Top PDF Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on

Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on

Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on

Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on the challenges faced in building the Health Re- gions and Networks in Brazil. These reflections result from studies conducted in several health regions. The central challenges for the constitu- tion of the Health Regions and Networks are as follows: the Care Model, Primary Health Care, Care for Users with Chronic Diseases, and Hos- pital Care. In order to consolidate the regions and networks the organization needs to incorporate an ethical sense: focusing on social, public and indi- vidual needs, derived from comprehensive care, human and social rights, in broad, multi-scale and inter-sectorial interactions, with the consti- tution of a systemic, regionalized innovation. Of prime importance is the capacity to devise which general principles are responsible for maintaining the unity(mode of care), seeking to outline the co- herence of the different provision models that the system might develop according to the social needs in regional settings. Without that, users will con- tinue to seek and create ways of accessing health services that challenge the rationale of those very services. Hospital reform is also required to inte- grate and reorient the hospital networks. These reflections are important for the SUS to uphold its solidarity project, expressed in the trinity of uni- versality-comprehensiveness-equality.
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Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on

Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on

Abstract The aim of this article was to reflect on the challenges faced in building the Health Re- gions and Networks in Brazil. These reflections result from studies conducted in several health regions. The central challenges for the constitu- tion of the Health Regions and Networks are as follows: the Care Model, Primary Health Care, Care for Users with Chronic Diseases, and Hos- pital Care. In order to consolidate the regions and networks the organization needs to incorporate an ethical sense: focusing on social, public and indi- vidual needs, derived from comprehensive care, human and social rights, in broad, multi-scale and inter-sectorial interactions, with the consti- tution of a systemic, regionalized innovation. Of prime importance is the capacity to devise which general principles are responsible for maintaining the unity(mode of care), seeking to outline the co- herence of the different provision models that the system might develop according to the social needs in regional settings. Without that, users will con- tinue to seek and create ways of accessing health services that challenge the rationale of those very services. Hospital reform is also required to inte- grate and reorient the hospital networks. These reflections are important for the SUS to uphold its solidarity project, expressed in the trinity of uni- versality-comprehensiveness-equality.
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Abstract The objective of this study was to de-

Abstract The objective of this study was to de-

Drawing on the calculation of the raw OR (Table 1) and the multivariate analysis with ad- justed OR for all the variables in the model (Ta- ble 2), we verified that the chance of suffering sexual violence was greatest among female stu- dents with < 13 years of age. Other risk factors for sexual violence were also identified, such as having black skin, being a child of a mother with- out education, working, and being assaulted by family members. In the mental health context, the chance to suffer sexual violence was greater for students that reported insomnia, and among those that related feeling alone or not having friends. Regular consumption of tobacco and al- cohol, experimentation with drugs, and the be- ginning of sexual activity were confirmed as risk factors for sexual violence. The chances of suf- fering sexual violence were greater for students that felt unsafe on the route between home and school and in the school itself, as well as those that reported having suffered bullying (Table 2).
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Abstract This article aims to investigate the

Abstract This article aims to investigate the

The participating population consisted of adult men and women of a minimum age of 18 year, who awaited attendance by a doctor after the process of triage and risk classification per- formed by the nursing team, in accordance with the Manchester Protocol, in the Urgency and Emergency Service of HCPA, during the period of study. The criteria for inclusion of patients in the study were: to be capable of verbal commu- nication, or presence of a companion - family member or caregiver - who demonstrated knowl- edge about the medications used by the patient; agreeing to sign the Term of Free and Informed Consent (TFIC); going through the complete in- terview, and having had a medical consultation in the emergency service. Each individual was in- cluded only once in the study, irrespective of the number of times he/she had sought the service during the period in which the interviews were held. Informed consent was obtained from all in- dividual participants included in the study.
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Abstract The aim of this study is to identify the

Abstract The aim of this study is to identify the

Abstract The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience, along with associated factors among street chil- dren, adolescents and youths in Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The sampling method in this cross-sectional study was Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS), innovative in research about hidden populations. Interviews were conducted with 307 subjects, aged 10 to 21 years. In multi- variate analysis, Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used. Most of this sample were males, with no contact with school and family. Almost half of the participants had been on the street for five years or more, spending more than 15 hours per day on the streets. The prevalence of pregnancy experience was 29.3%, independent- ly associated with being a girl, having 10 sexual partners or more in the last year, having a fixed sexual partner in the last year, and being older. The prevalence of abortion experience was 10.4%, independently associated with not living with the family, having more than two pregnancies, and being younger. The high prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience highlights the need for the development of better sexual and reproductive health policies focused on this population. Key words Pregnancy, Abortion, Street adoles- cents, Street youth, Teenage pregnancy
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Abstract The scope of this research was to de-

Abstract The scope of this research was to de-

Abstract The scope of this research was to de- velop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge which adult women have of food combinations in order to make iron bioavailable in the diet of chil- dren. An exploratory factor analysis study (Likert scale) was conducted applying a questionnaire on a sample comprising 151 women and then ap- plying Principal Factor Analysis and Likelihood Ratio Analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, the Doornik-Hansen test, the Kaiser Gut- tman criterion and the correlation between fac- tors and theoretical assumptions were applied. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability. Total KMO (0.5942) showed the adequacy of the sample. The Doornik-Han- sen test showed multivariate normality of the scores observed. Factorial loads, error variance of items and correlation between factors pointed to the two-dimensional nature of the question- naire, which decreased from 30 to 15 items. Total Cronbach’s alpha was 0.8018 (95% CI = 0.7429 to 0.8606) and composite reliability (Factor 1 = 0.3125 and Factor 2 = 0.3263). Convergent and discriminant factorial validity revealed accept- able results. A decision was taken to reduce the instrument (from 30 to 15 items) with sufficient reliability and validity that enable it to qualify for further confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Key words Instrument, Bioavailability, Iron, Food, Child
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Abstract - the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and sensory

Abstract - the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and sensory

Abstract - the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of juices and cuts of ‘Bordô’ and ‘Niágara Rosada’ grapes. The experimental design was in a one-factor scheme, with five levels. Treatments were: T1 – ‘Bordô’ (100%); T2 – ‘Bordô’ (70%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (30%); T3 – ‘Bordô’ (50%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (50%); T4 – ‘Bordô’ (30%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (70%); T5 – ‘Niágara Rosada’ (100%). Chemical analyses were: content of soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity, and sensory analyses were: color, aroma, flavor, body and global acceptance. For the soluble solids content, the highest averages were verified in T1, T2 and T3 treatments. As for pH, the highest value was recorded in T3, T4 and T5 treatments, while the highest titratable acidity was recorded in T4 and T5 treatments. In the sensory analysis, in juice with the highest percentage of ‘Bordô’ grape (T1 and T2) or with the same proportion of ‘Bordô’ and ‘Niágara Rosada’ (T3), the highest mean acceptance values were found. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of 100% ‘Bordô’ grape and ‘Bordô’ juice cut with up to 50% ‘Niágara Rosada’ are presented as alternatives for juice production.
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Abstract The objective of this study was to de-

Abstract The objective of this study was to de-

scribe and analyze factors associated with sexu- al violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was ana- lyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activ- ity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimat- ed according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; fe- male; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sex- ual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students’ vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention of this type of violence. Key words Adolescents, School health, Sexual vi- olence, Health survey
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ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to show that art has philosophical

ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to show that art has philosophical

Por ser ante todo experiencia comprensiva del sentido más que experiencia sensitivo/subjetiva del gusto, pura experiencia estética, el arte pertenece esencialmente a la hermenéutica: “La[r]

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Abstract The objective of this study was to rese-

Abstract The objective of this study was to rese-

Abstract The objective of this study was to rese- arch the existence of sexism against women among primary healthcare (PHC) workers and to identify associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study in which 163 PHC professionals of both sexes par- ticipated, all of whom were aged over 18 and had completed their primary or secondary education. The Gender Stereotyping and Ambivalent Sexism Inventory questionnaires were used. The average scores were more than 50% of the maximum score: Gender Stereotyping – 53.8%, hostile sexism – 58.2%, benevolent sexism – 64.1%. The average scores stratified by sociodemographic variables were higher. Significant differences in the hostile sexism score were found for sex (men scored higher than women), religion (higher scores for evangelical Christians) and among those who drank alcohol. For benevolent sexism, differences were found for schooling (greater scores for those who had only completed their primary education), religion (hi- gher scores for evangelical Christians and Catho- lics) and area of work (greater for those working in general services). The stratification of the Gender Stereotyping scores did not point to significant diffe- rences. Sexist prejudice was found to exist for hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and gender stereotyping. This finding could have a negative influence on the service-user relationship, leading to greater inequi- ties in health as a result of gender inequality. Key words Women’s health, Sexism, Health ine- quality, Healthcare staff, Health services
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Abstract The scope of this study was to estab-

Abstract The scope of this study was to estab-

lish the profile of caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and prospective study in which the caregivers of fibrocystic patients were interviewed during pharmaceutical consultation in a reference center of a University Hospital in southern Brazil. General information was ob- tained about the caregivers and about their un- derstanding of the disease, drug consumption and dynamics of treatment at home and at school. Seventy-five caregivers were interviewed. Most of them were female, 37.3 years old on average, mothers of the patients who did not work outside the home. Seventy-one caregivers declared dif- ficulties in drug acquisition and patient support associations were highlighted as the main alter- native to avoid the interruption of treatment. Another fact observed was the overload of the caregiving process on the shoulders of only one caregiver resulting in social and economic impacts and changes to the family’s daily routine. This fact emphasizes the need of intervention by a qualified multidisciplinary team to identify and alleviate difficulties, investing in interpersonal relations and administering care.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

and estimate the odds of problems among adoles- cents who reported binge drinking compared to those who reported alcohol consumption without binge drinking. The sample included 10,666 four- teen to eighteen-year-old public and private high school students in the 27 Brazilian state capitals who reported alcohol consumption at least once in the 12 months prior to the survey The odds of problems arising were estimated by ordinal logis- tic regression. Half of the students reported binge drinking and 33.1% admitted to at least one problem as a result. Binge drinking in the year (aOR = 4.7; CI: 3.9-5.7) and month (aOR = 4.4; CI:3.6-5.4) was associated with greater odds of reported problems. The most likely problems were: going to school or work drunk (aOR:6.5; CI:3.6- 11.9); having sex without a condom (aOR:5.0; CI:3.7-6.8); and getting into a fight (aOR:4.5; CI:3.2-6.3). Adolescents who go binge drinking are more exposed to alcohol-related problems than those who report lower alcohol consumption. It is suggested that alcohol education/prevention programs should consider the most prevalent problems and risk behaviors, thereby broadening the discussion on consumption of alcohol versus non-consumption of alcohol.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the accreditation criteria of the studies that eval- uated actions of health promotion and risk factor prevention of Health Promoting Schools (HPS). A systematic review was conducted based on the recommendations proposed in the “Preferred Re- porting Items for Systematic Reviews and Me- ta-Analyses (Prisma)” protocol of articles that assessed HPS in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Portal Capes. From the analysis of the three pillars for accreditation of HPS, three of the studies analyzed did not in- clude all the criteria for certification as HPS on the “Planning Process” and “Health Promotion Activities Developed” pillars. The schools cited in these studies perform health education, preven- tion and/or health promotion activities, howev- er, it is misleading to refer to themselves as HPS. The main challenges for implementation, devel- opment and continuity of HPS were identified as being intersectionality and insufficient financial and qualified human resources. HPS need to be certified and submitted to an ongoing evaluation process. It is also suggested the topic of health pro- motion be included in the syllabuses of training courses of health education teachers and other health education professionals.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi- gate the association between the source of snacks consumed in schools, their nutritional value and overweight/obesity. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,930 schoolchildren aged between 7 and10 in the state of Santa Catarina. Food con- sumption in the school was assessed with an il- lustrated 24-hour dietary recall and the source of snacks was investigated by structured inter- view. Soft drinks and artificial fruit juices, fried and processed snacks, ready-to-eat or sweetened snacks, delicacies and stuffed biscuits were classi- fied as “low nutritional value foods,” while fruit, natural fruit juices, vegetables, and vegetable soup were the “high nutritional value foods.” Univari- ate and multiple logistic regression was conduct- ed. Overweight/obesity was significantly associat- ed with higher food consumption from the school canteen (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.07-1.68) in private schools. Bringing food from home was significant- ly associated with increased consumption of low nutritional foods, both in public (OR = 1.56; CI = 1.32-1.83) and private (OR = 2.64; CI = 1.76- 3.97) schools. The results highlight the need for tightening of norms to reduce the availability of low nutritional value food in canteens, and ac- tions to promote nutritional education involving the school community.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe the food consumption and eating behavior of qui- lombola and non-quilombola adolescents from the rural area of Southwest Bahia. A cross-sec- tional study with 390 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was conducted in 2015, using an adapted PeNSE and PNS questionnaire. Food consump- tion was assessed by the frequency of healthy and unhealthy food markers in the previous 7 days. Eating breakfast was used as a marker of healthy eating behavior and having meals while watch- ing TV as being unhealthy. Frequency distribu- tion was carried out and the differences between quilombola and non-quilombola groups were assessed using the chi-square test. The prevalence ratio (PR) estimated the association of food con- sumption and eating behavior and the variables of interest. Low fruit consumption (30.8%), veg- etables (44.3%) and milk (24.4%) was observed. Comparison between the groups revealed lower consumption of vegetables (PR = 0.73), fruit (PR = 0.67) and milk (PR = 0.68) among quilombola than among non-quilombola adolescents. Public policies targeted at nutritional assistance specific to rural adolescents are recommended, since bad eating habits can prevail throughout life and lead to poor health conditions.
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Abstract The objective of this work was to pres-

Abstract The objective of this work was to pres-

The answers obtained in the questionnaires were typed in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, version 2013, to organize the variables and con- struct a database. Possible data typing errors were checked and corrected. Subsequently, the statis- tical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0. The analysis was based on descriptive statis- tics and statistical tests for a comparative analysis between variables. Scalar variables were evaluat- ed in terms of median, mean and standard de- viation. An exploratory analysis of the data was performed to characterize the sample, and then the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests were applied to evaluate the normality and homoge- neous variances of the variables under study. Giv- en the non-normality of the data, the non-para- metric Wilcoxon Signals and Mann-Whitney U-test were used. For all tests, a p-value with an less than or equal to 0.05 was considered signifi- cant. The Cliff ’s Delta 19 was used to calculate the
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Abstract The scope of this study was to identify

Abstract The scope of this study was to identify

Abstract The scope of this study was to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the self-perceived need for dental treatment and for prostheses among elderly Brazilians. An anal- ysis was performed with data from the SB Bra- zil 2010 epidemiological survey conducted by the Ministry of Health with a sample of 7,619 elderly individuals. Multilevel logistic regression models of mixed random and fixed effects were used to the estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence in- terval (95% CI) between the dependent variables and individual and contextual factors. Of the in- dividuals assessed, 3,848 (50.5%) reported a need for dental treatment and 4,236 (55.6%) believed they have the need for prostheses. The results of multilevel logistic regression showed that gender, self-reported skin color, income and coverage by the oral health teams in the Family Health Pro- gram were associated with self-perception. This study revealed a greater influence of individual factors on the self-perceived need for dental treat- ment and prostheses by elderly Brazilians. This information can help to identify the inequalities that affect this population group and in setting priorities for the planning of health services. Key words Elderly, Family health program, Den- tal health surveys, Oral Health, Multilevel analy- sis, Health inequalities
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Abstract The aim of this study is to describe in-

Abstract The aim of this study is to describe in-

Abstract The aim of this study is to describe in- cipient tobacco use and associated factors among adolescents from the rural zone of southwestern Bahia. It was based on data from the cross-sec- tional Adolescer research project among 390 ad- olescents conducted in 2015. Data were analyzed using frequency and chi-square measurements and Poisson regression with robust variance to es- timate the prevalence ratios (PR) for incipient to- bacco use in relation to the explanatory variables. Among the adolescents, 5.1% had smoked at some stage and 0.3% smoked regularly. The following variables were associated with incipient smoking: male gender (PR = 6.46); having had sexual in- tercourse at some stage in life (PR = 20.55); hav- ing parents who rarely or never understood their problems (PR=7.89); having 3 or more friends (PR = 0.10). Despite low incipient smoking or the prevalence of regular smoking, which indicate the adoption of a healthier lifestyle or greater autono- my and decision-making ability for non-smoking, it is acknowledged that there is no safe level of ex- posure to tobacco. The recommendation is that an intersectoral partnership between education and health be created to foster health promotion and disease prevention, with an emphasis on curtail- ing smoking habits.
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Abstract The scope of this study was to charac-

Abstract The scope of this study was to charac-

Abstract The scope of this study was to charac- terize malocclusion in 12-year-old Brazilian chil- dren and identify associated socio-demographic aspects. It is a cross-sectional and analytical study based on an Oral Health Survey (SB Brasil 2010). A sample of 5,539 was included, among which 41% had some degree of malocclusion according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Descrip- tive, bivariate and multiple multinomial logis- tic regression analyses were conducted. Defined malocclusion was greater among those who rated their oral health as neither satisfied/nor dissatis- fied (OR 1.24; CI95%1.03-1.50) and dissatisfied (OR 1.76; CI95%1.50-2.08). Severe malocclusion was greater among children in the Southeast (OR 1.44; CI95%1.06-1.96) and South (OR 1.52; CI95%1.05-2.19), male (OR 1.24; CI95%1.03- 1.48), black/brown (OR 1.39; CI95%1.14-1.69) who rated their oral health as neither satisfied/nor dissatisfied (OR 1.79; CI95%1.41-2.26) and dis- satisfied (OR 2.20; CI95%1.77-2.72). Very severe malocclusion was higher among residents of cap- itals (OR 1.36; CI95%1.07-1.71) who evaluated their oral health as neither satisfied/nor dissatis- fied (OR 1.58; CI95%1.22-2.05) and dissatisfied (OR 2.44; CI95%1.96-3.03). The prevalence of malocclusion is high among Brazilian children, the severity being associated with socio-demo- graphic aspects.
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Abstract The objective of this study was to analy-

Abstract The objective of this study was to analy-

ze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System and was corrected and adjusted by means of pro- portional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analy- sis on both sexes and in all regions of the country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade of the 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. This was up until the 1950s for men and the 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio -economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.
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