Top PDF Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

ethod fo p e-t eat e t, e i o e tall f ie dl a d does ot e ui e the i est e t of e e g . Fu gi p odu e a ide a ge of e z es a d he i als, hi h, o i ed i a a iet of a s, togethe su essfull deg ade lig o ellu- lose, as ell as a o ati pol e s that sha e featu es ith lig i . O the asis of ate ial utilizatio a d featu es of a otte ood, the a e di ided i th ee t pes of ood-de a fu gi: hite ot, o ot a d soft ot fu gi. White ot fu gi a e the ost effi ie t lig i deg ade s i atu e a d, the efo e, ha e a e i po ta t ole i a o e li g f o lig ified ood. This pape des i es fu gal e h- a is s of lig o ellulose deg adatio . The i ol e o idati e a d h d ol ti e h- a is s. Lig i pe o idase, a ga ese pe o idase, la ase, ello iose deh d o- ge ase a d e z es a le to atal ze fo atio of h d o l adi als • OH su h as
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Effective bioethanol production from Plant-based biomass by genetically modified yeast strains

Effective bioethanol production from Plant-based biomass by genetically modified yeast strains

Recent studies have shown that laboratory strains do not exhibit great performance in lignocellulosic fermentations, even with multiples genetic modifications (Romaní et al., 2015). In this sense, focus of genetic engineering strategies has been changed to its application on industrial yeast strains. The hardness of pretreatment is irremediably attached to the generation of degradation products as has been mentioned above. Recent work has shown that metabolic engineering of industrial S. cerevisiae strains may have different responses depending on the individual genetic background of yeast strains (Cunha et al., 2015). Thus, the use of natural robust yeast strains to overcome this inhibitor challenge is present as interesting alternative strategy. Industrial isolates from harsh industrial environments have a well-established robust background, exhibiting higher fermentation capacity (Mussatto et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, these strains exhibit improved stress tolerance by the presence of stress factors in the harsh industrial processes, like high sugar and ethanol concentrations, elevated temperatures, drastic pH variations and presence of toxic compounds (Pereira et al. 2011). Microflora from traditional and industrial fermentation processes represents a potential source of microbial natural isolates that present some of the preferred physiological background features for lignocellulosic hydrolysates fermentation, even if they have not been naturally exposed to these particular inhibitors. Some strains of S. cerevisiae obtained from Brazilian sugarcane-to-ethanol distilleries (‘‘cachaça’’ and bio-ethanol plants) have presented high fermentation efficiency with extended tenacity in the fermentation system (Pereira et al., 2012, 2011b, 2010b). Additionally, a flocculating yeast strain isolated from Swedish second-generation plant exhibited high tolerance to ethanol, as well as to osmotic stress and inhibitor presence (Westman et al., 2012). Plenty of work have been done also to evaluate and improve yeast strains thermotolerance (Banat et al., 1996; Mitsumasu et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2008), since it can be a major advantage in the industrial environment, aiding for a cost-efficient process (Pereira et al., 2014; Ruiz et al., 2012). Environmental conditions of stress influence the expression of flocculent character of some laboratory strains, which can be supportive for ethanol production from LCM (Landaeta et al., 2013).
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Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequenc- ing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best b-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For b-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes pre- sented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0-8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in in- dustrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moder- ate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.
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Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: Banana pseudo stem

Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: Banana pseudo stem

extract 2.5; pH 5.5 and incubated at 30 °C, without aeration and agitation for 72 h. The samples were collected at differ- ent intervals and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm at 4 °C for 10 min and the cell free supernatant was used for ethanol analysis. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) using S. cerevisiae, reached maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with 84% yield (g of ethanol/100 g sugar) and ethanol pro- ductivity of 0.024 g% h, and the biomass was found to be around 0.84 g% (Table 2). Sugar utilization and ethanol production was at faster rate till 48 h. The purity of the pro- duced ethanol was analyzed by GC. Hill et al. (2006) used various criteria like net energy gain, environmental bene- fits, economically competitiveness, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies, for biofuel as a viable alternative. They used those criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans and reported that ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its produc- tion, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Whereas they also reported that global demand for food and for transpor- tation fuels is expected to increase more than 50 times, so there is a great need for renewable energy supplies that do not compete with food supply. Biofuels that are not food-
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BIOCONVERSION OF GLYCEROL FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING ISOLATED ESCHERICHIA COLI SS1

BIOCONVERSION OF GLYCEROL FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING ISOLATED ESCHERICHIA COLI SS1

compounds is considered to be a promising application. Many microorganisms are known to naturally utilize glycerol as their sole carbon and energy sources (1, 25). Valuable chemicals produced from microbial fermentation of glycerol include 1,3- propanediol, dihydroxyacetone, ethanol and succinate. In this context, glycerol is used as a substitute for the traditional substrates, such as sucrose, glucose and starch, used in industrial fermentation processes (7). Glycerol has a greater degree of reduction than does sugars, and it is also cheaper and more readily available. In comparison with glucose fermentation, the almost exclusive synthesis of reduced products during glycerol fermentation reflects the highly reducible state of glycerol. Conversion of glycerol to phosphoenolpyruvate, or pyruvate, generates twice the amount of reducing equivalents than does producing pyruvate from glucose or xylose. As an example, glycerol fermentation produced ethanol and formic acid (or ethanol and hydrogen) with overall a yield of twice that of glucose fermentation since half of the glucose lost as carbon dioxide during bioconversion of glucose (9). As biodiesel is a widely accepted renewable fuel, glycerol bioconversion into valuable chemicals will further add value to the biodiesel industry (7).
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ANALYSIS OF FUNGI OCCURRENCE IN ENERGY CHIPS PILES

ANALYSIS OF FUNGI OCCURRENCE IN ENERGY CHIPS PILES

dendromass in the form of fuelwood and energy chips continued. Current share of fuel dendromass as the most important renewable energy source in total consumption of primary energy sources is about 2.1%, from which the proportion of forest fuel dendromass is 1%. Total exploitable potential of fuel dendromass is up to 9%, especially in the production of heat and electric power (Green Report, 2010). One of the reasons for such low use of forest dendromass for energy purposes may be the poor public awareness about this renewable energy source, about its positive aspects and advantages for its use, but also about the risks associated with its processing. Wood chips for energy purposes are the most produced from forest biomass. In the process of their production and subsequent handling, the workers are threatened by various risks and harmful factors. Work injuries and occupational diseases represent the major risk in energy chips processing. Harmful factors such as noise, vibrations and environment dust are eliminated by suitable technique and technology. The biggest dangers in the handling of wood chips represent fungi, which act as pathogens on the human body.
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Braz. J. Chem. Eng.  vol.27 número2

Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.27 número2

In this short review, potential proactive to retroactive applications of CNTs in environment systems have been discussed. As a result of theirs excellent mechanical, electrical, physical and chemical properties, CNTs play a major role in waste water treatment and air pollution monitoring. In waste water treatment, CNTs serve as sorbents, nanofilters and antimicrobial agents to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. In air pollution monitoring, development of CNT-based gas sensors results in high sensitivity with prompt sensor response toward pollutant gases. In addition, CNTs are also described as one of the key challenges in producing “green” energy, which involves clean combustion. The production of electricity by “green” energy technologies based on biomass catalytic activity (Biofuel cells), renewable sources such as solar (photovoltaic device) and hydrogen (hydrogen fuel cell) prevents the release of toxic gases to the atmosphere and precludes the high demand for fossil fuel. However, these technologies are still not yet been commercially practical because they are still in an emerging stage and more time is required to achieve technical maturation. Apart from this, the superior power density provided by CNT-based supercapacitors has been viewed as an alternative way to replace traditional batteries. Supercapacitors with extended usage time could reduce the amount of waste disposed to the environment over time. Crucial development is still ongoing in order to meet the long term environmental protection challenge. In green materials, the involvement of CNTs in green nanocomposite design embraces the LCA concept, which promotes reduction, reuse and recycle-ability of raw materials. For large scale application, continuous production of CNTs from low-cost sources has taken a closer step to overcoming the problem of the high cost of synthesis. Considering the health implications resulting from widespread use of CNTs, the best way to avoid human and environmental exposure to CNTs is source reduction.
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MATERIAL AND METHODS Collection of biomass samples

MATERIAL AND METHODS Collection of biomass samples

With the use of E10 greenhouse gas emissions are reduced between 12% and 19% compared to conventional gasoline. In addition, the high oxygen content, combustion is cleaner and is able to reduce by 13% the toxic contents of gasoline and releases 30% less CO 2 than a new vehicle (MORALES et al., 2016). It is highly soluble in water and biodegradable. Ethanol is a renewable fuel produced from plants, unlike petroleum-based fossil fuels, which have a limited supply. Fossil fuels are also the most significant contributor of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (RFA, 2008). These environmental benefits have increased the interest in using this biofuel. As a result, countries such as Brazil and the US have energy policies on its use and production and becoming the greatest bioethanol producers in the world. This biofuel is produced from sugarcane and corn, respectively. Both countries produce more than 83% of the total bioethanol produced in the World (RFA, 2013).
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Biodiesel Production through Ionic Liquid Catalysed Esterification

Biodiesel Production through Ionic Liquid Catalysed Esterification

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel diesel that can be produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. There is a recent growing interest in the development of alternative technologies to the oil economy, based on renewable energy sources. A possible solution is a biofuel usable in compression-ignition engines, produced from biomass rich in fats and oils. A wide range of raw materials can be used in the production of biodiesel. Nevertheless, the use of sources that do not compete with the food market like waste cooking oils, which usually feature high levels of free fatty acids (FFA’s), can put problems in the process of production of biodiesel through alkaline transesterification. These problems are partially overcome by the use of catalysts, such as ionic liquids (IL’s) that also promote reactions of esterification of FFA’s to biodiesel. Thus, the objective of this work consists in the study of the influence of IL's application in the catalysis of: esterification reactions of organic acids to the corresponding methyl esters.
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New trends and challenges in lactic acid production on renewable biomass

New trends and challenges in lactic acid production on renewable biomass

products) and economical (cheap raw materials, reduction of storage costs) ad- vantages. An intensive research interest has been recently devoted to develop and improve the lactic acid production on more complex industrial by-products, like thin stillage from bioethanol production, corncobs, paper waste, straw etc. Complex and variable chemical composition and purity of these raw materials and high nutritional requirements of lacid acid bacteria (LAB) are the main obstacles in these production processes. Media supplementation to improve the fermentation is an important factor, especially from an economic point of view. Today, a parti- cular challenge is to increase the productivity of lactic acid production on complex renewable biomass. Several strategies are currently being explored for this pur- pose such as process integration, use of LAB with amylolytic activity, employment of mixed cultures of LAB and/or utilization of genetically engineered microorga- nisms. Modern techniques of genetic engineering enable construction of microor- ganisms with desired characteristics and implementation of single step processes without or with minimal pre-treatment. In addition, new bioreactor constructions (such as membrane bioreactors), utilization of immobilized systems are also being explored. Electrodialysis, bipolar membrane separation process, enhanced filtra- tion techniques etc., can provide some progress in purification technologies, al- though it is still remaining the most expensive phase in the lactic acid production. A new approach of parallel production of lactic bacteria biomass with probiotic activity and lactic acid could provide additional benefit and profit rise in the pro- duction process.
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Leveduras de processos de bioetanol: potencial para a produção de cerveja especial...

Leveduras de processos de bioetanol: potencial para a produção de cerveja especial...

The increasingly demand for specialty beers has led production sector to search for innovations. In the fermentation scope, yeasts are a crucial point, both because of process stress tolerance as well as beer aromatic compounds production. Brewing process which use high-gravity (HG) worts impose higher stressful conditions to the yeast due to increased osmotic pressure in the beginning, and higher ethanol concentration at the end of fermentation. Yeasts isolated from bioethanol process could be opportune to beer production with HG wort, contributing to both relevant physiological traits and also to obtain differentiated specialty beer, with flavor and aroma particularities. In this work, the physiological and technological potential of bioethanol yeast strains have been evaluated for HG brewery wort fermentation for production of specialty beer. Initially, 24 bioethanol yeast strains and 3 commercial brewing yeasts (controls) were evaluated for growth in maltose medium and in HG brewery wort. Seven bioethanol yeast strains were not able to grow efficiently on maltose and HG wort, and were therefore unsuitable for brewing, being excluded from selection. Selected strains were evaluated for physiological traits in fermentation assessments of HG wort and for other relevant brewing traits. Five strains were selected for beer production. The physicochemical and sensorial analyses demonstrated that the bioethanol strains contributed to desirable organoleptic traits to the beers. The bioethanol process environment presented a valuable source of biodiversity, so far unexploited, to brewing process, highlighting strains with physiological and technological potential to produce differentiated specialty beers, with flavor and aroma particularities.
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Endophytic Fungi Found in Association with Bacopa monnieri As Potential Producers of Industrial Enzymes and

Endophytic Fungi Found in Association with Bacopa monnieri As Potential Producers of Industrial Enzymes and

Endophyte B19 showed an EI of 5.33 and 3.33 for cellulose and casein hydrolysis, respectively. These results were significantly different when compared to others. Fomitopsis cf. meliae showed the highest zone of clearance on both CMC as well as skimmed milk plates. These results suggested that the ability to produce amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease. This could be related to the lifestyle adopted by the endophytic fungi in the host. Contrary to the results of the present study, Maria et al. (2005) reported that cellulase was produced by all the mangrove endophytic fungi of southwest coast of India, whereas amylase activity was present only in a few of those. All the endophytic fungal isolates produced proteases or/and lipases, which suggested that they might be of relevance as bio-control agents. The genetic machinery required to produce cell wall degrading enzymes such as cellulase, may already be present in endophytic fungi prior to the establishment of the symbiotic relationship with the host plant. From an evolutionary perspective, these endophytic fungal strains may have adapted to the respective metabolic machinery of the host tissues to produce biomolecules not only important for their own biology, but also for the host plant’s requirements.
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1,3-Propanediol production in a two-step process fermentation from renewable feedstock

1,3-Propanediol production in a two-step process fermentation from renewable feedstock

To produce glycerol from glucose in the first step, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strain HC42, described by Cordier et al. (2007), was used. In this strain, originated from the wild-type auxotrophic strain of the diploid CEN.PK2 family (van Dijken et al. 2000), the gene GPD1, encoding a NAD + -dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was overexpressed, as well as ALD3, encoding a cytosolic NAD + -dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase; to increase the availability of NADH, TPI1, encoding a triose phosphate isomerase was deleted; this genetic intervention was used to flow half of the glucose into the glycerol pathway; also, to increase the NADH available for glycerol production, ADH1, that encodes the major NAD + - dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, was deleted. Two other yeast strains, FH100 and FH200, resulting from the adaptation of HC42 to high glucose concentrations, were also used. The adaptation to high glucose concentrations was obtained by streaking the HC42 strain on yeast Malt (YM) broth (from Difco) supplemented with agar and different glucose concentrations (50, 100, and 200 g l −1 ) and incubating for several days until appearance of isolated colonies. The colonies were randomly selected and then streaked again on plates with the same medium; this procedure was repeated several times. The adapted strain was able to grow in liquid medium with high glucose concen- trations (100 and 200 g l −1 ).
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Selection of Cellulolytic Fungi Isolated from Diverse Substrates

Selection of Cellulolytic Fungi Isolated from Diverse Substrates

From the 215 strains tested by Congo Red stain, 14 samples that presented an enzymatic index over one were selected (results not shown). Table 1 shows the selected strains: seven from the soils, six from the plants (endophytic) and one from sugarcane bagasse. The Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Mycology and Mycotoxicology Centre classified them as belonging to the Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The mutant A. niger 3T5B8 from Embrapa Food Technology Cultures Collection used as standard strain was previously selected as a pectinolytic enzyme producer by semi-solid fermentation (Table 1) (Couri and Farias, 1995).
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MATERIALS AND METHODS Microorganisms

MATERIALS AND METHODS Microorganisms

gradient from 1.7 to 0 M in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 50 mM. The peaks containing MnP activity were pooled, concentrated and dialyzed against the same buffer. The HIC separated MnP was further loaded to a Pharmacia KX 16 16/2 column packed with Q Sepharose anion exchange chromatography resin coupled to a Pharmacia FPLC, previously equilibrated with sodium phosphate 50 mM. The flow rate was 2 mL/min and proteins were eluted with sodium phosphate 50 mM in a linear NaCl gradient from 0 to

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USE OF RENEWABLE SUBSTRATES FOR EX VITRO PRODUCTION OF Melaleuca

USE OF RENEWABLE SUBSTRATES FOR EX VITRO PRODUCTION OF Melaleuca

ABSTRACT: The Australian species Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. has a strong commercial importance due to the extraction of essential oils from its leaves used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In order to obtain an efficient plant production system of M. alternifolia the mini-cuttings technique and the clonal mini-garden management in the productivity and rooting of mini-cuttings and different substrate compositions were analyzed during all the seasons. Mini-stumps derived from cuttings and grown in pots (2 L), were submitted to successive harvesting of their sprouts during the four seasons (september/2013 to august/2014). From the mini-stumps sprouts mini-cuttings were produced, wich were were planted in plastic tubes and kept in a greenhouse for 45 days. Six substrates were used for planting the mini-cuttings: commercial substrate (S1); substrate composed of 100% carbonized rice husk (CRH) (S2); substrate composed of 100% coconut fiber (CF) (S3); substrate composed of 50% CF and 50% CRH (S4); substrate composed of 30% CF and 70% CRH (S5); substrate composed of 70% FC and 30% CRH (S6). The high survival of mini-stumps (over 90%) and the mini-cuttings production (282 mini-cuttings.m -2 .month -1 ) in
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LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ENZYME PRODUCTION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS GROWTH IN AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES José Maria Rodrigues da Luz, Mateus Dias Nunes, Sirlaine Albino Paes, Denise Pereira Torres, Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva, Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ENZYME PRODUCTION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS GROWTH IN AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES José Maria Rodrigues da Luz, Mateus Dias Nunes, Sirlaine Albino Paes, Denise Pereira Torres, Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva, Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.
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Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase

Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase

Nowadays that cereal is very popular, besides rye and corn, in Polish distilleries. In distillery industry major byproduct is stillage. Stillage contains residual oligosaccha- rides, organic acids and non volatile metabolic byproducts of the fermentation [Kim et al. 2008, Nowak et al. 2008, Szymanowska and Grajek 2009]. Its certain part can be dried together with spent grains to produce dry distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) and used as ingredient in fodder production. The thin stillage can be concentrated to produce a syrup called condensed distillers’ solubles (CDS) or the wet distillers’ grains is combined with the syrup giving wet distillers’ grains with solubles (WDGS). Often the wet form of stillage is used as animal feed because of energy-consuming dry- ing which makes the process more costly [Mojovi ć et al. 2009, Kim et al. 2008]. How- ever, the stillage application as a fertilizer is possible after formal-legal requirements fulfillment connected with environmental protection. Stillage has to be chemical ana- lysed among others for mineral substances which can be used as fertilizer components [Cibis et al. 2006].
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Bioprocessing of main agro-industrial wastes of Portugal for protein enrichment and lignocellulolytic enzymes production

Bioprocessing of main agro-industrial wastes of Portugal for protein enrichment and lignocellulolytic enzymes production

The global evolution in technology and science, lead to an improvement of standard living conditions and the increase of global population, this is the main cause for the increase of food demand. Traditional ways of food supply consist in using sea and land to obtain the essential nutrients for human survival. Associated with these traditional ways is the problem of wastes disposal which, are mainly generated by agricultural and municipal segments of population (Ajila et al., 2012). The utilization of these wastes has been proposed for animal feed (El Boushy, 1990). Wastes utilization as an alternative source for animal feed need huge attention because its recycle and reduction is a good way to minimize environmental pollution and improve the present living conditions (Ajila et al., 2012). Currently 33 % of croplands are used for livestock feed production (Department, 2012), this is a key factor in deforestation. By using agro-industrial wastes as animal feed, food supply can increase and reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. However, the nutritional quality of these wastes does not meet the standards that are required for animal feed, mainly due to low protein content. The application of biotechnology processes as solid-state fermentation can enrich the agricultural wastes and the fermented solid may be used directly in animal feeds.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.20 número6

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.20 número6

In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R,S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA_115 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R,S)-2-octanol (ee s 29%; ee p 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.
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