Sudotec offers programs that benefit the whole community, as well as provide installations, hardware, software and network infrastructure (material resources), besides free or low-cost programs, payment for the instructors (financial resources) that provide the community the opportunity to access information and improve qualify of live for those that choose to take part of the program. Furthermore, the access provided can broaden knowledge (educational resources) and it’s motivational factor of participation (psychological resources). However, the contacts with peers, relatives and teachers (social resources) are also used to obtain information on courses and availability of vacancies, representing a form of interaction among members of the community (social resources). Interaction and contact with people from other cities and countries (social resources) can also be provided with the “caravans” and technical missions (cultural resources) in which people can leave their city (geographical resources) to travel and participate of congresses, international fairs and other events. The availability of such resources allows the community to understand their choices and find what they value, reaching results of the chosen development. Students’ testimonials indicate the enrollment in one of the programs not only improved their level of education, but also provided them with other abilities and resources, such as confidence to speak in public and express their opinions, improving with relations with relatives and friends.
local authorities and governments. Nigeria has ratified UN agreements such as the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, which guarantees women equal rights and protection from discrimination. However these have not informed policy-making or translated into better living and working conditions for women. National development is hampered by excluding the perspectives, skills and dynamism of half the population. Without meaningful commitment in the form of policy changes and the provision of resources to deal with the root causes of women's conditions, the country cannot hope to see a breakthrough in its developmentand renewal. Within the international development community, there has been a shift in thinking from the initial "women in development" (WID) approach, which focused narrowly on women's productive roles, to a broader "genderanddevelopment" perspective, which takes into account all spheres of women's lives and seeks to bring gender analysis into the core ofdevelopment policy. UN agencies such as the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) and UN Development Programme (UNDP) support gender awareness training for policy-makers, provide technical assistance and build strong gender components into their own programming and projects. Similarly, the Commonwealth Secretariat has commissioned several studies on genderand economic policy-making and applies a genderperspectiveto analyze the effectiveness of governmental policies and public services. The World Bank also emphasizes the developmental costs of ignoring women and denying them access to key resources, and urges countries to draw up gender action plans.
In order for cryopreservation to assume a functioning role in assisting aquaculture production and aquatic species conservation it has to proceed beyond developmentof the initial technical requirements. A series of activities are required to be in place for full- scale application. These activities have not yet been fully implemented anywhere for any aquatic species. There are problems and barriers at each step, but getting started is usually the hardest part. The entry-level requirements for equipment, facilities, and training are high and force potential users to focus on technology developmentand technical problems. However after this hurdle is passed, the focus can shift to coordination of activities and realization of the great opportunities provided by cryopreservation. This would include establishment of high-throughput capabilities, which has recently been recognized as a focus for work by the US National Institutes of Health for biomedical models including fishes (workshop summary available at: http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/publications/#reports). A final phase of maturation in application would see cooperation and connections forming among governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, and private companies. The major activities in this potential pathway for application would include:
The article discusses the impact ofgender asymmetry on the socio-economic developmentof the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social developmentof the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural andgender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Applicationof regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country genderand socio- cultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.
Integration between the activities of R andof D is crucial for organizations with a clear strategic intent for innovation. In brief, research must develop new technologies that leverage new businesses platforms anddevelopment has to design successfully new products and processes or new versions of existing ones. Research is more attached to science and general technological principles anddevelopment relates more to marketing, consumers, and forms of product use. Problems in the integration of the two may imply research working and delivering technology platforms that do not fit development objectives or development ignoring possibilities set by research output. The disintegration may also imply friction, mistrust, waste of resources, and loss of opportunities for new businesses and products or not adapting to market changes. In this sense, the integration between R and D can be seen as a dynamic capability (DC).
In addition, the development banks are financial institutions controlled by the state government, with the main objective to provide timely and adequate supplies of resources needed to finance in the medium and long term programs and projects aimed at promoting economic and social developmentof the State. They are constituted as a corporation, with headquarters in the state capital that holds its controlling interest, is mandatory and privately adopt in its name, the ‘Development Bank’ expression, then the name of the State in which its registered office (BACEN, 1976).
at a relatively low cost with fast response time (within 10-25 s) and can be used for a period of 5 months without any considerable change in its performance characteristics. The proposed electrode displayed good selectivity for flufenamate in the presence of several substances as well as in the presence of some carboxylate and inorganic anions. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of flufenamic acid in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples.
The, so called, high-zinc aluminium cast alloys are a good example of these alloys, of good strenght and high damping prop- erties, which could replace other, more energy consumable ones. However, wider implementation of the high-zinc aluminium cast alloys requires improving their plastic properties.
Batik garments play a central role in certain rituals, such as the ceremonial casting of royal batik into a volcano. In the Javanese naloni mitoni("first pregnancy" ceremony), the mother-to-be is wrapped in seven layers of batik, wishing her good things. Batik is also prominent in the tedak siten ceremony.The existence and use of batik was already recorded in the 12th century and the textile has since become a strong source of identity for Indonesians. Batik is featured in their national airlines uniform, the flight attendants of Garuda Indonesia wear batik prints in their uniform. Although the uniforms are actually not real batik because the production is not using the traditional way but using mass produced techniques. The female uniform of Garuda Indonesia flight attendants is more authentic modern interpretations of kartini style kebaya and batik parang gondosuli motif, which also incorporate garuda's wing motif and small dots represent jasmine. The batik motif symbolizes the ‘Fragrant Ray of Life’ and endows the wearer with elegance.
Freud published in 1927 his renowned study Fetishism. Based on clinical cases, he locates the fetichism origin in an attempt to preserve the belief in the mother's penis: “o fetiche é um substituto do pênis da mulher (da mãe) em que o menininho outrora acreditou e que — por razões que nos são familiares — não deseja abandonar” (FREUD, 2007, p. 95). Observing the absence of his mother's penis, the boy feels, in the same blow, the threat of his own castration. As a consequence of an aversion to real female genital organs, an object is therefore elected as a substitute for the mother's penis: “Mas esse interesse sofre também um aumento extraordinário, pois o horror da castração ergueu um monumento a si próprio na criação desse substitute” (FREUD, 2007, p. 95). Such objects may suggest a visual resemblance to the penis or may relate to some object or body parts that are associated with the last impression (on the boy's visual trajectory) prior to the trauma.
Another important aspect, as presented by (Oum et al., 2003) is the liberalization of the airline industry worldwide. It has increased the demand for more efficient and faster processing of aircraft, passengers, cargo and baggage. Airlines have freedom of choose where they will base their domestic hubs and which airports they will use to route their connecting traffic, as the continental markets in Europe, North America and Asia become even more competitive. The most efficient airports are chosen by air carriers to allocate and expand operations, so as to improve quality of services and reduce their costs. Airport managers are being confronted with new challenges every day, in an era of growing commercial pressures. Thus, it is important for airports to provide the services in the most efficient manner. To do this, airports need to know the best practices over airport operations several dimensions within the industry practices.
Conjugality occurs for a set of individuals, at a given moment in one’s personal trajectory, and is ideologically marked in a distinguished way, according to one’s existential andgender conditions. For the male gender, strongly expressed by the partners under analysis, the production of meanings and personal identity in their family structure was constructed through the relation with their partner, across common life, and that is how they constructed a way of seeing the family world and themselves. And, in the situation of their wife’s disease, for many of them, this demanded re-looking at the family dynamics (11) . It is through this relation constructed across
Sow (2003) states that in this era of globalization, modernity and human rights debates, there are constant conflicts between being a Muslim woman and being modern. Being Muslim or Christian does not prevent people from practicing traditional beliefs. Women used to play an important role in those practices as priestesses and healers. With the rapid rise of Muslim groups/ brotherhoods and more radical Islamic ideologies, where men are always put up front, women started to lose their prestige as traditional leaders. The conditions of women in Senegal are not so crushed by Islam because there are policies that protect the rights of women and used to forbid polygamy. Polygamy has become legal because the government could not prevent the majority of the population to not fulfill their religious beliefs (Muslim men are allowed to marry up to four wives). Christian women in Senegal are still protected by the legislation in terms of marriage, child custody and other related family issues, but Muslim women, even those who are educated are subject to the Quranic law (Sow, 2003). When the Quranic law falls into the narrow views of fundamental groups, and when religious and traditional beliefs create a critical environment for women‘s development it becomes detrimental to women and difficult for organizations to implement gender related programs (Sow, 2003).
The postures adopted in ADLs encompassed studying at home or school (six choices of illustrations), watching TV (ive choices of illustrations), computer use (six choices of illustrations) and video game use (five choices of illustrations). The school children should choose the illustration that most closely resembled their posture for each of those options. To analyze this variable, four categories were established: the majority of the activities were not performed on a daily basis; adequate postures were used to carry out most activities (sitting on the ischia, with a lumbar support and support of the lower limbs); inadequate postures were used to carry out most activities (remain sitting without a lumbar support or support of the lower limbs, or laying down) and adopted adequate and inadequate postures in equal proportions.
The interdiction of women from spaces meant for people with drug problems, added to the difficulty of incorporating gender as an an- alytic category, means that creating specific ser- vices tailored to different sexes could be an alter- native to guarantee access and diminish gender inequalities. Antônio, however, questions and at the same time elaborates on what might be a strategy for facing this question: Maybe sep- arate services would not make much sense, don’t you think? Specific services for men and services for women, right? I’m not very clear on this. […] the services were always thought of in a mixed way, right? Maybe, what I can think might be a way out of this dilemma or at least an interven- tion that would be interesting, would be the cre- ation ofgender-specific sub-services, within each service. Within this argumentation, he cites the experience of the women’s group and considers the possibility of also establishing men’s groups. Thus, he maintains the focus on the specificity of the sexes as a strategy for the discussion of gen- der, but not for specific services; this time, it is with groups.
Developing world such as Africa has seen African software developers increasingly designing and developing home grown solutions to African problems, many of which have previously been tackled by outsiders. Local context is becoming increasingly vibrant as university students across Africa graduate with computer science and business management degrees; as innovation hubs spring up across the continent meeting a growing, insatiable demand for places to meet, work and network with like-minded problem solvers and entrepreneurs and as investors launch funds that show they’re starting to take young African tech start-ups seriously. This activity hasn’t escaped big business. Google, IBM, Microsoft, Nokia, Hewlett Packard and Samsung have been opening oices across the continent, snapping up much of the talent in the process.
The essence of social economy is the inclusive function of the labor market through which the different forms of social economy that exist in the member states can play a role in the overcoming the crisis, especially in the creating of jobs, including in social services field Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the post‐ 2010 Lisbon Strategy 9, p. .
In order to assess these conjectures, I use the estimated model to conduct counter- factual analyses of different formalization policies. I consider four prototypical policy interventions: (i) reducing formal sector’s entry costs; (ii) reducing the payroll tax; (iii) increasing the cost of the extensive margin of informality through greater enforcement on informal firms (e.g. more government auditing); and (iv) increasing the costs of the intensive margin through tighter enforcement on formal firms that hire informal workers. At the firm level, the results show that reducing formal sector’s entry cost has large positive impacts on informal firms that formalize – an average gain of 24% in terms of their own lifetime profits at baseline – but it has negative effects on other firms. The latter is a consequence of general equilibrium effects: greater entry increases competi- tion and therefore the equilibrium wage increases, hurting incumbents in both sectors. Increasing the costs of the extensive margin of informality benefits formal incumbents, but particularly so low-productivity formal firms. This result thus indicates that these firms are the most directly affected by informal firms’ competition. Increasing the costs of the intensive margin of informality is most harmful to low productivity formal firms, as these firms hire a large fraction of their labor force without a formal contract. Thus, they experience a substantial increase in their de facto labor cost as a consequence of this policy.