Top PDF An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

Abstract—A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network) consists of a collection of mobile nodes communicating with each other without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations. MANETS are self organizing or self restoring. Network topology in MANETS is subject to continuous and precipitous (unpredictable) change. The limited bandwidth availability, energy constraints and highly dynamic topology make the routing process as exigent. The routing process in MANET relies (based) on the co- operation of individual nodes which constitute the network. In this paper, we have tried to remove the existence of misbehaving nodes that may paralyze or slows down the routing operation in MANET. This increases the efficiency of a network. Efficiency can be calculated by the parameters or factors such as transmission capacity, battery power and scalability. Here we are considering the most crucial factor named as transmission capacity of a node. In MANET, as the network size increases complexity of a network also increases. To overcome this we make network as modular. So the network becomes task specific which refer to a particular work only. This is the reason of infusing the concept of agents in an efficient network. This proposed protocol provides the most efficient and reliable route which may or may not be minimum hop count.
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An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

information with their neighbors. Routing packets including Hello messages which have higher priority always transmitted firstly and data packets are queued nodes. With the AODV routing protocol, when the traffic is low in the network, no matter which route the traffic flow chose, the route chosen can provide enough data rate at most of the time. As a result, the end to end delay with the AODV routing protocol is not high and can be lower than the QAODV routing protocol at low data rate. If we can take more time for simulation for each data rate comparatively accurate results can be found. For these above reasons, end to end delay in QAODV is higher than the AODV at low data rate. The average end to end delay of the QAODV is always below 240ms ,whereas, the end to end delay of the AODV increases badly when the data rate of each traffic flow increases from 600 kbps to 1200 kbps. It shows that networks with the QAODV routing protocol can provide lower end to end delay for traffic flows than the AODV since the QAODV always choose to find a route with satisfying data rate. During the transmission, the QoS of the traffic is monitored in the QAODV routing protocol. Once the QoS is not satisfied as it promised, the traffic stopped. All in all, with the QAODV routing protocol, the average end to end delay is low even the load on the network increases to very high which is not true for the AODV routing protocol. This performance is very significant for real time traffic transmissions.
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AN EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR DELAY TOLERANT NETWORKS (DTNs)

AN EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR DELAY TOLERANT NETWORKS (DTNs)

Cluster head selection in DTNs is done based on the nodal probabilities of the nodes. The node with highest nodal contact probability (threshold probability) is taken as the cluster head. Data from one cluster to another will be transmitted through the gateway nodes. Gateway nodes in DTNs are selected based on the nodal contact probability of nodes I one cluster with the nodes in the other cluster. A node in the same cluster transmits data from one node to another with their transmission range of all the nodes within the cluster. Nodes in the different cluster transmits data to another cluster depend upon the probability of nodal connectivity; direct transmission is also employed data from one node to another. Every gateway node constructs a cluster connectivity packet and distributes it to other gateway in the networks. The cluster connectivity of the gateway comprises its cluster ID and a list of cluster to which it serve as gateway along with corresponding contact probability. Once the routing table is obtained, the routing is performed from a cluster to another cluster through single hop Inter cluster routing and Intra cluster routing.
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An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

The proposed protocol uses Fuzzy based decision making technique to verify the status of a node. As an outcome of fuzzy decision rules, the node status can be considered as Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong, Lower Medium, Medium, Higher Medium, Little Weak, Weak, and Very Weak. Before a node transmits the data to the next node, it checks the status of that node. This estimated decision is stored in a routing table and is exchanged among all neighbors using a status flag with RREQ message. Data packets are transmitted through intermediate nodes that are in the routing table, whenever the source node sends data to the destination. If the status of a node is Little Weak, Weak or Very Weak then the sending does not transmit the packet to that node, if the status of a node is Lower Medium, Medium or Higher then that node is considerable for receiving the packet from sender node but if the status of a node is Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong then the sending node will choose this node for efficient data packet transmission. The process of node selection consists of two input functions that transform the system inputs into fuzzy sets such as Noise Factor and Signal Strength of paths between any two nodes. Fuzzy set for Noise Factor and Signal Strength in the protocol can be defined as,
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Implementation of Fuzzy Priority Scheduler for MANET and Performance Analysis with Reactive Protocols

Implementation of Fuzzy Priority Scheduler for MANET and Performance Analysis with Reactive Protocols

AODV is an on demand distance vector protocol and it is and on demand variation of the distance vector protocols AODV uses destination sequence numbers to determine the freshness of routing information. In AODV, flooded requests are used to create routes, with the destination responding to first such request, much as in DSR. However AODV maintains routes in distributed fashion, as routing table entries, on all intermediate nodes on the route. Nodes forwarding queries remember the earlier hop taken by the query packet. This hop is used to forward the reply packet back to the source. AODV advocates use of early quenching of request packets, i.e., any node having a route to the destination can reply to a request. AODV also uses a technique called route expiry, where a routing table expires after a predetermined period, after which fresh route discovery must be initiated.
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Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

Developing routing protocols for MANETs has been an extensive research area during the past few years. In particular, energy efficient routing is the most important design criteria for [1][3][6] MANETs since mobile nodes will be powered by batteries with limited capacity. The power failure of a mobile node not only affects the node itself but also its ability to forward packets on behalf of others and thus the overall network lifetime which is our most interest.

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An Improved Approach for Working outside the MANET by Extending MANET Routing Protocol

An Improved Approach for Working outside the MANET by Extending MANET Routing Protocol

Mobile nodes in the Ad Hoc network need global addresses to communicate outside the MANET and node mobility should be properly dealt with [16][8]. Especially, when mobile nodes move to another area, their subnet changes and a new IP address must be obtained. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with the integration of MANETs to the Internet. Most of the proposed solutions require the addition of gateways and the routing protocols used within the Ad Hoc network. Since Internet gateways have two interfaces they are part of the Internet and the Ad Hoc network simultaneously. They understand the Internet protocol (IP) as well as a MANET routing protocol (e.g. AODV).
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An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices which can communicate through wireless links. The task of routing protocol is to direct packets from source to destination. This is particularly hard in mobile ad hoc networks due to the mobility of the network elements and lack of centralized control. Source routing is a routing technique in which the sender of a packet determines the complete sequence of nodes through which it forwards the packet. The sender explicitly lists this route in the packet’s header, identifying each forwarding “hop” by the address of the next node to which to transmit the packet on its way to the destination host. When a host needs a route to another host, it dynamically determines one based on cached information and on the results of a route discovery protocol, unlike conventional routing protocols.
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A Query Driven Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Nodes in Subsurface

A Query Driven Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Nodes in Subsurface

Traditionally in WSN network application, communications within nodes have seen a lot of development and changes. Generally WSNs communication depends on two major factors viz data to be collected and energy available. We have seen many different routing protocols for conventional applications of WSNs, which have been developed or wished-for to solve the challenges posed by these networks. The existing protocols are based on diverse assumptions as regards the application background of the concerned network as well as operational manners. Routing mechanisms have been defined for traditional applications as well as for underwater operations too. But none have been developed or proposed for subsurface exploration at the time of listing this paper. Routing in WSNs, even for traditional applications is intrinsically challenging owing to its distinctiveness, which separates it from other wireless networks like ad-hoc mobile networks (MANET), cellular network or simple Wi- Fi systems. It has been discussed and debated that for a large number of nodes to be deployed, it is not feasible to build an IP based global addressing scheme, since it would lead to a mammoth ID overhead maintenance. This being the reason that traditional IP based routing cannot be used for any of the WSNs applications. In addition to this, unlike our traditional communication networks, application of sensors within subsurface requires to flow accumulated data based on various parameters to the base station. This could be done in single hop (as in Direct Reporting) or via multiple hops (as in Directed Diffusion). The other apparent factor to be considered is the resource constraints within wireless sensor nodes. These nodes have limited energy, processing and storage capabilities. Keeping in mind the resource constraints, we have proposed Query Driven data reporting model, since it requires transmission only on “as and when required” basis.
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A Cooperative Blackhole Node Detection Mechanism for ADHOC Networks

A Cooperative Blackhole Node Detection Mechanism for ADHOC Networks

In [7] Sanjay Ramaswamy, Huirong Fu, Manohar Sreekantaradhya, John Dixon and Kendall Nygard proposed a method for identifying multiple black hole nodes. They are the first to propose a solution to cooperative or group black hole attack. The methodology works with slightly modified AODV protocol by introducing Data Routing Information (DRI) Table and Cross Checking. DRI table contains {Node ID, From, Through}.Every node maintains this table. They rely on reliable nodes (nodes through which the source node has routed data) to transfer data packets. When an intermediate node replies a RREP to a given source node, the Next Hop Node and DRI entry of Next Hop Node should also be sent together. The Source node will then use the information together with its own DRI table to check whether the Intermediate Node is a reliable node. If it is not reliable, then it sends a Further Route Request packet to the node next to the intermediate node and asks NHN: 1) if IN has routed data packets through NHN, 2) who is the current NHN’s next hop to destination, and 3) has the current NHN routed data through its own next hop. The NHN in turn responds with Further Route Reply message including 1) DRI entry for IN, 2) the next hop node of current NHN, and 3) the DRI entry for the current NHN’s next hop. Based on the Further Route Reply message from NHN, source node checks whether NHN is a reliable node or not.
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An Efficient Searching and an Optimized Cache Coherence handling Scheme on DSR Routing Protocol for MANETS

An Efficient Searching and an Optimized Cache Coherence handling Scheme on DSR Routing Protocol for MANETS

There are some challenges and issue such as mobility of mobile nodes, power consumption in battery , and limited wireless bandwidth when caching techniques are employed in MANETs for data communication .Due to the movement of mobile nodes, MANETs may be partitioned into many independent networks. Hence, the requester cannot retrieve the desired data from the remote server (data source) in another network. The entire data accessibility will be reduced. Also, the caching node may be disconnected from the network for saving power. Thus, the cached data in a mobile node may not be retrieved by other mobile nodes and then usefulness of the cache is reduced. The mobile nodes also decide the caching policy according to the caching status of other mobile nodes. However, the existing cooperative caching in a MANET lack an efficient protocol among the mobile nodes to exchange their localized caching status for caching tasks. In this work a novel cooperative caching scheme called Group caching (GC) which maintains localized caching status of 1 hop neighbors for performing the tasks of data discovery, caching placement, and caching replacement when a data request is received in a mobile node. Each mobile node and its 1 hop neighbors form a group by using the “Hello” message mechanism. In order to utilize the cache space of each mobile node and its 1 hop neighbors form a group by using space of each mobile in a group, the mobile nodes periodically send their caching status in a group. Thus, when caching placement and replacement need to be performed, the mobile node selects the appropriate group member to execute the caching task in the group; this reduces redundancy of cached data objects [14].
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Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

In the following advertisement phase, the CHs inform their neighbourhood with an advertisement packet that they become CHs using CSMA MAC protocol. Non- CH nodes pick the advertisement packet with the strongest received signal strength.In the next cluster setup phase, the member nodes inform the CH that theyhave become a member to that cluster with "join packet" containing their IDs using CSMA. After the cluster-setup sub phase, the CH knows the number of member nodes and their IDs. Based on all messages received within the cluster and the number of regular nodes, the CH creates a TDMA schedule, picks a CSMA code randomly, and broadcasts the TDMA table to cluster members. After that steady-state phase begins.
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A simulation based QoS review of multipath routing protocols for MANET

A simulation based QoS review of multipath routing protocols for MANET

-----------------------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------------------- A MANET is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. The multipath routing protocols establish efficient communication within the network by discovering multiple routes between a pair of source and destination in order to have load balancing to satisfy Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, the QoS comparison of three multipath routing protocols are carried out in terms of five scenario patterns such as RWM, RPGM, MGM, GMM, and PMM in two different traffic patterns such as CBR and TCP using NS2 and Bonn Motion. The multipath routing protocols AOMDV, OLSR and ZRP have been selected for simulation due to their edges over other protocols in various aspects.
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Mobility and Density Aware AODV Protocol Extension for Mobile Adhoc Networks-MADA-AODV

Mobility and Density Aware AODV Protocol Extension for Mobile Adhoc Networks-MADA-AODV

Abstract: Problem statement: In this study, we proposed a method to improve the performance of AODV by reducing overhead by adopting a route message propagation mechanism. According to the new scheme, a node will be selected to forward a routing request message if and only if a condition based on its mobility (speed) and number of neighbors is satisfied. If the routing request is allowed to propagate through a node then there will be at least a possible path which includes that node in its path list. So, at the end of the route resolving process, the destination will have a possible path through that node. If the routing request is disallowed to propagate through a node then there will not be a possible path which includes that node in its path list. So, at the end of the route resolving process, the destination will not have a possible path through that node. We implemented the idea on network simulator (ns2) and measured the improvement in performance. Mobility and node density are the two major factors which has much influence on the performance of any routing protocol of mobile adhoc network. Several previous works highlighted this fact. In this study, we will improve the performance of AODV by adding mobility and density aware behaviors in route resolving process. Approach: In this study we describe an idea for improving the performance of AODV and reduce some of the overheads in a large and dense network with mobile nodes with different speeds. The proposed design will be implemented on AODV as an extension and will give a new protocol namely ‘Mobility and Density Based Extended AODV’ (MADA-AODV). Results: The performance of MADA-AODV has been compared with the other routing protocols AODV,DSDV and DSR with metrics throughput, MAC load, Routing Load, Control message overhead etc.,. will be used to measure the performance of the protocol in terms of different network overhead. We have arrived more significant and comparable results. Conclusion: We have successfully implemented the proposed protocol MADA-AODV and compared it with other routing protocols AODV, DSDV, DSR. We evaluated the performance of these protocols in terms of different metrics. In almost all the cases, the performance of MADA-AODV is better than normal AODV as well as other compared routing protocols. Significant improvement in throughput as well as significant reduction in overhead is provided by MADA-AODV. So we hereby conclude that MADA- AODV will be suitable for highly mobile and dense network scenario.
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A Review Paper on Route Maintenance in Stability Based Energy  Aware Routing Protocol In MANET

A Review Paper on Route Maintenance in Stability Based Energy Aware Routing Protocol In MANET

SQ-AODV [8]-- authors proposed Stability- based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol, is an enhancement AODV protocol in which residual node energy is used for route selection and maintenance. It also proposed a novel make- before-break mechanism that finds an alternate route when energy of node goes below threshold. It provides stable routes by accounting for the residual life-time calculated using the current Average- Energy-Drain-Rate (AEDR)) at intermediate nodes and the duration of the session at the route selection stage. This minimizes packet loss and session disruptions. SQ-AODV proactively re-routes sessions, without losing any packets, this provides near-zero packet loss and superior QoS performance. In SINR based [9] method protocol maintains multiple path and calculate maximum signal strength of each route when the source node got the reply from destination then it select the route which have maximum signal strength among the multiple route. If the primary path is unavailable, the next one of the alternate path is immediately used for data transmission.
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Framework for Location Based Power Aware Routing in MANET

Framework for Location Based Power Aware Routing in MANET

A mobile Ad hoc network is network of mobile nodes which are able to create dynamic topology without any central administration. Thus, the task of efficient routing the data packets in terms of QoS and energy consumption becomes very important. Many routing protocols have been proposed for efficient routing [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. Earlier on-demand routing protocols[3,4,5,6,7] were based on flooding the routing packets in all directions irrespective of the location of the destination node, resulting in increase in bandwidth consumption where as table driven protocol [2] maintains large amount of information as well as they perform large computations in order to select the best node which results in premature loss of battery life. This bandwidth consumption was reduced by the Location Aided Routing Protocols [9,10,11,12,13]. These location based protocols uses the
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Efficient algorithms for agent-based semantic resource discovery

Efficient algorithms for agent-based semantic resource discovery

An alternative to these blind search algorithms is on the use of informed algorithms. In this type of search, peers use additional information about other peers’ resources (usually, obtained from previous queries) to select the ones that will be contacted during the search process [5]. For example, Routing Indices [6] allow peers to forward queries to a subset of neighbours (which is identified by evaluating an index table that contains the inventory of resources of the neighbouring peers [20]) that are the best candidates to satisfy the query. Similar approaches are exploited in the Directed Breadth-First Search [27] and in the Intelligent Search mechanism [13] where each peer in the network builds a profile (set of properties) of its peers and uses that profile to determine which ones are more likely to answer each query. Other informed search approaches, which use feedback from previous searches to improve future ones, include Adaptive Probabilistic Searches [26] and Directed Searches [18], which rely upon statistic information about other peers, including their performance. Unfortunately, these algorithms for unstructured networks use some form of the Depth-First Search or Random Walk search mechanisms that, even though are able to reduce the network traffic, increase the search latency, thus taking more time to return the queries results.
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AN ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION FOR FAULTTOLERANT ROUTING IN MANET

AN ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION FOR FAULTTOLERANT ROUTING IN MANET

The EFDCB (Extended Fully Distributed Cluster Based) routing protocol [11] combine both GDMAC and FDCB protocols and uses CFSR for QoS routing. Fully Distributed Cluster-Based (FDCB) algorithm addresses Quality of Service routing in the MANET. Generalized Distributed and Mobility Adaptive Clustering (GDMAC) provides fault tolerance with Quality of Service in the MANET. EFDCB uses a cluster-head model to mitigate connection failures. This model employs cluster state knowledge sharing with to make the cluster- head aware of supported QoS connections in the cluster. The cluster head has complete “cluster-state” knowledge. It contains connectivity awareness for all cluster nodes. The demerit of this paper is decrease the QoS collision due to network failures. And also EFDCB is maintained both to repair existing paths and to initiate new ones. So more memory required in CH.
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A Cluster based Technique for Securing Routing Protocol AODV against Black-hole Attack in MANET

A Cluster based Technique for Securing Routing Protocol AODV against Black-hole Attack in MANET

In proposed method all the nodes receiving data packet send acknowledgement to the node from which it received it. If source node receives acknowledgement from destination within threshold time, path is found to be secure against black hole node and originator takes no action. Otherwise source starts verifying nodes. Source node unicast verification message to all the nodes whose details it has stored. Through verification message Source asks the corresponding nodes to reply either TRUE or FALSE. If IMn has received acknowledgement from its next node it replies TRUE otherwise FALSE. We assume that hijacked node would always intend to hide itself. Suppose in above figure N6 is the source node and N10 is the destination. N7, N8, N9 are the intermediate nodes whose details has been stored by N6.
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QoS Assertion in MANET Routing based on Trusted AODV (ST-AODV)

QoS Assertion in MANET Routing based on Trusted AODV (ST-AODV)

In this paper a trusted ST-AODV protocol is proposed that identifies the nodes that drop packets during data transmission. Trust value for each node is calculated to spot the untrustworthy nodes in the path during routing. A node is declared as a trustworthy node if its trust value is greater than the threshold value thus resulting in a trustworthy MANET routing. This proposed scheme has shown a good development over Qos parameters like PDR and delay and has also provided trustworthy routing. The same scheme can also be implemented on other MANET routing protocols and check the performance with respect to Qos parameters. The future work may provide an encryption scheme for secured packet transmission and also to consider energy levels of the nodes participating in the routing to enhance reliability in MANET routing.
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