To better distribute the blocks and decrease the potential migratory effects of insects, the spacing between the blocks was 34 m, with the blocks at each end of the area reserved for border planting. Fifty plants were used in each treatment to monitor the coffeeleafminer populations, of which 30 central plants were useful while the other 20 at both ends were considered as border plants. The spacing between the plots within each block was 7 m. The sprayers were driven and activated by a Valtra 685 tractor with a nominal power of 47.8 kW. The rotation speed of the power take-off was 540 rpm, measured using a digital photo/contact tachometer (MDT2238A, Minipa, São Paulo, Brazil).
ABSTRACT: The infestation ofcoffeeleafminer and its predation by wasps were assessed in commercial organic coffee plantings shaded with leucaena or intercropped with pigeon pea. Plantings in northern Paraná were assessed every two weeks from June 2011 to December 2012. The percent of infested leaves, number of mines per leaf and the percent of predation by wasps (indicated by lacerations) were determined. Fewer coffeeleaf miners and fewer mines per leaf were found in pigeon pea intercropped plantings (28.4% and 0.3, respectively) than in shaded plantings with leucaena (48.1% and 0.8, respectively). More predation by wasps was found in the shaded (27.2%) than in the intercropped (13.2%) plantings. Suggestions for new studies are presented along with suggestions for managing the leafminerincoffee plantings. Key words: Leucoptera coffeella; coffee pests; organic farming; biological control.
Figure 6 depicts the wetting area index increase for spray droplets of solutions with different surface ten- sions in relation to the wetting area of distilled water droplets, on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the aquatic weeds studied. The reduction inspray droplet sur- face tension due to the adjuvants Aterbane BR and Silwet L-77 mixed with glyphosate, had a positive influence by increasing wetting areas on the leaf surfaces of all stud- ied aquatic weed species. An increase inspray droplet spreading on the surfaces of aquatic weed leaves provided by adjuvant Aterbane BR mixed with glyphosate could be detected, in comparison to Aterbane BR individually, revealing a synergistic effect between the products (glyphosate + Aterbane BR), which was more evident for the species Typha subulata. However, adjuvant Silwet L- 77 mixed with glyphosate resulted in reduced spray drop- let spreading on the leaf surfaces of the other aquatic weed species, when compared with the individually-ap- plied Silwet L-77 treatment, providing evidence of an an- tagonistic effect between the products glyphosate + Silwet L-77. The antagonistic and synergistic effects between products glyphosate + Silwet L-77 and glyphosate + Aterbane BR, respectively, were also observed by
The importance of applying phytosanitary products to agricultural crops and the growing concern over safety and environmental responsibility have encouraged the development of new technologies aimed at reducing risks. There is a tendency to reduce the application volume, both to increase the operational capacity of application machines and to reduce water consumption (CHAIM, 2012). Lower application rates may increase product coverage and efficiency, increase the operational capacity of sprayers, and decrease production costs (TAVARES et al., 2017). Application technology is based on the correct application of the active ingredient in the target, in an economical way, affecting the environment as little as possible, in order to maximize efficiency. Studies related to spray equipment associatedwithspray volumes (MIRANDA et al., 2012), the potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying (OLIVEIRA et al., 2013) and the reduction in the spray volumes incoffee (SILVA et al., 2014; DECARO JUNIOR et al., 2015, GITIRANA NETO et al., 2016; SOUSA JÚNIOR et al., 2017), have been developed with promising results. The deposition and losses of applied products are influenced by the morphological characteristics of plants and leaves, such as hairiness, cuticular surface, shape and roughness, as well as plant architecture (SANTINATO et al., 2017). The use of adjuvants can reduce the negative influence of the medium, from the preparation of the nozzle to the contact with the target, breaking physical and chemical barriers and facilitating the penetration of the insecticide.
Brazil, where pesticides and ASA are frequently used, coffee is of great importance. Pesticides on coffee plants are frequently applied using a higher spray volume specifically to control insects such as mealybugs and mites that are inside bark crevices (Dorr et al., 2014; Dorr et al., 2016; Santinato et al., 2017). To reach these pests, many coffee producers increase the spray volume to provide better penetration and deposition inside the coffee canopy, which may lead to excessive losses by run-off (Decaro Junior et al., 2014; Decaro Junior et al., 2015). In addition to the higher spray volume application, a tank mix adjuvant that reduces the SST of the spray solution can negatively influence the amount of deposits retained on the leavesof the coffee plants (Silva et al., 2008).
Leafminer is a key coffee crop pest in Central and South America countries, especially in Brazil, where the insect causes considerable production losses. In the management of this insect pest, insecticide applications at reduced rates are fundamental for improve the operational capacity of the sprayer and the rational use of water. Thus, the aim of this study was to select a application rate that ensures effectivenessof cyantraniliprole, cartape hydrochloride and beta-cypermethrin insecticides in the leafminercontrol, good spraying quality with varying application rates and low impact on natural parasitism. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of spraying with the Brilliant Blue marker were evaluated at the following rates: 28.1, 60.5, 80.2 and 180.0 L ha -1 and
ABSTRACT: Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffeeleafminer, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Coffeeleaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.
Egg-laying capacity – Among the various factors that can influence the egg-laying capacity of the females, food is especially important. In the field, adult coffeeleaf miners feed on honeydew, a sugary solution excreted by aphids that suck sap from the plants (Speer, 1949; Crowe, 1964). Under laboratory conditions, Nantes and Parra (1978) tested various sugars and found that a 10 % sucrose solution was the most effective in increasing the number and viability of the eggs. The effects of temperature on the egg-laying capacity of the females are also important, especially when associatedwith food. According to Parra (1985), females fed with 10 % sucrose solution in an insectary maintained at 27ºC laid 2.1 times more eggs than those that were not fed. At higher temperatures (30ºC), the inverse occurred, probably due to crystallization of the sucrose, making it unavailable. The number of eggs per female is quite variable; on average, females place 75 eggs in 13.4 days on the leavesof susceptible coffee plants (Notley, 1948), with the largest number of eggs laid on day four.
For the evaluation ofspraydeposition, we used the Brilliant Blue tracer internationally catalogued by the Food, Drug & Cosmetics as FD&C Blue n.1, at a concentration of 600 mg L -1 giving a dose of 300 g ha -1 to all treatments to be detected by absorbance spectrophotometry. We measured the depositioninleavesof the upper, middle and lower canopy and the spray runoff to the ground. We removed the leaves from plagiotropic branches that were more internal and near to the coffee tree trunk in two lines per plot, in approximate heights of 0.2, 1.3 and 2.0 m above the ground, being placed in plastic bags inside thermal boxes. In each repetition, we collected 10 leaves. With the tracer application, cartap hydrochloride (1.0 kg b.w. ha -1 ) and fenpropathrin (0.4 L b.w. ha -1 ) insecticides were also applied, beside the adhesive spreader dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (0.5 v/v). This is a usual combination of products used in the test region for the controlofleafminer after performing mechanical harvesting.
Directed searches were conducted in the Coffee EST Genome Database to identify SSR sequences, using both BLAST (Altschul et al., 1997) and Tandem Repeats Finder version 3.01 (Benson, 1999) software. Candidate EST-SSR were analyzed, and primers were selected using the Prime3 software (Rozen & Skaletsky, 1996). Sequences of evaluated primers could not be displayed due to a confidentiality agreement signed by Embrapa, IAC and Fapesp. A total of 315 EST-SSR were previously identified, and 32 were selected for this study. Criteria for EST-SSR choice consisted of expression in libraries from leaves and or suspension cells, treated with some type of stress agent, such as inoculation withleafminer and leaf rust, abiotic stress, and also treated with nonspecific defense inductors. This approach aimed at identifying of SSR loci potentially associatedwith genes involved in defense mechanisms.
The T. urticae control experiment was conducted at the same greenhouse where spraydeposition experi- ments in two different chrysanthemum life cycles had been conducted, experiments A (Mar 2012) and B (May 2012). The experimental design was a completely ran- domized block design with five treatments and four replications. Each replicate was represented by a leaf; leaves were separately evaluated in the middle and up- per thirds of ten random plants in each plot (leavesof bottom thirds were not evaluated due to the low mite population). The treatments were composed of the same four application equipment system used in the spray de- position experiment plus an additional treatment con- trol - T5 (no pesticide sprayed). In the T. urticae control experiment, the techniques were used to apply the pes- ticide chlorfenapyr to control spider mite. Chlorfenapyr is a halogenated pyrrole that disrupts mitochondrial oxidaditive phosphorylation, resulting in disruption of adenosine triphosphate production and losses of energy, leading to cell dysfunction and subsequent elimination of the organism (Raghavendra et al., 2011).
8) presented susceptibility (Table 1). However, these three differentials presented susceptibility to some existing races in the world. This could indicate the absence of physiological races such as XXIX (v5, 6, 7, 8, 9), XXXI (v2, 5, 6, 9), XXXVII (v2, 5, 6, 7, 9) and XXXIX (v2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). The CIFC’s coffees number 832/1 and 832/2 showed resistance reaction, both with score 1.
with the plant become necessary. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the electrostatic spraying on coffee as to the deposition effi ciency and distribution uniformity ofspray. We used an electrostatic sprayer, manufactured by Electrostatic Spraying Systems Co., model ESS MBP 4.0. The experiment was set on split plot design, (2x3x6), with two spraying systems (electrostatic system on and off), three parts of the plant (top, medium and bottom) and six positions ofleaves collection, with four replications. As for the distribution uniformity ofspray, it was observed there was more variability in the deposition when the electrostatic system remained on, with higher depositionin the outer canopy. The coeffi cients of variation for the electrostatic system on and off were 40.3 and 33.08%, respectively. The electrostatic spraying system was effective incoffee plants and increased spraydepositionof 37% compared to when the electrostatic system was off.
The beneficial effect of phosphorus in plant development depends on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant, besides the suitable dose of this nutrient (PRADO, 2008). Normally in the production ofcoffee plants a simple organic compound, traditionally cattle manure, is used as a nitrogen source (CUNHA et al., 2006), so the quantities of N supplied may not be sufficient for a good response by the coffee, especially when using higher doses of phosphorus, since the beneficial effects of N in increasing the efficiency of fertilization are known (PRADO, 2008). In this sense, using 56 to 60 mg N dm -3 of the
The significant increase in the embryogenic calli formation was only noticed at the highest concentrations of both growth regulators (20.0µM), showing a synergistic effect when the higher 2-iP and 2.4-D doses were used. In a similar way, MACIEL et al. (2003) and PEREIRA et al. (2007) found that combined action between kinetin and auxin stimulates the somatic embryos induction. On the other hand when HATANAKA et al. (1991) studied the effect of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis inleaf cultures of C. canephora, all of the auxins tested (NAA, IBA, IAA and 2.4-D) inhibited the formation of embryos. Yet the maximum number of somatic embryos was obtained on media that contained only cytokinin as a plant growth regulator. 2-iP in a 5µM concentration was found to be more effective.
The endophytic association of bacteria of the genera Clavibacter and Klebsiella with some agro- nomic crops, such as corn, grapevine, rice, cotton, and some crucifers was reported by Lodewyckx et al. (2002). However, reports on the application of species of the above-mentioned genera dealing withcontrolof pathogens are scarce in the literature. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a phytopathogenic species (Agrios, 1997), while K. pneumoniae can be found in hospitals causing infections in humans (Martins- Loureiro et al., 2001). These characteristics can cre- ate barriers to the application of these bacteria in bio- assays seeking plant disease biocontrol agents. No re- ports were found in biological control on the applica- tion of the other tested endophytes.
volume (TRV) with four replicates. We conducted the evaluation ofleaf density prior to the application of treatments in three development stages (filling, maturation and post-harvest fruit). We analyzed the spraydeposition (SD), density of the droplets (DD), the volumetric median diameter (VMD) of the droplets and relative amplitude (SPAN) of droplet spectrum. The applied spray volumes were converted to volumetric index (VI). There was no interaction between TRV and water volume (p> 0.05) for the variables SD and DD answers. In the evaluation performed during the maturation stage, leaf density was 29% higher at the time of post-harvest and the maximum SD obtained was 0.74 cm 2 uL. The VMD medium obtained was 217 m and the span 1,1. The adjustment of the curve DD according VI allowed to estimate a reduction of up to 47% of the spray volume applied. It was concluded that the VI set according to the changes inleaf density reduces the spray volume applied to coffee plantations. Index terms: Sprayer calibration, Tree-Row-Volume, Coffea arabica
ABSTRACT - The effects of increasing plant diversity on the population of the coffeeleaf-miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) were investigated in two organic coffee production systems. One system consisted ofcoffee intercropped with banana trees (shaded system) and the other one ofcoffee intercropped with pigeon pea (unshaded system). The increase in plant diversity on both systems was achieved via introduction of green manures such a perennial pea nut, sunn hemp and Brazilian lucerne. The population of L. coffeella, predation and parasitism of L. coffeella mines were biweekly evaluated during eight months. The increase in plant diversity on both systems did not affect the attack of L. coffeella on coffeeleaves and the mine parasitism rate. However, there was a positive and signiﬁ cant relationship between increasing plant diversity and coffeeleaf mine predation by wasps on unshaded coffee system and a negative relationship on shaded coffee system.
The plants of C. benghalensis present better vegetative development in areas with high humidity and temperatures (Kissmann & Groth, 1999; Lorenzi, 2008), in addition to soils with a higher percentage of organic matter, these characteristics favor the perennially of the species (Voll et al., 2002; Kissmann & Groth, 1999), providing the propagation of plants incoffee plantations. This process is favored by the biology of the plants of the genus Commelinaceae spp., because pieces of branches left in the soil resist adverse conditions for a long period, such as: water stress, low intensity luminosity and when these limiting conditions are overcome, budding occurs (Ronchi & Silva, 2003; Ronchi et al., 2014; Oliveira et al., 2009).
ABSTRACT: Pesticides are often applied under incorrect conditions such as inappropriate nozzles types and high spray volumes. Such errors result inspray drift and run off, causing inefficiency on the controlof pests and diseases, beyond environmental contamination. Here we evaluate the influence ofspray volumes, nozzle types and adjuvants on the controlof phoma and coffee rust. The objective in this work was to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the volume of syrup in the absence and presence of adjuvant, using three spray nozzle types, analyzing the uniformity of the spray distribution to thirds of the plant and its penetration and effectivenessof phytosanitary products. The treatments were t arranged in a factorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1, outlined in a randomized block design with three replications in a split plot. Treatments were three-pointed on type empty cone (ATR Amarela; JA Preto e Disc-Core AD2AC23), two spray volumes (300 and 500 L ha -1 ), on absence and presence of