process. It was found that public policies, laws, programs, projects and actions contribute to the implementation of the use of such technologies in Brazilian education as well as contributing to the development of innovative pedagogical practices that use Distance Education (Distance Education) through Virtual Environments Learning (AVAs). The study reveals the need to invest in school infrastructure and in teacher training so that the teaching and learning processes can be qualified through the use of ICTs. This theoretical research can serve as a basis for new studies and case studies that can assess the implementation of these public policies at the state and municipal levels.
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Different perspectives on knowledge required in initial teacher training of Chemistry.

Different perspectives on knowledge required in initial teacher training of Chemistry.

Diante dos diferentes olhares acerca da formação do professor de Química, neste trabalho, buscaram-se conhecer as percepções que os estudantes do Ensino Médio (EM) têm acerca dos conhe[r]

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Ação e formação docente: narrativas, memórias, saberes e fazeres de professores da educação básica / Action and teacher training: narratives, memories, knowledge and doing of basic education teachers

Ação e formação docente: narrativas, memórias, saberes e fazeres de professores da educação básica / Action and teacher training: narratives, memories, knowledge and doing of basic education teachers

The present article has an investigative focus on the epistemology of professional practice and aims to develop and socialize reflections about the formative potentialities implicit in narratives and memories of the construction, reconstruction and mobilization of different knowledge and actions in the process of being / being a teacher of Geography and History in Basic education. Thus, we have been implementing an umbrella-type research project, which aggregates and dialogues with five other subprojects, using the qualitative approach as methodology, based on the assumptions of Thematic Oral History. Although in an embryonic way, the research proposal in progress, allows us to highlight the importance of studies and research on education and teaching to turn to the daily routine of pedagogical practices, incorporating the space of the teaching experience into its universe.
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Formação de professores no estado do Paraná: saberes a ensinar e para ensinar / Teacher training in the state of Paraná: knowledge to teach and to teach

Formação de professores no estado do Paraná: saberes a ensinar e para ensinar / Teacher training in the state of Paraná: knowledge to teach and to teach

History, the study uses the methodology of document analysis and has as sources regulations, reports, textbooks and notebooks available in the Repository of the Research Group on the History of Mathematics Education in Brazil (GHEMAT) and referenced in studies de Chartier (1990), Julia (2001), Borer (2009), Viñao Frago (2008), France (2015, 2017) and Miguel (2006). The analyzed documents showed that both the knowledge to teach and the knowledge to teach were present throughout the period, however they were fostered with different intensities and with successive adaptations, adapting to the purposes of the Normal Schools.
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Hist. cienc. saudeManguinhos  vol.19 número2

Hist. cienc. saudeManguinhos vol.19 número2

In the model defended by Anísio Teixeira, universities could not be run by governments, but by councils of society representatives. Furthermore, university education should not be encyclopedic learning, which was alienated from the cultural reality in two ways – for being geared towards the classical past of the western world, and for being based on values and deeds from European culture. Finally, he saw universities and university education as two points in a single process: first, as an expression of commitment to the production of knowledge of a kind that was rooted in Brazilian soil and the Brazilian way of thinking, in view of the fact that science was universal but technologies were national; and second, as a materialization of the commitment to spread this knowledge, with teacher training institutions forming the core for a new university conception, such as Universidade do Distrito Federal (UDF), founded in 1935 in Rio de Janeiro. It was precisely in this way that, in Anísio Teixeira’s proposed model, different points were articulated in one process: school and university education, researcher and teacher training, empirical research and impartial or strictly scientific studies. The pioneering experiments of the 1930s – Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and UDF – are milestones in Anísio Teixeira’s conceptions of Brazilian higher education. He believed that they were representative of the desire to develop in Brazil a new university tradition that would further the nation’s culture and science. Despite the interruption of the UDF experience during the Estado Novo period (1937-1945), these goals were largely resumed in the 1950s and 1960s in the project for and implantation of Universidade de Brasília (UnB).
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INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN DESIGN THINKINGS AND TEACHER TRAINING

INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN DESIGN THINKINGS AND TEACHER TRAINING

Innovation is an integrated element to contemporary society with new methodologies in pedagogical doing. The training of the teacher expands to an integral vision of the man that promoting new methodologies for the teaching with intersections of diverse tools. These methodological innovations are part of a new educational scenario, where the student is more participatory and autonomous in his thinking. This causes the teacher to look for a new pedagogical practice, inserting in this planning and problamticas that allow the student to motivate to learn. This makes the classroom become a space of interaction and problematizations that has as a background the tools of desinger thinking. This is used to prepare classes and also to provide new ways of teaching students of this knowledge society. Thus, the objective in this article is to map the intersections between design thinking and teacher training. A systematic search was carried out followed by a bibliometric analysis in the Scopus database. As a result, it was identified that the research emerges in the field of Socio Sciences intersecting the discussions in the Engineering area; Computer science; Environmental science; Arts and Humanities; Business, Management and Accounting; Decision Science and Medicine and congregates um novo olhar ao fazer pegagócio trazendo
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.18 número1

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.18 número1

This study examines the pedagogical training process of medical professors at a Brazilian university, the meanings attributed to it, and the positive and negative aspects identified in it. This is a descriptive-exploratory study, using a qualitative approach with a questionnaire utilizing open-ended and closed questions and a semi-structured interview. The majority of queried individuals had no formal teacher training and learned to be teachers through a process of socialization that was in part intuitive or by modeling those considered to be good teachers; they received pedagogical training mainly in post-graduate courses. Positives aspects of this training were the possibility of refresher courses in pedagogical methods and increased knowledge in their educational area. Negative factors were a lack of practical activities and a dichotomy between theoretical content and practical teaching. The skills acquired through professional experience formed the basis for teaching competence and pointed to the need for continuing education projects at the institutional level, including these skills themselves as a source of professional knowledge.
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PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHER EDUCATION: TEACHER IDENTITY BUILDING.

PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHER EDUCATION: TEACHER IDENTITY BUILDING.

PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHER EDUCATION: TEACHER IDENTITY BUILDING. This paper presents results of a content analysis of the formative professional profile of undergraduates within the context of Brazil’s expansion of its federal education system and implementing of teacher training policies. The analysis focuses on the conceptions of undergraduates regarding elements of their initial training and professional perspectives, as recorded in narratives, interviews, and questionnaires. Based on the relationships identified between the recorded content and the Educational Course Project, we identified three categories of analysis that point to tensions generated during the professional development of chemistry teachers: 1) The relationship between pedagogical knowledge and chemical knowledge; 2) the conceptual aspects of science education, as represented by the different ways that students understand the “ionization process”; and 3) teaching identity, including the elements indicative of the identity construction of future teachers. The results indicate that the educational and professional profile of undergraduates is marked by a particular tension between chemical content knowledge and pedagogical content, as well as a lack of objectivity and focus on the course’s original intent. This situation has produced a multifaceted training context in which there is confusion regarding aspects relating to the licensing, teaching modalities, and preparation of the chemistry education professional.
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Cultural accessibility: links and reflections about teacher training in an extension action

Cultural accessibility: links and reflections about teacher training in an extension action

Abstract: The Brazilian Inclusion Law states that people with disabilities have the right to access cultural means and guaranteed participation in cultural activities. Cultural accessibility presupposes that documentaries, plays, exhibitions in museums, among others, are within the reach of anyone. However, there is a precariousness regarding accessibility in cultural spaces. This way, the research group Nefti of Unifei has developed an extension project to offer to the teachers of Itajubá-MG and surroundings, the semi-distance course “Cultural Accessibility: Links and Reflections about Teacher Training”. It showed the importance of accessibility in cultural scientific activities in school institutions and in non-formal education spaces. Therefore, this work aims to present the methodological outline of the course, as well as the results related to the contribution of this extension activity to the inclusion of these teachers in the school context. The data analysis reveals that the completion of the extension course made it possible for teachers to construct knowledge about the importance of culture for the training of students with or without disabilities, as well as instigating reflection on the need for cultural actions to contemplate accessibility.
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Texto contexto  enferm.  vol.22 número3 en v22n3a29

Texto contexto enferm. vol.22 número3 en v22n3a29

As observed, Margarita’s report about her teacher training trajectory seems to be closely con- nected with the construction of her professional trajectory. These trajectories seem to be in line with the sources cited by Shulman with regard to the construction of the baseline knowledge cat- egories. This ranges from the search for academic education that provides elements to teach certain contents to the study of aspects related to teach- ing, learning, to the appropriation movement of knowledge deriving from her educational context and teaching practice, culminating in this case in the adoption of a theoretical reference framework in her classes, which indicates the development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge and curricular knowledge, as well as a possible particular reading of the context, objectives and goals.
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Current challenges in nursing education: the professor’s perspective

Current challenges in nursing education: the professor’s perspective

Objective: understanding the perspective of professors of nursing courses on the challenges faced in the process of curricular reconstruction. Methods: a qualitative research with 21 nursing professors from six Higher Education Institutions. The data analysis was carried out using the hermetic and dialectic technique. Results: there are difficulties in curricular reorganization in relation to teacher training according to the new social requirements and a lack of integration of the different knowledge areas. There are also aggravating factors such as knowledge gaps in high school students, the distance between education and the working world, and a lack of interest in becoming a nurse. Conclusion: according to the professors’ perceptions there is positive movement toward curricular organization, despite the outstanding challenges involved in nurses’ training/education such as the lack of teacher training for dealing with innovative proposals, the distance between the working world and the training process, little social valorization of the profession, and the low quality of primary and secondary education in Brazil.
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The training of the teacher in the 21

The training of the teacher in the 21

From the data we assume that teachers are trained at the higher level, therefore, they should have enough knowledge to promote children and adolescents’ literacy, but the referred data on illiteracy and functional illiteracy show that the opposite occurs. Therefore, even though research indicates a reduction in the illiteracy rate and an increase in the level of education in Brazil among young people, the numbers continue to be bleak, especially considering that education is a condition for the development of a nation and “key” for individuals to become aware of and fight for better living conditions. All these aspects depend on education and are therefore linked to teacher training. A teacher who, in his or her training, has not acquired the habit of reading, is not only unable to stimulate his or her students to read, but also does not update his or her education, does not accompany the cultural, scientific and social advances.
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First aid at school : teacher and staff training

First aid at school : teacher and staff training

Circumstances requiring medical attention are common in schools. Teachers are often the first per- sons to witness medical emergencies with children in the school environment and this study aimed at deter- mining the awareness, attitudes and practices of first aid teachers, assessed 146 professionals in nine scho- ols in India using a self-administered questionnaire pointed out that only 69 (47.0%) of the teachers had already received first aid training with insufficient knowledge, only eight knew the correct procedures and 96 (66.0%) were willing to administer first aid if they received the necessary training (14) .
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Continuous training of the teacher-educator: constitution of the professional knowledge in collective reflective processes

Continuous training of the teacher-educator: constitution of the professional knowledge in collective reflective processes

[...] the pedagogical act is complex and requires the permanent presence of the who is observing, being surprised, pursuing answers that are not evident at first sight, seeking to understand the teaching and learning process in its concreteness, perceiving the context and surroundings in which education takes place. Towards this sense, the question is: how is an important attribute of being researcher of their practice consolidated in the teacher-educator’s experience? How can teacher-educators help constitute educators able to recognize the importance of transforming their experiential knowledge into knowledge from pedagogical action? It is known that this has not yet become a reality or materialized in all training spaces, especially, oftentimes, due to teacher-educators not knowing about it, since not all of them recognize such attribute as being important. In this case, there is a risk of happening what Gauthier et al. (2013, p. 34) state:
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In Search of Training Gestures: What Regularities can be observed when Teaching how to Teach Written Production?

In Search of Training Gestures: What Regularities can be observed when Teaching how to Teach Written Production?

Based on those previous works and others (BERNIÉ & GOIGOUX, 2005; AEBY DAGHÉ & DOLZ, 2009; DUFAYS, 2019; JAUBERT & REBIÈRE, 2005; SCHUBAUER-LEONI, LEUTENNEGER- RIHS, LIGOZAT & FLÜCKIGER, 2007; SILVA, 2013), we developed a descriptive model of professional gestures in accordance with our social interactionist framework (BRONCKART, 1997). Our descriptive model was the result of an empirical study involving 27 teaching sequences in French classrooms (SCHNEUWLY & DOLZ, 2009). This descriptive model includes two fundamental teaching gestures: pointing-decomposition gesture and display gesture (SCHNEUWLY, 2000). With those two gestures, the teacher outlines the learning environment, decomposes and points out objects of knowledge to be learned. Four other gestures were also identified: setting of the didactic device; memory recall; regulation; institutionalization. When he sets the didactic device, the teacher creates a learning environment using semiotic tools (materials, instructions, pedagogical formulas) that lead the pupil’s attention to certain dimensions of the taught object. By recalling the student’s memory, teachers call for memories of previous activities in order to anticipate the following work. Regulation gestures include all forms of information obtained during the student’s progress and all forms of adjustments made by the teacher in order to facilitate the realization of school tasks. Institutionalization, according to previous works by Brousseau (1998) and Sensevy (2001), establishes generalizations on taught knowledge. Institutionalization gestures set a common culture in the classroom and point out which taught knowledge and skills are transferable to other contexts.
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Reflections on the Professional Training and the Bond between Teacher (Master) and Apprentice

Reflections on the Professional Training and the Bond between Teacher (Master) and Apprentice

To create a training program of this nature implies immersing ourselves in a complex task, taking into account the constant updating and expansion of puppet arts, as well as the ideas about art in the con- temporary world, and generating methodological synthesis which will on the one hand overcome obsession for the new and experimental and, on the other, avoid the mimetic repetition of traditional forms. In that respect artisan training is not sufficient. It is necessary to place yourself within a training framework which will facilitate broadmindedness and circulation of knowledge. And it is essential to consider this intervention in two opposite directions: specialization and interdisciplinarity. These two elements must not be perceived as opposites; it is necessary to take care of them at the same time, to encourage their mutual feedback.
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rev. educ. fis.  vol.23 número2

rev. educ. fis. vol.23 número2

Abstract — Aims: to investigate how the professional socialization happens through teacher education. Methods: a qualitative research, descriptive, was developed using exploratory interview and narrative interview to clarify and deepen the collected information. Two Physical Education teachers with different stories of personal and professional development participated in this study. Through content analysis the data was organized in themes: the cultural capital and the learning of teaching, as a social, spatial and temporal process; a cognitive, plural and heterogenic process and a human, moral and relational process. Results: life settings can be viewed as the building scaffoldings of a professional socialization with the aim of understanding teachers and their practices in the knowledge of their lives, as inluenced by social interactions. In this process of successive socializations, teachers build their professional identity, valuing social interactions in the environments they inhabit. In this study, practice was viewed as a site for training, the production of knowledge, and professional socialization in the acquisition of cultural capital. The knowledge of teachers was conceived as having a social nature, bringing underlying sources of acquisition associated with the family, school, and university because they decisively contribute to the structure of the educational practice. Conclusion: the professional socialization is a dynamic process which involves not only the learning, but the acquisition of a professional ethos and, mainly, a teacher’s identity and a base of knowledge that support the social interaction and the teaching culture in the activities and individual socialization in the habitus perspective.
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Orientador: Doutor Ricardo Luís Rosa Jardim Gonçalves, Professor Associado com Agregação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa Co-Orientador: Doutor João Filipe dos Santos Sarraipa

Orientador: Doutor Ricardo Luís Rosa Jardim Gonçalves, Professor Associado com Agregação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa Co-Orientador: Doutor João Filipe dos Santos Sarraipa

Nowadays, there is an evident increase of the custom-made products or solutions demands with the objective to better fits to customer needs and profiles. Aligned with this, research in e-learning domain is focused in developing systems able to dynamically readjust their contents to respond to learners’   profiles   demands.   On   the   other   hand,   there is also an increase of e-learning developers which even not being from pedagogical curricula, as research engineers, needs to prepare e-learning programmes about their prototypes or products developed. This thesis presents a knowledge-based framework with the purpose to support the creation of e-learning materials, which would be easily adapted for an effective generation of custom-made e-learning courses or programmes. It embraces solutions for knowledge management, namely extraction from text & formalization and methodologies for collaborative e-learning courses development, where main objective is to enable multiple organizations to actively participate on its production. This also pursues the challenge of promoting the development of competencies, which would result from an efficient knowledge-transfer from research to industry.
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Educ. Real.  vol.40 número2

Educ. Real. vol.40 número2

A third grade teacher has prepared a session in mathematics where she has designed tasks she found relevant to the pupils’ daily life. She has differentiated the tasks into three categories with an increasing degree of difficulty. The tasks are to be solved using a scheme where procedures for solving text tasks are in focus (underline the important factors, the problem to be solved). The pupils are also supposed to draw the tasks, to visualise for themselves how they think. If the task has not been under- stood, it may be impossible to draw it. I will describe two tasks catego- rised as low and high degree of difficulty. I observed the children working on these tasks, and talked to them about how they solved the problems. 1) All children go to school ten months a year. Per starts one month later than the other children. How many months does Per go to school? One pupil was working on task one, but could not understand it and wanted some help. I read him the task, and accentuated the important information: 10 months, one month later, how many months. The pupil still did not understand it. I said: do you know what 10 minus 1 is? Nine, he said. And how many pencils do you have left if you have 10 and give one away? Nine, he said. Then I read him the task once more, and he re- peated: I don’t understand it.
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Educ. Pesqui.  vol.39 número3

Educ. Pesqui. vol.39 número3

The perspective of studying teachers as concrete subjects of pedagogical actions contributed to understand them in their technical, personal and professional constitution. This development began to gain ground in studies that related education and work, grounded by sociological references. The teaching profession, in its social condition of exercise, incorporated aspects of culture, gender and ethnicity as members of its configuration. The following studies had these investigative concerns: Arroyo (1985), Abraamo (1987), Silva (2000), Louro (1989), Lopes (1991), Costa (1995), Hypólito (1991), Pessanha (1994) and others. Internationally, the contributions of Varela (1992), Apple (1989), Enguita (1991), Nóvoa (1992) and Guerrero (1992) were important and had repercussions in Brazil.
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