Top PDF An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

An Adaptive Watermarking Technique for the copyright of digital images and Digital Image Protection

The Internet as a whole does not use secure links, thus information in transit may be vulnerable to interruption as well. The important of reducing a chance of the information being detected during the transmission is being an issue in the real world now days. The Digital watermarking method provides for the quick and inexpensive distribution of digital information over the Internet. This method provides new ways of ensuring the sufficient protection of copyright holders in the intellectual property dispersion process. The property of digital watermarking images allows insertion of additional data in the image without altering the value of the image. This message is hidden in unused visual space in the image and stays below the human visible threshold for the image. Both seek to embed information inside a cover message with little or no degradation of the cover-object. In this paper investigate the following relevant concepts and terminology, history of watermarks and the properties of a watermarking system as well as a type of watermarking and applications. We are proposing edge detection using Gabor Filters. In this paper we are proposed least significant bit (LSB) substitution method to encrypt the message in the watermark image file. The benefits of the LSB are its simplicity to embed the bits of the message directly into the LSB plane of cover-image and many techniques using these methods. The LSB does not result in a human perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is little therefore the human eye the resulting stego image will look identical to the cover image and this allows high perceptual transparency of the LSB. The spatial domain technique LSB substitution it would be able to use a pseudo-random number generator to determine the pixels to be used for embedding based on a given key. We are using DCT transform watermark algorithms based on robustness. The watermarking robustness have been calculated by the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized cross correlation (NC) is used to quantify by the similarity between the real watermark and after extracting watermark.
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Survey on Digital Watermarking on Medical Images

Survey on Digital Watermarking on Medical Images

Sudeb [3] describes about a non-blind imperceptible and highly robust hybrid Medical Image Watermarking (MIW) technique for a range of medical data management issues. He used CLT followed by DCT to achieve higher robustness and imperceptibility. The drawback of this work is degradation of image and extraction accuracy. Mohamed Ali Hajjaji [4] proposed an approach for Watermarking image based on the techniques of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT) and Error Correcting Code (ECC) in order to contribute to security sharing and transmission of medical images. This approach improves the quantity of data integration with the conservation of the image visual quality and permits the user, to correct the any alterations if it exists. In this work, the hash function MD5 is used to improve the message integrity and the CDMA to increase the number of bits to insert & BCH code is used as an Error Correcting Code in order to correct the eventual errors that may occur due to various attacks. The disadvantage of this approach is that, in the case of Gaussian noise attack the received message undergoes different alterations and also the major inconvenient of this method is the use of different layers, key, and this becomes binding when dealing with a large number of images.
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DWT-SVD BASED SECURED IMAGE WATERMARKING FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION USING VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

DWT-SVD BASED SECURED IMAGE WATERMARKING FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION USING VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

In this paper a new robust watermarking technique for copyright protection has been proposed. We applied the singular value decomposition along with the Discrete Wavelet Transform. Since the technique utilizes the properties of both DWT and SVD the proposed technique is more robust against different attacks. The innovation of this paper is that the security of the algorithm is increased with the help of visual cryptography on the watermark image. If the second share of the watermark which acts as the key is not present then it is not possible to extract the exact watermark information. It is very difficult to change or remove the watermark without knowing the secret key share as the watermark is split into two shares with random patterns. The robustness of the technique is justified by giving analysis of the effect of attacks and still we are able to get good visual quality of the embedded watermark.
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An Efficient Watermarking Scheme for Medical Data Security With the Aid of Neural Network

An Efficient Watermarking Scheme for Medical Data Security With the Aid of Neural Network

, and copyright protection. Robustness, invisibility and security are the three most important properties that need to be satisfied for such applications [6].When watermarking is done by digital means we refer to digital watermarking [7].The digital watermarking is a new developed former technology of information security. There have been many applications for digital watermarking in many fields such as digital images, video, audio and so on. For vector geo-spatial data there were a few studies on the digital watermarking [8]. Image watermarking, video watermarking and audio watermarking are enlisted as categories of Digital watermarking in accordance to the range of application [9]. An important aspect of any Watermarking scheme is its robustness against attacks. The notion of robustness is intuitively clear. Robustness is the capacity of tolerance of attacks on the watermarked data. A watermark is robust if it cannot be impaired after rendering the attack on the data. Based on robustness, watermarking scheme can be divided into fragile, semi-fragile and robust [10]. Some of the applications where digital watermarking can be effectively utilized are Digital copyright protection, Transaction tracing and fingerprinting, Digital content management, Digital content authentication and verification, Lyric sync services [11].
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DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEMES FOR AUTHORIZATION AGAINST COPYING OR PIRACY OF COLOR IMAGES

DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEMES FOR AUTHORIZATION AGAINST COPYING OR PIRACY OF COLOR IMAGES

The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)[8] is currently used in a wide variety of signal processing applications, such as in audio and video compression, removal of noise in audio, and the simulation of wireless antenna distribution. Wavelets have their energy concentrated in time and are well suited for the analysis of transient, time- varying signals. Since most of the real life signals encountered are time varying in nature, the Wavelet Transform suits many applications very well [6]. We use the DWT to implement a simple watermarking scheme. The 2-D discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) decomposes the image into sub-images, 3 details and 1 approximation. The approximation looks just like the original; only on 1/4 the scale. The 2-D DWT is an application of the 1-D DWT in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. The DWT separates an image into a lower resolution approximation image (LL) as well as horizontal (HL), vertical (LH) and diagonal (HH) detail components. The low-pass and high- pass filters of the wavelet transform naturally break a signal into similar (low pass) and discontinuous/rapidly- changing (high-pass) sub-signals. The slow changing aspects of a signal are preserved in the channel with the low- pass filter and the quickly changing parts are kept in the high-pass filter’s channel. Therefore we can embed high- energy watermarks in the regions that human vision is less sensitive to, such as the high-resolution detail bands (LH, HL, and HH). Embedding watermarks in these regions allow us to increase the robustness of our watermark, at little to no additional impact on image quality [7]. The fact that the DWT is a multi-scale analysis can be used to the watermarking algorithm’s benefit.
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Combined DWT-DCT Digital Image Watermarking

Combined DWT-DCT Digital Image Watermarking

Abstract: The proliferation of digitized media due to the rapid growth of networked multimedia systems, has created an urgent need for copyright enforcement technologies that can protect copyright ownership of multimedia objects. Digital image watermarking is one such technology that has been developed to protect digital images from illegal manipulations. In particular, digital image watermarking algorithms which are based on the discrete wavelet transform have been widely recognized to be more prevalent than others. This is due to the wavelets' excellent spatial localization, frequency spread, and multi-resolution characteristics, which are similar to the theoretical models of
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Image Fusion Technique for Impulse Noise Removal in Digital Images using Empirical Mode Decomposition

Image Fusion Technique for Impulse Noise Removal in Digital Images using Empirical Mode Decomposition

This paper introduces the concept of image fusion technique for impulse noise reduction in digital images. Image fusion is the process of combining two or more images into a single image while retaining the important features of each image. Multiple image fusion is an important technique used in military, remote sensing and medical applications. The images captured by two different sensors undergo filtering using vector median or spatial median filter based on the noise density in the image. The filtered images are fused into a single image, which combines the uncorrupted pixels from each one of the filtered image. The fusion algorithm is based on Bi- dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD), which decomposes an image into residue and IMF components. Different fusion rules are used to combine IMFs and Residual components. Finally, the image is recovered using inverse BEMD. The performance evaluation of the fusion algorithm is evaluated using structural similarity index (SSIM) between original and fused image. Experimental results show that this fusion algorithm produce a high quality image than individually filtered image.
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Digital Watermarking for Medical Images using Biorthogonal Wavelet Filters and Transformed Watermark Embedding

Digital Watermarking for Medical Images using Biorthogonal Wavelet Filters and Transformed Watermark Embedding

In recent years, data protection is one of important aspect because of cases like piracy, copyright and ownership issues. Digital watermark seems to be solution to the problem. In our paper, we proposed a method of invisible watermark to medical image using Biorthogonal wavelet filter and transformed domain watermark embedding. Generally watermark is embedded in original image either directly or in transform of original image. In our method, we transformed both original image and watermark using discrete wavelet transform and Biorthogonal wavelet filter coefficients. We specifically follow this method considering the case of medical images. As medical images are low contrast images and are taken at high precision with special equipment, so it is not expected that any one will claim for its ownership. Hence we tried to develop a method which will recover watermark through medical image considering any kind of attacks. We tested our method on multiple medical images and listed down results and comparison is made on basis of PSNR and normalised correlation (NC). From the values of NC, we concluded that our method gives better recovery of watermark from watermarked image.
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An Adaptive Two-Stage BPNN–DCT Image Compression Technique

An Adaptive Two-Stage BPNN–DCT Image Compression Technique

Abstract – Neural Networks offer the potential for providing a novel solution to the problem of data compression by its ability to generate an internal data representation. This network, which is an application of back propagation network, accepts a large amount of image data, compresses it for storage or transmission, and subsequently restores it when desired. A new approach for reducing training time by reconstructing representative vectors has also been proposed. Performance of the network has been evaluated using some standard real world images. Neural networks can be trained to represent certain sets of data. After decomposing an image using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), a two stage neural network may be able to represent the DCT coefficients in less space than the coefficients themselves. After splitting the image and the decomposition using several methods, neural networks were trained to represent the image blocks. By saving the weights and bias of each neuron, by using the Inverse DCT (IDCT) coefficient mechanism an image segment can be approximately recreated. Compression can be achieved using neural networks. Current results have been promising except for the amount of time needed to train a neural network. One method of speeding up code execution is discussed. However, plenty of future research work is available in this area it is shown that the development architecture and training algorithm provide high compression ratio and low distortion while maintaining the ability to generalize and is very robust as well.
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J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng.  vol.25 número3

J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. vol.25 número3

In the last decade, a non-contacting optical technique, digital image correlation, has been developed by Sutton et al. (1983, 1986, 1988, 1991) and Bruck, et al. (1989). It was applied to measurement of displacements and strains. The applications include microscopic strain measurements in electronic packaging (Lu, 1998), strain fields in polyurethane foam plastic materials and evaluation of their mechanical properties (Zhang, Zhang and Cheng, 1999), and evaluation of thermal strain in the solder joints (Lu, Yeh and Wyatt, 1998). This methodology was even used for in situ evaluation of the state of conservation of mural frescoes (Spagnolo, et al., 1997). This computer vision technique has the advantages of a simple system and direct sensing and thus avoids the laborious interpretation of interferometric fringes. The technique utilizes two similarly speckled images, which were captured by a solid state video camera, to represent the states of the object before and after deformation. By utilizing the concept of digitalization, one can characterize the image by the patterns of different levels of light intensity. Both of the digitized images are then correlated by an algorithm, based on their mutual correlation coefficient or other statistical functions, to find out the subtle differences between them. The core of digital image correlation in this application depends on the ability to recognize two nearly similar, yet different, image patterns. Nevertheless, one could always use brute force (blanket method) to correlate both images grid by grid to their desired accuracy (Cardenas-Garcia, Yao and Zheng, 1993), but the consumption of CPU time would be enormous and impractical. Therefore, an efficient method to optimize the algorithm is needed
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An Automated System To Classify Alloy Steel Surface Using  Contourlet Transform

An Automated System To Classify Alloy Steel Surface Using Contourlet Transform

A novel technique for detecting defects in fabric image based on the features extracted using a new multi resolution analysis tool called digital curvelet transform is proposed in [8]. The extracted features are direction features of curvelet coefficients and texture features based on GLCM of curvelet coefficients. K-nearest neighbor is used as a classifier for detecting the surface. A new method to detect the defect of texture images by using curvelet transform is presented in [9]. The curvelet transform can easily detect defects in texture, like one-dimensional discontinuities or in two dimensional signal or function of image. The extracted features are energy and standard deviation of division sub-bands.
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A Novel Effective Secure and Robust CDMA Digital Image Watermarking in YUV Color Space Using DWT2

A Novel Effective Secure and Robust CDMA Digital Image Watermarking in YUV Color Space Using DWT2

In the scheme, the host image is converted into YUV channels; then, the Y channel is decomposed into wavelet coefficients. For more security of watermark, the watermark W is converted to a sequence and then a random binary sequence R of size n is adopted to encrypt the watermark, where n is the size of the watermark using a pseudo-random number generator to determine the pixel to be used on a given key. The selected details subbands coefficients for embedding are quantized and then their most significant coefficients are replaced by the adopted watermark using the correlation properties of additive pseudo-random noise patterns. To embed the watermark coefficients for completely controlling the imperceptibility and the robustness of watermarks, an adaptive casting technique is utilized using a gain factor k. Also, the CDMA watermark scheme has no need to original Image in extracting process. The observations regarding the proposed watermarking scheme are summarized as follows: (1) Increasing gain factor k increases the PSNR and NC. In a result, it decreases the percentage of error bit and increases the robustness of the watermark against JPEG compression and different noise attacks such as Gaussian and salt & pepper. In opposite, increasing gain factor k, decreases the transparency property.(2) The robustness of the proposed scheme to JPEG compression
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Design of a Numerical Adaptive Relay Based on Memory Mapped Techniques

Design of a Numerical Adaptive Relay Based on Memory Mapped Techniques

Targeting Techniques [2] i.e. how relay characteristics can be segmented on memory. The paper by Girgis [3] et al described the adaptive scheme for digital differential protection of power transformer by Kalman filtering taking account the adaptive percentage differential characteristics. An adaptive setting concept for two and three terminal lines, which can respond to changes in the network conditions, was proposed by Xia et a1 [4,5]. Sometimes the distance relay measure incorrect impedance to the fault for remote end infeed. Paper by Moore et al [6] & by Jamali [7] described the adaptive technique for measuring the correct impedance during fault. Papers by Sachdev et al [8] described the techniques of adaptive data windows. A recent paper by Hu et al [9] introduced the technique for graphical representation of digital relay.
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Efficient Watermarking Technique for Digital Media (Images and Videos)

Efficient Watermarking Technique for Digital Media (Images and Videos)

multimedia he wants to use [2] . This will no degrade the quality due to loss of frames but also there is a loss of important information. This attack tests the efficiency of watermarking such that how watermarked can be removed from an image such that no quality is lost. Her if the watermarked is removed easily that means the technique is not robust. It is given by following example

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A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique for Video Copyright Protection

A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique for Video Copyright Protection

In this paper we will focus on a technique that will protect a video from illegal access by embedding both visible and invisible watermarks into it. An invisible watermark protects a video from being copied and manipulated from the internet, but if someone takes a copy of that video using a camera then he will be able to claim it as his own video. To protect the video from this type of attacks, a visible watermark will be incorporated in the video which will appear in the video frames randomly depending upon the system and will be partially visible. DWT is used to embed the watermark in the video frames imperceptibly. The visible watermark is embedded depending on the user’s choice or randomly. As the video contain both invisible and visible watermarks so this algorithm will provide more security to the owner's video.
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A Robust Digital Watermarking with Mixed Transform Technique for Digital Image

A Robust Digital Watermarking with Mixed Transform Technique for Digital Image

The algorithm in this paper, not only objective BCR value of watermark could be enhanced, but also subjective identification capability for watermark could be enhanced. The transparency of watermark was improved through embedding in the low frequency part of wavelet transformation. Besides, the key of watermark made by Toral Automorphism can reduce the demand of original image size in extraction. Therefore, it is robust to compete against compression, resize, blurring and sharpening attacks after experiments. The mixed technique of DWT and DCT with Toral Automorphism can enhance the robustness of watermarking for digital images.
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AN ALGORITHM FOR DIGITAL WATERMARKING OF STILL IMAGES FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION

AN ALGORITHM FOR DIGITAL WATERMARKING OF STILL IMAGES FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION

There are some built-in applications in some of the digital cameras. Each application allows the user to embed a fragile watermark into the photos produced by the digital camera. If anyone changes the photos by modifying the pixel values, then this fragile watermark is broken. However, the robust watermark is used very often for copyright marks because it is not easily being attacked. For example, if we embed a robust watermark throughout a picture, the ownership of the picture can be secured by this copyright mark, Perter (2002) and Petitcolas et al (1999). Watermarks can also be divided into informed and blind watermarks by using different detection techniques. Informed watermark can only be detected by comparing watermarked image and the original image. Blind watermark does not depend on original image. Therefore, blind watermarking is a technique that the original image is not needed in watermark extraction process. Internet digital information protection is achieved through blind watermarking because with watermarked information, message can be detected successfully without original data.
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A DWT based Dual Image Watermarking Technique for Authenticity and Watermark Protection

A DWT based Dual Image Watermarking Technique for Authenticity and Watermark Protection

In this paper we propose a DWT based dual watermarking technique wherein both blind and non-blind algorithms are used for the copyright protection of the cover/host image and the watermark respectively. We use the concept of embedding two watermarks into the cover image by actually embedding only one, to authenticate the source image and protect the watermark simultaneously. Here the DWT coefficients of the primary watermark (logo) are modified using another smaller secondary binary image (sign) and the mid- frequency coefficients of the cover/host image. Since the watermark has some features of host image embedded in it, the security is increased two-fold and it also protects the watermark from any misuse or copy attack. For this purpose a new pseudorandom generator based on the mathematical constant π has been developed and used successfully in various stages of the algorithm. We have also proposed a new approach of applying pseudo-randomness in selecting the watermark pixel values for embedding in the cover image. In all the existing techniques the randomness is incorporated in selecting the location to embed the watermark. This makes the embedding process more unpredictable. The cover image which is watermarked with the signed-logo is subjected to various attacks like cropping, rotation, JPEG compression, scaling and noising. From the results it has been found that it is very robust and has good invisibility as well.
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A VC-Based Copyright Protection Scheme for Digital Images of Multi-Authorship

A VC-Based Copyright Protection Scheme for Digital Images of Multi-Authorship

Digital watermarking is a technique for protecting intellectual property of digital information. A signature, called a watermark, is embedded into a protected image. When piracy happens, the author can extract the watermark to prove his ownership. However, when a work is created by multiple authors, digital watermarking may suffer some problems. If each author embeds his/her watermark, it is highly probable that the latter watermark will compromise the former one. Some papers proposed different copyright protection schemes from watermarking, which is suitable for a co-authored work and without the drawback mentioned above [3]–[6], [8]. In those papers, anyone who participates in the creation can prove the ownership of the work by oneself. However, it is reasonable that none of the authors is allowed to prove the ownership alone since all authors own the work jointly. Therefore, when dealing with a co-authored work, we may need an appropriate copyright protection scheme to avoid such problems.
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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

GSD, which used for spatial resolution of satellite images, indicates topographic distance per each pixel but it is not sufficiently to describe image interpretability. On the other hands, GRD and NIIRS are representative parameters for image interpretability. GRD means the smallest size of the object that should be able to discern within images and NIIRS is defined the type of object that should be able to identify. Therefore, in this study, we will consider these parameters for analysis of the effects of image quality on digital map generation from satellite images.
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