Top PDF Drugs against tuberculose: past, present and future.

Drugs against tuberculose: past, present and future.

Drugs against tuberculose: past, present and future.

DRUGS AGAINST TUBERCULOSE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Approximately every minute, somewhere in the world four people die from tuberculosis (TB), an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with about 3 million deaths per year. In spite of these problems, unfortunaly, it is about 40 years that a novel drug was last introduced on the market. Due to the rapid spread of multi-drug resistant TB strains, resistant against all major anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the recent resurgence of the incidence of tuberculosis in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, we need urgently the development of new drugs to fight tuberculosis. This is covered in the present article.
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Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives.

Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives.

DRUGS ANTI-HIV: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES. Currently available anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). In addition to the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (1) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (2) viral entry, through blockage of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (3) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp 41; (4) viral assembly and disassembly through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents; (5) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors and (6) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process. Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed, possessing different improved characteristics.
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On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

The affordances research reviewed until here followed the approach as first intro- duced by Warren (1984,1988). At about the same time that this line of research origi- nated, another approach, forwarded by Michaels (1988), combined the theory of affor- dances with work on stimulus-response compatibility in choice reaction times. Stimu- lus-response (s-r) compatibility refers to the degree to which a set of stimuli and asso- ciated responses are naturally related to each other. Michaels (1988) explored the rela- tionship between s-r compatibility phenomena and the theory of affordances. Stimu- lus-response compatibility occurs when responses are faster for particular stimuli than for other stimuli. A well-known example is spatial s-r compatibility which is ob- served when the spatial arrangements of stimuli are responded to faster by certain spatial arrangements of responses (Fitts& Seeger 1953;or an overview of the ecological approach to s-r compatibility, see Michaels &Stins 1997). Michaels hypothesized that the detection of affordances might be manifested in the speed by which responses are made, thus “responses afforded in certain situations ought to be faster than responses not afforded” (Michaels 1988: 231-232). To test this hypothesis, a series of experiments was conducted which tested whether or not an object moving toward one hand would lead to faster responses with that hand than with the other hand, even though it might be closer to the other hand and,thus, have positional compatibility. The results re- vealed that participants reacted faster with the hand that could more easily intercept the object, providing support for the idea that spatial compatibility effects reflect the perception of possibilities for action. In a number of experiments, Stins and Michaels (1997, 2000) extended the approach by investigating the differences among response modes varying in level of compatibility. Different compatibility effects were found for the different response modes (pressing a button versus using a joystick: Stins& Michaels 1997; actual reaches versus button pressing: Stins& Michaels 2000).
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CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

A. The power to direct the financial and operating policies of an entity has the meaning of strategic power (IASB, 2006a: p. 5). The operating policies consist in the those policies which direct activities such as sales, acquisitions, marketing, production and human resources and the financial policies refer to those policies which direct the accounting policies: budget approval, credit policy, dividend policy, bond policy, cash management etc. (Ashwal, 2005: p. 7). The owner of this strategic power has the possibility to determine the way one entity’s assets are used (either directly within its activities or indirectly by selling them), and has also the possibility to determine that entity to contract supplementary loans, to raise ore pay its debts (IASB, 2006a: p. 5). An important issue in this context is whether this strategic power must necessarily have an exclusive character or not. We believe that this power cannot be shared or divided, in other words in our opinion only one entity can control another entity. Where directing the financial and operational policies of an entity can take place only together (in common) with other entities involved, control is not present.
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Scientists<--editors<--scientists: the past, present, and future of PLoS Genetics.

Scientists<--editors<--scientists: the past, present, and future of PLoS Genetics.

The foundation of PLoS Genetics has been, and will remain, the quality and substance of our Research Articles, but a second area where Wayne’s efforts have been apparent is in the journal’s develop- ment of other article types. We began with what might be considered traditional Reviews, which many journals emphasize as much for their effects on the impact (factor) of the journal as for their utility. But PLoS Genetics is different, and with Wayne’s leadership, we have gone beyond the traditional Review to feature Perspec- tives, Jane Gitschier’s Interviews (we particularly enjoyed the one with the Honorable Judge John E. Jones, III [1]), and, most recently, Viewpoints, which provide a forum for the discussion of controversial and/or emerging topics of interest to the genetics community.
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Modelling and forecasting tourism demand in Portugal: past, present and future

Modelling and forecasting tourism demand in Portugal: past, present and future

As can be observed from Table 2, there are only a few studies that apply time series methods. In some cases the purpose of these studies is only to evaluate the forecast performance and not the elaboration of forecasts. However, in other studies these models are used to generate forecasts; see for instance, Gonçalves and Águas (1997) and Fernandes and Cepeda (2000). The main purpose of their papers is to apply the life cycle methodology to tourism in Algarve and in the North of Portugal. The model consists in identifying the phases of the cycle: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and finally poststagnation. This methodology has been applied to explain the evolution of a tourism destination. But it is not a model for forecasting purposes, since some of the destinations do not experience all the phases.
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The carbon cycle in Mexico: past, present and future of C   stocks and fluxes

The carbon cycle in Mexico: past, present and future of C stocks and fluxes

Arneth, A., Bernhofer, C., Bonal, D., Chen, J., Gianelle, D., Gobron, N., Kiely, G., Kutsch, W., Lasslop, G., Law, B. E., Lindroth, A., Merbold, L., Montagnani, L., Moors, E. J., Papale, D., Sottocornola, M., Vaccari, F., and Williams, C.: Global patterns of land– atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy co- variance, satellite, and meteorological observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 116, G00J07,

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Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future.

Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future.

Bd positive did not develop the disease chytridiomycosis despite being infected with Bd. In addition, over our four-year study, only one dead amphibian was encountered and none of the animals handled exhibited clinical signs suggestive of chytridiomycosis (lethargy, lack of right- ing reflex, excessive shedding of skin). It is therefore our presumption that no significant mortality events have occurred in this study area during the current study period. However, confidence in this conclusion is limited by the relatively small sample size relative to the geo- graphic region of study and lack of continuous monitoring and testing. Mortality events may also be cryptic depending on the species and geographic location, and how quickly the car- casses decay before the event is noticed. In addition, this conclusion cannot be applied to amphibians in areas outside of the study sites or species. Based on the current state of our knowledge and when taken together with other studies looking at species within the same gen- era across Africa (Afrixalus, Arthroleptis, Hyperolius, Leptopelis, Phlyctimantis, Ptychadena, and Phrynobatrachus) [19,20,23,24,27], there is no current evidence to suggest Bd infection or chytridiomycosis is causing large die-offs or significant population effects across the Albertine Rift [29–32]. Our field surveys and these other studies however, provide only a snapshot of Bd- prevalence at a certain point in time and time of year, and do not rule out the possibility of Bd- induced mortality as a possible contributing significant factor in animal health or as a factor that could negatively affect population dynamics in the past or future. Many factors, including introductions of new strains of Bd or pathogen mutation towards increased virulence, could result in mortality events within or across species, or situations in which sub-clinical infections may cross a threshold for terminal disease [78–81]. Our data provide important baseline infor- mation for comparative studies should any mortality events be encountered in the future.
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An introduction to the special issue on the past, present and future research on deliberate lookalikes

An introduction to the special issue on the past, present and future research on deliberate lookalikes

Pathak, Velasco, and Calvert (2019) analyze the different forms (transpositions) of deceptive (fraudulent) imitations of original brand logotypes, which can aid in the detection of a counterfeit brand. The study uses two experimental studies (with 59 and 60 participants) to explore the extent to which the consumers can explicitly and implicitly differentiate between original brand logos and their counterfeit versions at different levels of visual dissimilarity between them. The findings show that consumers can explicitly discriminate fake logos with a high degree of accuracy but this ability is diminished under the conditions in which the logos are presented very briefly (thus tapping the participants‟ implicit or automatic logo recognition capabilities), except when the first and last letters of the logotype are substituted. As many purchase decisions are made automatically and without much cognitive deliberation, this research provides useful insights to the brand managers and academic researchers about those key implicit characteristics that can help consumers
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Neonatal Sepsis: Past, present and future; a review article

Neonatal Sepsis: Past, present and future; a review article

However, the performance of broad range PCR analysis at a level of high analytical sensitivity is complex and remains one of the most challenging PCR applications in the diagnostic laboratory. For example, as 16S rRNA gene amplification targets all bacterial species, small amounts of inherent residual DNA present in reagents may be co- amplified, resulting in false positivity. Methods for the removal of potential background contamination include long wave UV light gamma irradiation DNAse, restriction endonuclease digestion, ultrafiltration, and low DNA polymerases. However, many of these methods result in a reduced sensitivity in detecting target DNA, with a detection limit range of 10 3 –10 4 copies/ml, which is not ideal for diagnosing sepsis in clinical settings. It was found that a combination of pre-PCR culture with the use of AmpliTaq Low DNA achieves an acceptable level of sensitivity (5–50 copies/ml in a turnaround time of eight hours) for the real time amplification of bacteria in blood samples, without the need to remove any inherent DNA contamination. Detection by PCR does not yield the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the pathogen. Early exclusion of bacterial infection could help to reduce overuse of antibiotics. It is predicted that eventually real time PCR combined with DNA Micro Array technology will allow not only identification of the organism but also the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, which is so critical to clinical care.
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HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

Membrane attack complex (MAC) is also an index of complement activation of hemodialysis along with the C3a and C5a indices. Because these shows the complement activation of hemodialysis membrane at different levels with different action potentials. Here measure of one index does not substitute for the measurement of other, as C3 doesn’t lead to equal molar activation of C5 or that of the terminal section. Recent studies show some interest in measurement of other C3 activation products as indices of C3 activation. Detection of some of them as iC3b and C3d.they may possess their own biological activities 18 . These fragments like iC3b and C3d may degrade further according to the environment they are present. Quantitation of particular fragment may not correctly give the total number of C3 molecules that have been activated. Cross reaction between present antibodies and C3 fragments can complicate the interpretation of assay.
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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND  FUTURE IN ROMANIA

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN ROMANIA

Analysis in this paper have confirmed the general conclusions on the spatial distribution of disparities, namely the fact that the main problems of regional development are located in the north-east and the lowlands in the south, while the western and central areas of the country remain most developed. Unlike the two above- mentioned areas, Western and Central areas of the country is emerging as the richest and most highly developed in terms of revenue from households, equipping and technical endowment of the potential social and economic. Both shows, finally, that in terms of spatial distribution can be seen a remarkable group of global imbalances, the major differences between the east and south and central and western areas. Most poor and very poor counties were developed in Moldova and Wallachia, while most of those with high and very high growth were in Transylvania and Banat. Maramures historical regions of Oltenia and is characterized by a medium level of development. It is also surprising finding as one of the less developed areas are situated around the capital, except for the industrialized and urbanized area of the region Prahova.
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Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

Laboratory examination generally is not very helpful expect for the typical signs of advanced disease such as anemia, hypoalbuminemia, leukocytosis and elevated alkaline phosphate or bilirubin. Tumor markers may be of help and should be considered if gallbladder cancer is suspected. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) greater than 4 ng/mL is 93 percent specific and 50 percent sensitive for detecting gallbladder cancer in the presence of appropriate symptoms [43] and a CA 19-9 serum level greater than 20 U/mL is 79.4 percent sensitive and 79.2 percent specific [44]. Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor) expression has been noted in various cancers such as colon, squamous cell of the head and neck, non-small cell lung and breast cancers Several small studies from Asia, Europe and Australia have examined the expression of EGFR in gallbladder cancer. The improved understanding of EGFR’s role in oncogenesis has made it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in several cancers. In a study by Matthew Kaufman they found that EGFR was over expressed in their patients of carcinoma gall bladder, they found that 3+ EGFR correlated with poorly differentiated carcinoma and patients with 1+ EGFR correlated with well differentiated carcinoma [45].
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Past, present and future

Past, present and future

1) Overview: The use of wireless technologies in indus- trial applications was limited for a long time due to highly fluctuating quality of wireless transmission channels. Specifi- cally transmitted electromagnetic waves experience reflection, scattering, and diffraction causing multipath scattering at the receivers resulting in packet errors and losses contributing to higher transmission delays, especially when it is used in harsh industrial environments, mobile and rotating scenarios. The end user doubts have been reduced significantly over the decade with the development of diverse wireless standards and well-suited protocols. With the development of KNX RF in 2006 and ZigBee in 2007, the first standard for building automation was introduced. With the scope of the HART 7 specifications in 2008, the first standard, WirelessHART, for the process automation was released in late 2007 [20].
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PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF THE INFORMATION CONCEPT

PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF THE INFORMATION CONCEPT

Información es hoy un concepto clave en sociología, ciencia política y economía. A modo de ejemplo baste recordar las investigaciones de Manuel Castells. 55 De acuerdo a Bougnoux, los conceptos de información y comunicación están relacionados inversamente: comunicación se refiere a previsión y redundancia mientras que información tiene que ver con lo nuevo e imprevisto. No existe una “información en si” sino que siempre hay algún tipo de redundancia o “ruido”. Informar a otros o informarse a sí mismo significa para Bougnoux seleccionar y evaluar. Esto es particularmente relevante en el campo del periodismo y los medios masivos así como también en Internet. 56 Para Alfons Cornella, las empresas son información. 57 La noción de información juega un rol importante en las teorías de la gerencia del conocimiento. Para Nonaka y Takeuchi información es el conocimiento potencial exteriorizado y gerenciable, mientras que conocimiento es un proceso que tiene lugar en el sujeto cognoscente. 58 Estas teorías están relacionadas con la larga historia de la noción de información en el campo de la biblioteconomía y de la documentación que, como indicaba al comienzo, llevó a la denominación “library and information science”. 59
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Quality of life comparasion of elderly urban and rural stroke victims

Quality of life comparasion of elderly urban and rural stroke victims

The WHOQOL-OLD is composed of six facets: functioning of the senses (evaluates the functioning sensory and the impact of the loss of skills in sensory quality of life); autonomy (refers to independence in old age, describes up to that point if it is able to live independently and make their own decisions); activities past, present and future (describes the satisfaction about achievements in life and things that longs); social participation (participation in daily activities, especially in the community), death and dying (worries, anxieties and fears about death and dying) and intimacy (evaluates the ability to have personal and intimate relationships). 12
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Adult education in Portugal: reflections between past and present

Adult education in Portugal: reflections between past and present

The period represented by the last years of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty first century was perhaps one of the richest and challenging periods regarding adult education. The two most innovative options of the period were the creation of the courses of Adult Education and Training (EFA) in 2000 and the implementation of a Competence Recognition, Validation and Certification (RVCC) system from 2001 onwards. The new EFA courses, designed for young people over 18 years old, involved a dual certification, both edu- cational and vocational; they had a Key-Competences’ Referential in Adult Education and Training as its central element; the starting point of the process implied the recognition and validation of the adults’ previously acquired competences; in addition, these courses had a modular structure, enabling individualized and differentiated learning paths. The RVCC leaded to the recognition, validation and certification of competences, which resulted from acquired experience throughout life in diverse contexts; each person’s experience was considered unique. This enabled the organization of a personal portfolio, and was viewed as a starting point for the definition of the additional required training; this certification ensured the social visibility of the training path. These options presupposed a more flexible approach of curricu- lum and implied breaking the traditional and rigid boundaries of the concept. As defined in the aforementioned Key-Competences’ Referential, the four areas of key competences regarding fundamental education were Language and Communication, Mathematics for Life, Information and Communication Technology and Citizenship and Employability, in addition to Vocational Training.
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INFORMATION SCIENCE – TRENDS FOR THE PRESENT AND FOR THE FUTURE

INFORMATION SCIENCE – TRENDS FOR THE PRESENT AND FOR THE FUTURE

Chua e Yang (2008) realizaram estudo bibliométrico de artigos coletados no Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology (JASIST) entre os anos de 1988 e 2007. Os artigos coletados foram classificados de acordo com a formação de seu autor principal: núcleo da CI – acesso e recuperação da informação, organização do conhecimento, comunicação científica, economia da informação e busca online –, gestão de sistemas de informação e tecnologia da informação. A pesquisa mostra como resultado um declínio de 13,6% dos pesquisadores originários do núcleo tradicional da CI, de 61,3% para 47,7%, ao mesmo tempo em que registra aumento considerável da presença dos pesquisadores de gestão, e principalmente daqueles ligados à tecnologia da Informação (os últimos aumentaram em 8,7%, de 16,1% para 24,8%). Guo e Sheffield (2008) analisaram artigos de cinco revistas de gestão, no período entre 2000 e 2004, encontrando artigos sobre gestão do conhecimento, com forte tendência de crescimento de estudos relacionados a TI.
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Rev. Bras. Hist.  vol.30 número59 en v30n59a13

Rev. Bras. Hist. vol.30 número59 en v30n59a13

Other structural problems arise out these three central concerns. The instability of information, as defined by Darnton (p.23), requires the possibility of exploring minimal variations in the world of ideas: various copies of the same title – something which can be left aside to allow the digital world be resumed in four shelves – can present revealing dissonances in lettered culture (p.29-31). A historian by profession, the new librarian distrusts the efficiency of the preservation system of digital: temporary materiality – or almost ‘immateriality’ – of books born in the digital format can be dissipated in the cybernetic space (p.37). Darnton also expands the warning by mentioning the fragility of the registration of communications in the contemporary world (p.53). Its tonic principally falls on the need to discuss public policies for the preservation of collections and the control of the channels for the dissemination of knowledge. This is the reason for which the responsibility of libraries increases in the digital era, not only to keep in mind the ideal of free access to sources of research, but also because they see themselves as responsible for preserving the past of the future. The assumption of all historians is well known: if the present does not leave traces for the future, it can never be the past.
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ACADEMICIAN GHEORGHE DUCA – THE SCIENTIST WHO LIVES THE PRESENT BY LEARNING FROM THE PAST AND INVESTING IN THE FUTURE

ACADEMICIAN GHEORGHE DUCA – THE SCIENTIST WHO LIVES THE PRESENT BY LEARNING FROM THE PAST AND INVESTING IN THE FUTURE

Scientifi c, teaching and managerial contribution of Acad. Gheorghe Duca was appreciated at home as well as abroad, being awarded many honorifi c titles, such as: Emeritus scientist (1996); State Prize in Science and Technology (1998, 2004); Medal “Dimitrie Cantemir” (2002); Order “Labour Glory” (2007); National Award GALEX (2011); Order of the Republic (2011); Award of The Romanian Academy (2012); Award for outstanding achievements in the fi eld of EIECO - Black Sea (2013); Medals “Henri Coanda” and Mihai Eminescu, Romania (1997, 2014); Knight of the Order for Inventions of the Kingdom of Belgium (2003); “The Cross of Commander of the Order of Honour”, Poland (2004); Gold Medal “for Eminent Services to the cause of progress”, Brussels (2005); Gold Medals “I.P. Pavlov”, “N.S. Kurnakov” and “B.I. Blinikov”, Russian Federation (2004, 2007, 2008); International Socrates Award, Oxford, UK (2009); Silver Medal of the Association of Innovators of China (2010); Gold Medal “EUROINVENT”, Brussels (2011); the Order “The crown of Romania” with the rank of Commander (2015).
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