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Integrated Secure Architecture for Live Virtual Machine (VM) Migration in Cloud – A Survey

Integrated Secure Architecture for Live Virtual Machine (VM) Migration in Cloud – A Survey

In IaaS model, CSP allocates resources to consumers using VM which is a core component of Cloud computing. Therefore, it is important to consider the security of VM in Cloud domain. Virtualization provides various benefits in Cloud but it also raises security risks that can affect the Cloud environment. The major virtualization specific vulnerabilities and threats that must be considered in Cloud include (i) VM poaching (ii) the VM jumping (iii) and unsecured live VM migration. In VM poaching attack, migration. In VM poaching attack, guest operating system (OS) takes up more CPU, memory or any other computing resources allocated to it against the other guest OS running in the same hypervisor. VM jumping attack, exploits the vulnerabilities of Hypervisors that allows malicious code to bypass VM protections and gain control to any other VM. Live VM migration tool used to transfer VM from one physical server to another with minimum downtime whereas offline or suspended VM migration increases the downtime. It provides work load balancing, hardware/system maintenance, high availability services, transparent mobility and consolidated management. The unsecured live VM migration potentially opens up the security risks and exposure for not only the migrated VM but also for the other guests OSes running on that Physical Server [3, 4, 5].
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A NOVEL APPROACH TO GENERATE TEST CASES FOR COMPOSITION & SELECTION OF WEB 
SERVICES BASED ON MUTATION TESTING

A NOVEL APPROACH TO GENERATE TEST CASES FOR COMPOSITION & SELECTION OF WEB SERVICES BASED ON MUTATION TESTING

presented a new framework. The author discuss of using scheduling techniques related to power- aware for resource management enables live migration, and a minimal virtual machine design, by this the new framework which author describe will provide overall system efficiency will be vastly improved in a data centre based Cloud with minimal performance overhead. Author also explain the rising of computing use and concern of energy saving. For their framework, they demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, the authors presented new energy efficient scheduling, VM system image, and image management components that explore new ways to conserve power. Author also describe that Future opportunities could explore a scheduling system that is both power-aware and thermal-aware to maximize energy savings both from physical servers and the cooling systems used. Such a scheduler would also drive the need for better data centre designs, both in server placements within racks and closed-loop cooling systems integrated into each rack. While a number of the Cloud techniques are discussed in this paper, there is a growing need for improvements in Cloud infrastructure, both in the academic and commercial sectors. It is believed that Green computing will be one of the fundamental components of the next generation of Cloud computing technologies [13].
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Secure Live VM Migration model for Virtualized Cloud environment

Secure Live VM Migration model for Virtualized Cloud environment

emerging technology in the IT industry today. Most of the IT business process demanding on the virtual infrastructure as a service from the cloud service providers including compute, network and storage etc., The dynamic adoption of computing resource and elimination of major investment cost to setup the physical infrastructure attracted the IT industry towards cloud infrastructure. Live VM Migration techniques allows more frequently move the virtual machines from one physical location to another to avoid the situations like load balancing, Fault tolerance, edge computing, virtual migration etc., The major challenge which found on this process security issues on the VM live migration. The proposed model trying to eliminate the security challenges in the pre-copy migration strategy by introducing the network addressing level hashing technique to avoid the critical part of migration process. The dirty VM memory pages are released to the destination server only after the authenticated network process.
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A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

Virtualization techniques effectively handle the growing demand for computing, storage, and communication resources in large-scale Cloud Data Centers (CDC). It helps to achieve different resource management objectives like load balancing, online system maintenance, proactive fault tolerance, power management, and resource sharing through Virtual Machine (VM) migration. VM migration is a resource-intensive procedure as VM’s continuously demand appropriate CPU cycles, cache memory, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Therefore, this process degrades the performance of running applications and adversely affects efficiency of the data centers, particularly when Service Level Agreements (SLA) and critical business objectives are to be met. Live VM migration is frequently used because it allows the availability of application service, while migration is performed. In this paper, we make an exhaustive survey of the literature on live VM migration and analyze the various proposed mechanisms. We first classify the types of Live VM migration (single, multiple and hybrid). Next, we categorize VM migration techniques based on duplication mechanisms (replication, de-duplication, redundancy, and compression) and awareness of context (dependency, soft page, dirty page, and page fault) and evaluate the various Live VM migration techniques. We discuss various performance metrics like application service downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred. CPU, memory and storage data is transferred during the process of VM migration and we identify the category of data that needs to be transferred in each case. We present a brief discussion on security threats in live VM migration and categories them in three different classes (control plane, data plane, and migration module). We also explain the security requirements and existing solutions to mitigate possible attacks. Specific gaps are identified and the research challenges in improving the performance of live VM migration are highlighted. The significance of this work is that it presents the background of live VM migration techniques and an in depth review which will be helpful for cloud professionals and researchers to further explore the challenges and provide optimal solutions.
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An Automated VM Security Framework for Live Migration

An Automated VM Security Framework for Live Migration

The growth in cloud computing motivated the application development and hosting practitioners to use virtualization and virtual machine migration for load balancing. The migration of the virtual machine is a crucial task as the application and data will be migrated over the network and the traditional methods recommend that the VM data to be migrated as plain text. Thus, making the data vulnerable to tamper. The effects of tampering the VM data is elaborated in this work and in the works by other research attempts. The primary challenge of securing the VM data is to increase the load balancing time, resulting into deviation in Service Level Agreements or SLA. Thus, this work proposes an adaptive segmentation and encryption method to secure the VM data with least time and least violation of the SLA. The framework results into a remarkable average of 0.30% increase in the time, which is nearly negligible in any SLA. The contribution from the work will significantly improve the criticism of cloud computing load balancing by providing a higher security and making the cloud computing domain a protected practice.
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Survey on Secure Live VM Migration in Cloud Computing by maintaining Integrity and Confidentiality

Survey on Secure Live VM Migration in Cloud Computing by maintaining Integrity and Confidentiality

Technologies like cluster, grid, and cloud computing have aimed at allowing access to large amounts of computing power in a full virtualized manner, by aggregating resources and offering a single system view. Cloud computing has been considered as term to describe a category of sophisticated on-demand computing services initially offered by commercial providers Amazon, Google, and Microsoft. It denotes a model on which a computing infrastructure is viewed as a “cloud,” from which businesses and personal access applications from anywhere in the world on demand. The main principle of this model offers computing, storage, and software “as a service. [7]”
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Title: Live Migration using VM/TPM Protocol of Virtual Machine on Private Cloud

Title: Live Migration using VM/TPM Protocol of Virtual Machine on Private Cloud

Phase 2 Secure data transfer. The source forward request to migration message to destination. Next the destination creates an empty vTPM instance for the purpose of migrating state and responses request. The source then locks the VM and vTPM and transfer the state data of vTPM securely .Then after destination check the integrity of the received vTPM state packages. if no violation are detected, on the target the vTPM decrypts the state packages and activation and sends an acknowledgement to the source on success. Finally, the source deletes the migrated vTPM to prevent duplication.
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A Survey on Techniques of Secure Live Migration of Virtual Machine

A Survey on Techniques of Secure Live Migration of Virtual Machine

The NSE-H based approach enables the traditional security approaches like firewall, IDS, IPS present inside NSEs to work in context of live migration. It transfers the security context along with migration data so that the VM can be restored at the destination. The policy based approach establishes trust through attestation process, defines role based migration policies. Thus it ensures only authorized user can perform migration operations. The vTPM based approach provides confidentiality; authentication and trust establishment. The vTPM based approach is applicable only to suspend and transfer approach of migration and not to live migration.
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Survey Study of Virtual Machine Migration Techniques in Cloud Computing

Survey Study of Virtual Machine Migration Techniques in Cloud Computing

C. Clark et al proposed a live VM migration mechanism named pre-copy migration, which first transfers the memory state and then the CPU state.[8] There are two phases in Pre- copy approach [9][10] namely the Warm-up phase and Stop- and-Copy phase. In the Warm-up phase, the hypervisor copies all the memory pages from source to destination, while the VM is still running on the source. If some memory pages are altered through the memory copy process dirty pages will be created, and it will be recopied. In the Stop-and-Copy phase, the VM will be stopped at source, the remaining dirty pages will be copied to the destination, and VM resumed in the destination. Live migration in an iterative pre-copy technique that is used in Xen and VMware and involves six phases [11] described as follows
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A Versioning Approach to VM Live Migration

A Versioning Approach to VM Live Migration

One of the proposed methods is "Pure demand- migration", which was presented many years ago by Zayas [11]. In his method, important memory pages that are related to the process' data structures are transferred to the destination host machine within a short "stop and copy" stage. After that, the destination machine starts and transfers the pages that are not transferred as soon as first request access to them through the network (pulling). Although this method leads to a shorter "suspension time", but "total migration time" takes much longer. Another critique of this method is its weak performance. The target machine's performance won't reach to the desired level until a high percentage of all memory pages are transferred from the source machine to the destination due to "page fault" requests on the destination machine. Because, for each unsuccessful memory page access request (page fault), one memory page transferring should take place on the network that results in a reduction in overall performance. Of course, Zayas's research focused on the issue of "process
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Security Architecture of Cloud Computing

Security Architecture of Cloud Computing

Attacks on Browser-based Cloud Authentication are one of the security problem with browser-based protocols in Cloud Computing and it is not capable to generate cryptographically valid XML tokens. So, it can possible with a trusted third party. Login is not possible at a server due to the fewer credentials in browser, So HTTP forward it to the Passport login server. After entering username and password from user, then the Passport server convert this authentication into a Kerberos token, it can redirected to the requesting server from other HTTP redirect. Kerberos tokens are not clear to the browser is the security problem with Passport, and it protected by the SOP. But any attacker can access those tokens then he accesses all services of the victim. Secure Browser-based Authentication is the situation is not suggested, but we can perform for better results by combined SOP and TLS for secure FIM protocols. In Cloud Computing by using TLS Browser Enhancements are very limited in an authentication center. It is not possible for XML Signature, the browser can be added many Web Service functionalities by simply loading an appropriate JavaScript library during runtime. So, the browser security API can be adding the enhancements XML Encryption and XML Signature.
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Geography Aware Virtual Machine Migrations and Replications for Distributed Cloud Data Centers

Geography Aware Virtual Machine Migrations and Replications for Distributed Cloud Data Centers

The Classifier module collects information on the flows and the origin 3 and the destination 4 IP of each flow from the boundary router of the data center through the SDN controller. It maintains a separate list containing the origin, load and region of each flow for every VM in the data center in order to classify each flow into a region. To identify the region by source/destination IP of the flow, a pre-existing geographical vicinity list of countries and corresponding regions that states the rule for classification in a predefined manner based on geographical vicinity is maintained. In such a list, a matching rule is provided of IP addresses for region classification and thus region is determined locally avoiding the network overhead. Assume that, the cloud service provider has three data centers in Canada, India and Australia. This implies three regions. Flows originating from any country will by classified into the region which is geographically nearest to the origin using the pre-existing geographical vicinity list.
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Resource Utilization Prediction Model for Efficient Dynamic Virtual Machine Consolidation in Cloud

Resource Utilization Prediction Model for Efficient Dynamic Virtual Machine Consolidation in Cloud

Cloud computing is a computing paradigm that comes with benefits such as low maintenance of infrastructure, up-front costs and ease of scaling for the users. However, it also comes with issues such as resource utilization, energy consumption, VM migration and service level agreement (SLA) violations among others. VM consolidation (VMC) has been utilized to address these issues. However, most literatures, utilizing threshold-based VMC strategy are mainly focused on single resource (CPU) utilization. Furthermore, most literatures considered only the current resource requirements of destination host and neglected the future utilization during the VM allocation stage. As a result, they generate needless VM migrations (which can lead to more energy consumption in the data center) and increase the rate of SLA violations in data centers. This study proposed a new method that utilized CPU and memory as well as the future utilization of these resources on the hosts during the VM placement. The proposed method utilized prediction model based on two regression-based prediction models: Linear Regression (LR) and K-Nearest Neighbor Regression (K-NNR). This proposed method helped in detecting both the current and future resource utilization on the hosts before placing VMs unto them. Experiments were carried out; the proposed method produced better results in terms of number of VM migrations and SLA violations compared with the existing method without future prediction consideration. Although, reducing number of VM migrations would lead to reduction in energy consumption in the data center, there is still need to measure energy consumption in terms of idle hosts and other factors.
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Comparison of SLA based Energy Efficient Dynamic Virtual Machine Consolidation Algorithms

Comparison of SLA based Energy Efficient Dynamic Virtual Machine Consolidation Algorithms

Cloud computing emerged as need for rapidly increasing computational power thus results in greater power consumption, increased operational costs and high carbon footprints to environment. A key issue for Cloud Providers is to maximize their profits by minimizing power consumption along with SLA considerations of hosted applications. Dynamic Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation is promising approach for reducing energy consumption by dynamically adjusting the number of active machines to match resource demands but it is one of the most important challenges in the cloud based distributed systems. In this work, the researchers tried to investigate “SLA and Energy-Efficient Dynamic Virtual Machine (VM) Consolidation” that meets Quality of Service expectations and Service Level Agreements (SLA) requirements. The analysis of VM consolidation algorithms based on various heuristics on legitimate host is presented as key contribution of this work. We also present a comparative analysis and results by conducting a performance evaluation study of various existing energy efficient VM consolidation techniques using real world workload traces from more than a thousand VMs using CloudSim toolkit. This paper is aimed at helping cloud providers analyze several power characteristics of their own technologies as well as pre-existing IT resources to identify their favorability in the migration to the new energy efficient cloud architectures. The results also helps in analyzing the existing frameworks and offers substantial energy savings while effectively dealing with firm QoS requirements negotiated by SLA.
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Data Fragmentation and Replica Allocation with Optimal Performance and Security in Cloud Mechanism

Data Fragmentation and Replica Allocation with Optimal Performance and Security in Cloud Mechanism

The off-site data stockpiling cloud utility obliges customers to move data in cloud's virtualized and shared environment that may realize distinctive security concerns. Pooling and flexibility of a cloud, allows the physical advantages for be shared among various customers. Furthermore, the shared resources may be reassigned to various customers at some event of time that may achieve data deal through data recovery strategies. Moreover, a multi-tenant virtualized environment may achieve a VM to make tracks in an opposite direction from the cutoff points of virtual machine screen (VMM). The escaped VM can intrude with various VMs to have passage to unapproved data. Similarly, cross-tenant virtualized framework access may in like manner deal data security and dependability. Uncalled for media sanitization can in like manner discharge customer's private data.
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Container Live Migration using Docker Checkpoint and Restore

Container Live Migration using Docker Checkpoint and Restore

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract – The container-based virtualization makes it easy to host application containers these containers run within the same kernel with isolated resources. This isolation makes container independent of the underlying hardware and operating system which allows the container to move freely between host machines, the movement of the container from one machine to another is known as migration. The increased use of the container has demand scalability and flexibility of the application container and also on demand service with lesser downtime. The application containers are basically an isolated process, these process state can be saved and restored to the same machine or to another machine. In this paper, we presented the experimental setup for containerizing the RYU SDN Controller and Mininet (SDN network emulator) and perform Live Migration using these containers. Docker is used to containerizing the application into application container and CRIU project is used to create the checkpoint for the container state and restore the container to the same host or to the different host machine.
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Virtual Machine (VM) For Hadoop Training

Virtual Machine (VM) For Hadoop Training

More info: http://www.coreservlets.com/hadoop-tutorial/ – Hadoop programming tutorial http://courses.coreservlets.com/hadoop-training.html – Customized Hadoop training courses, at public[r]

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A Distributed API for Live VM Migration in Cloudlets

A Distributed API for Live VM Migration in Cloudlets

The mobile devices have improved its computation power, storage, and battery lifetime but they still lack when running resource-intensive applications. Cloud-based applications are becoming popular and making such applications performance independent of mobile devices computation capacity. VM migration is a critical technology in order to protect the VM from hardware failure, for load balancing, to avoid hotspot failure [12]. It allows us to transfer the entire virtual environment to another server without affecting the applications running inside the VM. There are three approaches to migration; Hot, Cold and Live [6]. During cold migration, the guest OS is shut down before migration. Hot migration allows us to suspend the OS which will be resumed after the migration is complete whereas live migration migrates the VM while the OS is still running with a small downtime.
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Fault Tolerance in Live VM Migration   A Review

Fault Tolerance in Live VM Migration A Review

The performance of existing algorithm is comprehensively described in this work. The comparison between techniques suggests need for state of the art algorithm for enhancing VM migration along with fault tolerance capabilities which is yet deprived. The adaptive scaling and memory exploration techniques are considered to be optimal in their class with reduced complexity but without cost parameter associated with them. The migration time and downtime in these strategies are also not optimal.

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Efficient Resource Management for Cloud Computing Environments

Efficient Resource Management for Cloud Computing Environments

Introduction Motivation Related Work Green Cloud Framework VM Scheduling & Management Minimal Virtual Machine Images Conclusion & Future Work... What is Cloud Computing?[r]

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