A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer) or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer) that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinalplants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.
The isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinalplants, based on traditional use or ethnomedical data, is a highly promising potential approach for identifying new and effective antimalarial drug candidates. The purpose of this review was to create a compilation of the phytochemical studies onmedicinalplants used to treat malaria in traditional medicine from the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPSC): Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe. In addition, this review aimed to show that there are sev- eral medicinalplants popularly used in these countries for which few scientific studies are available. The primary approach compared the antimalarial activity of native species used in each country with its extracts, fractions and isolated substances. In this context, data shown here could be a tool to help researchers from these regions establish a scientific and technical network on the subject for the CPSC where malaria is a public health problem.
he use of plants for treating diseases is as old as the human species. Popular observations on the use and eicacy of medicinalplants signiicantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties, so that they are frequently prescribed, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely known. All over the globe, especially in South American countries, the use of medicinalplants has signiicantly supported primary health care (1). From 250 to 500 thousand plant species are estimated to exist on the planet, and only between 1 and 10% are used as food by humans and other animals (2). Brazil has the world’s highest biodiversity, accounting for over 20% of the total number of known species. his country presents the most diverse lora, with more than 55
Joseph Lister at 1860 believed that the infection was caused by the harmful air penetration on wounds, saying that “the atmosphere septic properties” were due to the germs in suspension in the air and deposited in surfaces. Then, passed to use carbolic or phenoic acid, which were already widely used to disinfect latrines, stables and sewage, from observing the phenoic acid decreased the sewage odor and the cattle from such place were less sick. From there, they started to test in animals and humans and succeed after the application. Surgery rooms started to be sprayed with phenoic acid and, later, passed to use carbolic acid to instrumental disinfection. In 1883, Pasteur and Charles Chamberland, autoclave creators, showed that the sterilization by heating had superior efficacy (Pelczar Junior and Chan, 1996; Rodrigues, 1997).
Both cisplatin and aminoglycoside drugs cause neural-sensory hearing loss at high frequencies, which is accompanied by the loss of outer hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea (Rybak, Ramkumar 2007; Xiong et al., 2015). Both drug groups play a role as an early stimulus for cell damage and cell death through increased oxidative stress in the ear. The main mechanism of neural-sensory cell damage by cisplatin is through the apoptosis pathway, while for aminoglycosides, it appears to be via the induction of both apoptosis and necrotic pathways. Experimental studies on animals have shown that different types of antioxidants can reduce the ototoxicity caused by aminoglycosides or cisplatin without any interference with drug effectiveness and thus appear as promising therapeutic agents.(Kim et al., 2010; Okada et al., 2012) In this regard, reported in several studies the positive effects of the medicinal herbs such as Korean Red Ginseng (Tian et al., 2013), Astragalus membranaceus (Xiong et al., 2011), Maytenus ilicifolia (Kasse et al., 2008), and Astragaloside IV (Xiong et al., 2011) on the reduction of cisplatin induced ototoxicity by, and others such as Salvia miltiorrhiza (Wang et al., 2003) and Korean Red Ginseng (Tian et al., 2013) on the reduction of aminoglycosides induced ototoxicity. Most plants inhibit the formation of free radicals of ROS and RNS due to their antioxidant properties and prevent the activation of the apoptosis pathway in the cochlea hair cells by inhibiting Caspase3. Anumber of herbal remedies use other mechanisms to improve hearing loss. Radix astragali prevents hearing loss caused by acoustic trauma through inhibiting the reduction of Connexin 26 and KCNQ1 gene expression in StriaVascularis (Xiong et al., 2015). CAE prevents noise-induced hearing loss through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and DNA repair mechanisms (O’Neil et al., 2011). Purple Bamboo Salt is used to treat tinnitus and cisplatin induced hearing loss from (Hong, Lyu, 2011). This compound has an anti-inflammatory property and prevents inner and outer hair cell death, preventing the release of cytochrome C and caspase-3 and inhibiting inflammatory factors. The main focus of this article was to review the important
Periodontal disease initiation and progression occur as a consequence of the host response to microorganisms of the dental bioilm . herefore, the antibacterial efect is an important factor in the periodontal therapy. Only 26.6% of the studies investigated the capacity of the material to present antibacterial activity. In the study developed by Barrella et al.  the organic extract obtained from Ipomoea alba showed signiicant in vitro activity against Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. he commercial prod- uct Magnolol obtained from Magnolia oicinalis exhibited intense inhibition of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregat- ibacter actinomycetemcomitans growth in a dependent dose  and the aqueous extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon containing tannin and phenolic compounds inhibited the adhesion of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis .Study developed by Botelho et al.  and Botelho et al.  with Lippia sidoides observed the decrease of salivary bacterial levels and this event was followed by an increment in clinical scores of gingival bleeding. Except for the work published by Klausen et al.  which did not evaluate the alveolar bone loss, all the articles that described the identiication of antibacterial activity also demonstrated that plant material treatment induced a signiicant reduction of alveolar bone loss.
Bauhinia variegata linn. (Kachnar/Raktakanchan) is a medium sized tree with hairy branches belonging to family Leguminosae. The various parts of trees like flowers buds, flowers, stem bark, stem, leaves, seeds and root are popular in various system of medicines like ayurveda, unani and homeopathy in India for the cure of variety of diseases. This is widely used for the manufacture of wood wool board, production of gum and fibers and for a forestation to conserve the nature. Various traditional claims have been made on this tree for curing in number of diseases; considerable efforts have been made by researcher to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The reported biological activities are anti-diabetic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immune- modulatory activity, anti-tumour activity, hepatoprotective activity, antibacterial activity, haemagglutinating activity, haematinic activity, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer activity, anticarcinogenic activity. This review represents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn.
To determine the possible specific anti-inflammatory functions of Wedelia species, we used a DSS-induced acute murine colitis model to evaluate the bioactivities of various Wedelia herbal extracts. Throughout the experiment, we monitored the oral intake of drinking water spiked with 2.0% DSS: the consumption level of DSS-spiked water was found to be statistically indis- tinguishable among all test groups (data not shown). Sulfasalazine, a commercialized drug for treating and preventing relapse of IBD was used as the positive control for this experiment [39,40]. Under normal conditions, i.e., DSS was not added to drinking water, Wedelia herbal extracts did not promote mouse body weight loss (data not shown). Mice treated with 2% DSS in drinking water developed typical symptoms of acute colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleed- ing and loss of body weight. Comparison of the DSS group with the vehicle group showed that the relative body weight (%) of the DSS-treated group decreased significantly on days 6, 7 and 8 (Fig 6A). After treatment with 2% DSS, mouse body weights were found to be significantly lower in the DSS, sulfasalazine (Sul), WB, WP and WPR-treated groups than in the WC and WT groups on days 7 and 8 (Fig 6A). The disease activity index (DAI) was calculated accord- ing to the severity of clinical colitis symptoms (S1 Table). Statistical analysis revealed that the DAI scores for various Wedelia species groups were not significantly different from that for the DSS group (Fig 6B). Although we can not co-relate clearly the bioactivities of different Wedelia plant extracts to the DAI score, we consider that the specific difference between the WC and DSS only group is in agreement with other data shown in Fig 6 and as we previously reported . Decrease in colon length is widely accepted as a critical symptomatic parameter in DSS-induced colitis. Fig 6C shows that the colon length of test mice was significantly de- creased after eight days of DSS administration. A comparison of the Wedelia extract-treated
No mortality took place at the exposure of 1-50 mg/2 ml conc. of D. purpurea but with the increased in conc. paralyzing effect was observed in insects. Percentage mortality of D. purpurea was 60%, at 100 mg/2 ml. Gradual decreased in motility was observed with U. urens as the conc. was increased. Similarly 20% mortality was observed on exposure to 5 mg/2 ml conc. of U. urens. C. virosa, T. occidentalis and A. mellifica. They caused concentration and time dependent increased in mean paralysis and mortality time. C. virosa at the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 mg 2 ml revealed 20% mortality respectively. Whereas, on exposure of 100 mg/2 ml of T. occidentalis, 40% mortality was observed. Mean mortality time was found 30% on exposure to 100 mg/2 ml of A. mellifica. No mortality was seen with S. nigra at concentrations 1-50 mg/2ml; but at the concentration 100 mg/2 ml, 20 % mortality was observed. Gradual and very pronounced paralyzing effect was observed with the increased in the concentration of U. ursi. 10% mortality was only observed on exposure to 100 mg/2 ml of U. ursi. A. montana produced concentration and time dependent increased in percentage mortality from the concentrations 1-100 mg/2 ml. The percentage mortality was observed in the following descending series: D. purpurea C. virosa T. occidentalis A. mellifica S. nigra A. montana. D. purpurea showed the highest percentage mortality in comparison to the other (Table 1, Graph 1).
In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL), followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC<64 µg/ mL). Other potent extracts (inhibition > 95%, 50 µg/mL) include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana), and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2- one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes), both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL). Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs. Key words: Tuberculosis, medicinalplants, natural products, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Some of the interesting studies included in the volume are: Potential Beneficial Effects of Dietary Plant Lectins on Health; Therapeutic Potential of MedicinalPlants as Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Multipotent Antioxidants from Herbal Drugs to Combat Alzheimer’s Disease; The Role of Natural Products in the Search for a P2X7R Antagonist; Modulation of Death Receptor Mediated Apoptosis by Natural Products; An Overview of Salicornia Genus; A Detail Reviewon Euphorbia tirucalli; Micropropagation and in vitro Culture of Pyrethrum; Morpho-Anatomy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Anticancer Spike-Mosses; Biological and Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Spices; Protective Effect of Marine Natural Products Against Oxidative Stress Related Disorders; Wound Healing and Ficus arnottiana Miq.; An Overview Description of Two Kalanchoe Species: K. pinnata and K. brasiliensis; A Hidden Source of Natural Products: Endophytic Bacteria; Pterocarpus santalinus: A Wonder Medicinal Plant for Next Generation; Zanthoxylum alatum: A Miraculous Species from Genus Zanthoxylum; Withania somnifera: An Exhaustive Reviewon Chemical Profile of Plant of Enormous Medicinal Properties; Natural Products Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens; Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba Oil (Copaifera sp.) and its Compounds; Potential of Plantswith Antioxidant Activity for Management of Ischemic Stroke; Morphological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Lippia nodiflora (L); Compendium of Ficus benjamina Linn.
Medicinalplants of North East Himalayas of Indian subcontinent are known efficacious in stomach disorder [1, 2]. Earlier reports from this laboratory indicated anti ulcerogenic role of certain medicinalplants of this region [3-9]. Other workers also suggested the anti gastric ulceractivity of Araucaria bidwillii , Vernonia lasiopus , Camellia sinensis [12,13], Glycerrhiza glabra , Pongamia pinnata  etc. Tempted on these findings a project was undertaken to screen medicinalplants of North East Himalayas of Indian subcontinent for their anti gastric ulcer activities, if any, in experimental ulcer model. We had reported earlier results of first phase of the work in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in
RESUMO: “Atividade anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro de algumas plantas do “Cerrado” Brasileiro”. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma seleção de algumas plantas de uma determinada região Brasileira com atividade contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extratos clorofórmicos e metanólicos de 37 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 17 famílias do “Cerrado” Brasileiro foram avaliadas contra M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv e a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) foi determinada pelo uso do Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Extratos brutos de dezesseis plantas apresentaram valor de CIM ≤ 125 µg/mL e três de 31,2 µg/mL. Estes resultados sugerem que o “Cerrado” Brasileiro deve possuir um recurso de plantas com constituintes ativos anti- M. tuberculosis que podem ser extraídos por solventes polares e apolares.
Figure 2) it was possible to establish the structure of (1) as a 7,8-secoiridoid, with C-11 as a methyl ester, a C-1(N) O-2 substitution and a 1,7- d-lactam ring. The NOESY correlations H α -5/ H α -6 and H β -6/H β -1 indicated that the 1,7- d-lactam ring is trans-fused. To our best knowledge, this is the irst time that a secoiridoid has presented as a 1,7-trans- d-lactam ring. A similar structure, isosweroside, as a hemiacetal, was found in the roots of Sambucus ebulus L. 19 Compound (1) was named loribundane A.
As copaibeiras são árvores comuns na América Latina, em es- pecial no sudeste brasileiro e na região Amazônica. Pertencentes ao gênero Copaifera, contam com mais de 60 espécies cataloga- das. Dessas árvores da família das Leguminosas-Caesalpiniaceas, é exudado, através de furo realizado no tronco, um óleo-resina cha- mado óleo de copaíba. Esse óleo é utilizado na medicina popular brasileira como anti-inflamatório das vias superiores e urinárias, tendo aplicação mais ampla como anti-séptico. No entanto, muitas outras aplicações farmacológicas são citadas para esse óleo. No Brasil seiscentista, o Padre José de Anchieta citava o óleo de copaíba como um potente cicatrizante. Atualmente, esse óleo é comer- cializado em farmácias e lojas de produtos naturais de todo o país, com indicações diversificadas 56 .
This in vitro study demonstrated that folk medicine can be as effective as modern medicine to combat pathogenic microorganisms. The millenarian use of these plants in folk medicine suggests that they represent an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases. Interest in plantswith antimicrobial properties has been revived as a result of antimicrobial resistance. Although a great amount of research has been performed to determine the antibacterial activity of medicinalplants, optimal extraction of bioactive compounds has not been well established. It is clear from the results that, the extracts act as a good source of antimicrobial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria ivanovii.
Now-a-days medicinalplants have received much attention as sources of bioactive substances used to treat variety of diseases and disorders of major body organs including liver as a hepatoprotective and antioxidants. Liver is the heaviest gland of the body and plays the major role in metabolic activities and bio-chemical conversions. Hepatic disease is a basic collective term of conditions, diseases, and infections that affect the cells, tissues structures, or functions of the liver. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document remedies used as a hepatoprotective in Kuppam, Sathupally and their surrounding villages belongs to Chittoor and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. This may be useful to researchers who are working in the area hepatopharmacology and therapeutics.
A variety of iatrogenic physical and other aggressions that cause identifiable changes in images (SPECT and PET) are described. The nature of these abnormalities and the profusion of isolated reports concerning them may, at first, be intimidating. Most, if not all, of these abnormalities, however, might be anticipated from an understanding of the disease processes of a particular patient, and from insight into the mechanisms of the radiobiocomplex behavior. Therefore, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding the SPECT and PET images as an aspect of the patient care and not as abstract exercises divorced from the conditions of human beings in several aspects. In conclusion, the knowledge about the DIR and the other factors capable of interfering with the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplexes is very important for secure diagnosis. In addition, the development of biological models to study this phenomenon is highly relevant and desired.
Cytotoxicity assay: A human diploid embryonic lung cell line MRC- 5, was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of plant extracts. Cells were cultivated in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), supplemented with L-glutamine (20 mM), 16.5 mM sodium hydrogen carbonate and 5% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) at 37 °C and 5% CO 2 . For the assay, 100 µL of cell suspension containing 15,000 cells were seeded onto each well of 96-well plate. After formation of the confluent monolayer, 2 µL of stocks pre-diluted in culture medium were added to each well for a final dose range of 500 µg/mL to 1.56 µg/mL. Fibroblasts were maintained for 72 hours under 5% CO 2 atmosphere. DMSO (0.1%) and untreated cultures were included as controls. The cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay 20 . Briefly, after incubation period, 10 µL of stock MTT
Anti-inflammatory drugs like Indomethacin administered in toxic doses (20 mg/kg), produce visible gastric ulcers in animals. Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis (Vane, 1971). Prostaglandins are known to play an important role in maintaining mucosal integrity. An Increase in certain endogenous prostaglandins can enhance gastric mucosal resistance to ulcerogenic agents (Robert, 1979). The mechanisms involved in prostaglandin action are multiple, including stimulation of mucus and bicarbonate output (Hogan et al., 1994), gastric mucosal blood flow (Gaskil et al, 1982), decreasing gastric motility, increasing the release of endogenous mediators of gastric injury- vasoactive amines and leucotrienes and stimulation of cellular growth and repair (Hawkey and Rantim, 1985). In the present study, the effect of the extract on prostaglandin biosynthesis was not evaluated, but an increase in resistance to the necrotizing effect of Indomethacin was noted. Ethanol-acid causes more severe gastric mucosal