control using chemical insecticides had been from many years a critical activity for environmental protection. For sustainable agriculture purposes the largest agricultural use of insecticides became undesirable and dramatically dangerous for entire wildlife and of course, human health. Considering unanimously out of question the toxicity of pОsЭТМТНО ЮsО “soПЭОr” МКЭОРorв oП somО substances with potential insecticide effect would be desirable from an environmental standpoint. From theoretical point of view there are some terms which are trying to define such active substances against a large spectrum of agricultural pests . In terms of chemical composition of these substances are secondary plant metabolism compounds such as: terpenoidele (mono-, sesqui-, di-), poliacetilene, alkaloids, flavonoids and polysaccharides . From the multitude of attempts to name andto define of the natural products we select the two terms which are constantly found in the world scientific literature but used without been a unanimously accepted definition. In Europe more often is speaking about the botanical insecticides or botanicals which are according to Science Dictionary  an insecticide made from a substance extracted fromplants, e.g. pyrethrum, derived from chrysanthemums, or nicotine, derived from tobacco plants. In USA pest control materials that are relatively non-toxic with few ecological side-effects are sometimes called ‘ЛТo-rational' pesticides, although there is no official definition of this term. Often their effects are not as long lasting as those of synthetic pesticides and some of these products may be very difficult to find. Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health . The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivates to arthropods pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new
antibacterial activity are a potentially beneficial alternative in aquaculture 18 . Since ancient times, medicinalplants have been used for the treatment of common infectious diseases 19 . Medicinalplants as the alternative agents are effective to treat the infectious diseases and mitigate many of side effects that are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents in this field 20 . The use of alcoholic extracts of herbs may be suggested for the natural administration of antibiotics effective in fish disease control. The ability of some herbs and seaweeds to inhibit activity of bacteria having potential interest as fish pathogens has been documented 21 . Some of the local herbs and desert plants were reported to inhibit the pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture and referred to limited number of plant species 4 . Medicinalplants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids, which have antimicrobial properties. Many of the spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects andmedicinal powers in addition to their flavour and fragrance qualities. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used to pathogenic bacteria. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In the recent years, herbs and herbal products plays significant role in fish culture. The usage of heavy antibiotic in aquaculture field needs to be reduced and replaced with alternative process for treating fish diseases 22 . The medicinalplants may be used as potential and promising drugs against fish pathogens in the organic aquaculture 3-4 .
While it is obvious that numerous medicinalandaromaticplants can be used for improving beer func- tional and sensorial properties, the results are not always satisfactory. The solution can be found in combining different medicinalandaromaticplants. Such possibilities are numerous. The most important thing is to choose the optimal composition of plants so that maximal functional properties could be in bal- ance with pleasant sensorial properties. In this way, new types of beer can be produced as the products, which can fulfill two targets: beverages with improved functional properties, especially interesting in the Table 6. Sensory evaluation of analyzed beer types; different letters in same column denote a significant difference according Wilcoxon matched pair test, p < 0.05; 1 = dislike extremely; 9 = like extremely
The emergence of resistant strains to conventional antimicrobial drugs has been constant as well as research aimed new alternatives of antibacterial agents. Therefore, considering that natural products have been an important potential source of new antimicrobial drugs, aim to verify the synergism by disk and time kill curve method between antimicrobials (extracts-Ext. and essential oils-EO) from four plant and eight antimicrobial drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains from human specimens. The S. aures strains were highly susceptible with all plant antimicrobials (eg., 1.24 mg/ml with Vernonia polyanthes Ext. and 2.21 mg/ml with Eugenia uniflora EO for the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC). According disk method, the Bacharis dracunculifolia and V. polyanthes EO had synergism with all eight tested drugs while only Matricaria chamomilla Ext. showed synergism against S. aureus. The synergism was found with V. polyanthes and E. uniflora Ext. while M. chamomilla Ext. had antagonism against E. coli strains. By time kill curve, the bacterial growth inhibition was superior when drugs were tested alone and the synergism effect also was verified. The antagonism effect was detected only for E. coli strains and only with Ext. Results indicated the potential use of these products as coadjutants during treatment of infectious diseases.
In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL), followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC<64 µg/ mL). Other potent extracts (inhibition > 95%, 50 µg/mL) include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana), and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2- one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes), both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL). Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs. Key words: Tuberculosis, medicinalplants, natural products, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
he main aim of this paper was to study in analysis conditions that simulate, as much as possible, a real antiox- idant activity of some Brazilian medicinal species on ROS induced in neutrophils exposure to H. pylori in order to give a contribution to the pharmacological validation for their useto treat ulcers and gastritis. he antioxidant capacity of MeOH extracts on the neutrophil oxidative burst was evaluated through chemiluminescence assay using luminol as probe. he chemiluminescence method is a direct method of radical investigation, though the advantage of the method consists in the fact that chemiluminescence intensity is directly proportional to a steady-state concentration of the radicals responsible for luminescence irrespective of the activity of these radicals . It is enable to measure the level of free radicals and estimate antioxidant protection parameters and antioxidant action. Luminol tracks the pro- duction of reactive oxygen species formed in the intra- and extracellular environment, such as HOCl, H 2 O 2 , and O 2 − . From the results showed in Table 1, the extracts inhibited the respiratory burst of neutrophils induced by H. pylori in concentration-dependent manner.
Diospyros mespiliformis (Hochst. ex A. DC) (Ebenaceae) is confined to tropical and sub tropical regions notably in central Africa [1, 2]. Several ethnopharmacological applications have been reported for Diospyros mespiliformis (Hochst. ex A. DC), which include the use of leaf decoction as extraordinary remedy for fever, whooping cough and for wounds [1, 3]. Barks and roots are used for serious infections such as malaria, pneumonia, syphilis, leprosy, and dermatomycoses, as an
Medicinalplants are used by a large part of the population, but the effects of these substances on the body are unknown. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous plant extractsfrom cerrado plants for medicinaluse, through a bioassay with Artemia salina Leach. Aqueous extracts of bark from the following cerrado plants were used: Anadenanthera colubrina, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Hymenaea stilbocarpa and Copaifera langsdorffii, at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250, 120, 60 and 30 μg / mL, carried out in three replicates. The mortality rate of the nauplii and the LC50 of the plant extracts were determined through the PROBIT analysis. The extract of aroeira was the most toxic among the tested ones and presented classification of moderate toxicity, followed by of angico, classified as of low toxicity. The extracts of jatobá and copaíba were classified as nontoxic. Studies on the toxicity of extracts should be performed to ensure the well being of the population that makes use of these natural medicines.
The quality of some medicinalplantsand their water extractsfrom southeast Serbia was determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. Two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts in order to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in the samples. The contents of investigated metals in both water extracts were markedly lower than in medicinalplants, but were higher in the water extract prepared by method (I), with the exception of lead. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material varied in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates the need for plantsto be collected and grown in unpolluted areas, andto examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinalplantsand their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe touse.
Although approximately 20% of the world plants have been submitted to pharmacological or biological test, it could be concluded that natural products from plant origin are an important source to discover new leads with economical and pharmaceutical importance and great possibilitiesto be developed as drugs, dyes, fragrances and pesticides, among others (7). To obtain novel and promissory substances many plant extracts have to be assayed. For example, Suffredini et al. (26) assayed 705 plant extractsand found only three extracts with strong antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the screening of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents is necessary to go insight into medicinal flora and get the molecules responsible for this activity and add value tonatural resources from tropical areas (21).
Further acquaintance with different ethnic groups has contributed to the development of research on natural products, to the increase in knowledge about the close relationship between the chemical structure of a certain compound and its biological properties, andto the understanding of the animal/ insect-plant interrelation (8). For these reasons, medicinalplants are important substances for the study of their traditional uses through the verification of pharmacological effects and can be natural composite sources that act as new anti-infectious agents. The present study aimed at evaluating the in vitro antimicrobial activity of plant (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Mikania glomerata and Psidium guajava) extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from human infections.
The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important organs of the human body and is vulnerable to different diseases. Available drugs often have low efficacy or are associated with many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative drugs are necessary to treat gastrointestinal complications. This study intended to identify medicinalplants in Urmia, Iran, that can affect common gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Data was collected from public resources via interviews and questionnaires applied from April to June 2013. Herbarium specimens were collected from the region and authenticated by a botanist. A total of 41 indigenous medicinalplantsfrom the Urmia region, belonging to twenty families, have a traditional medicinal role in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases, diarrhea, reflux, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, constipation, bloating, among other gastrointestinal tract disorders. Analysis showed that most plants affecting the gastrointestinal tract belonged in the Asteraceae family (24%). The most used part of the plants was the seed at 17%. Decoction at 65% was the most popular form of treatment used. Some of the medicinalplants discussed in this article have new implications presented for the first time. Pharmacological studies on the therapeutic effects of the indigenous plants mentioned in this study are necessary in order to investigate their claimed clinical effects and the use of their effective compounds to produce naturaland useful drugs. Currently, there is no data on the herbal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in northwestern Iran. Therefore, these findings are important for the management of gastrointestinal disorders andto conduct future studies on traditional medicine for drug development.
The essential oil was analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) fitted to a mass spectrometer (MS) (GC-MS-Schimadzu QP-5050A) instrument equipped with a GC Schimadzu 17A. Fused silica capillary column was 30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., with film thickness 0.25 µm. Helium was used as the carrier gas at 0,9 mL/min, with inlet pressure 48,9 psi. Injector and MS transfer line temperatures were at 280 and 170°C, respectively. The initial column temperature was 60°C, and then gradually increased to 240°C at the rate of 3°C/min. It was kept at 240°C for 10 minutes. For GC-MS detection an electron ionization system was used with ionization energy of 70eV. Samples were diluted 1/1000 (v/v) in hexane and 1.0 µL were injected in the splitless mode (1). The compounds were identified by comparing their fragmentation patterns reported in the mass spectra with those present in the library of mass spectrometers NIST 98 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) and with reports from the literature. The components quantification was based on the area percentage of the peak of each component in relation to the total area of all standardized peaks in the chromatogram.
Objective: To identify the difficulties encountered by doctors and nurses on the applicability of medicinalplantsand phytotherapics in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) of Caico/RN. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive study developed with 19 health professionals. The data collection occurred between January and February 2011 through semi-structured interviews with treatment and analysis mediated by thematic content analysis. Results: The subjects show that the cultural resistance of the population, the lack of knowledge of the health professionals on integrative and complementary practices (PIC), the lack of inputs in the health services and the fragility of popular knowledge hinder the use of medicinalplantsand phytotherapy. Conclusion: It is necessary some investments in this area with capacitating actions and training of human resources, besides the physical and structural support. It is suggested the realization of researches along of teaching about PIC and evaluation of the egress’ ability to respond to the demands in health services. Descriptors: Phytotherapy, MedicinalPlants, Family Health Program, Health personnel, Community health nursing.
Under the conditions employed here, all test samples have more potent inhibitory effects on gram-positive bac- teria in comparison to gram-negative bacteria. According to the TLC separation, five plant extracts yielded compo- nents with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautograms. In addition, many of these inhibi- tion zones were associated with dark blue spots which had been detected under UV radiation (data not shown). Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants.
Plants have been used throughout history as rem- edies in most cultures and are the basis for many phar- maceuticals currently in use. It is estimated that 80% of the tropical and subtropical populations of the world depend on herbal remedies to treat diseases and sources of new, safer and effective compounds with medicinal properties are investigated (Willcox et al. 2011). Several antimalarial formulated phytomedicines have been pro- posed as possible alternatives to costly and, therefore, unaffordable therapies (Willcox & Bodeker 2004); how- ever, this practice occurs to a lesser extent in Brazil, as the Ministry of Health provides specific diagnoses and synthetic antimalarials (portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arqui- vos/pdf/guia_pratico_tratamento_malaria_brasil_2602. pdf]. Nonetheless, several reference laboratories are lo- cated in and outside the malaria-endemic areas that are targeted for control (portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/ pdf/centros_de_referencia.pdf).
The ethnopharmacological knowledge has culmi- nated in the development of substances that have had a signiicant impact on current therapeutics, such as salicylic acid, atropine, pilocarpine, quinine, artemisinin, taxol, digoxin and morphine (Verotta et al., 2000; Viegas et al., 2006). Several plants found in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have popular medicinaluse. These include home- made alcohol, infusions, baths and homogenized prepa- rations of fresh plant, such as: Calophyllum brasiliense – used to treat bronchitis, kidney and gastric diseases, inlammation, diabetes, varicose, diarrhea, herpes, rheu- matism, hemorrhoids and chronic ulcers (Noldin, Buffon, Cechinel Filho, 2006); Ipomea pes-caprae – used to treat dermatitis caused by jellyish, cramps, diuretic disorder, gonorrhea, inlammation and pain (Pongprayoon et al., 1989; Souza et al., 1998); Matayba eleagnoides – used to treat inlammation, pain and liver cancer (Lorenzi, 2000; Souza et al., 2007); and Maytenus robusta (Niero et al., 2006; Andrade et al., 2007) and Rubus imperialis – used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, diabetes and pain (Cechinel Filho, 2000), and also Vernonia scorpioides – used to treat skin disorders and varicose ulcers andto combat parasites (Monteiro et al., 2001).
Even though a number of public policies have been created with the purpose of encouraging the study and clinical use of medicinalplants, herbal medicine takes place in a modest way by dental practitioners mainly due to the lack of scientific support – specifically for plant species indicated to prevent/treat oral diseases (Oliveira, 2010). According to Bettega et al. (2011), this resistance can be attributed to the lack of standardization and knowledge about prescription as well as skepticism and conviction that manufactured drugs have more guaranteed effectiveness. Nevertheless, there has been a growing interest in this subject in recent years, demonstrated by the increased number of studies with natural products in dentistry (Castilho et al., 2007). These studies point out that medicinalplants can be used therapeutically against oral diseases (Oliveira, 2010), displaying anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic properties for the treatment of odontalgias and other oral disorders (Lima Júnior et al., 2005).
The caprine and ovine culture is a socioeconomic activity very explored in Brazil, mainly in the Northeast region, representing an important source of money income for the population, however the gastrointestinal nematodes has been a public health concern to the productive chain, being one of the major causes of subclinical diseases, and production and economical loss (MOLENTO et al., 2011; VERÍSSIMO et al., 2012). This problem is more evident on the developing countries,