The integration tendencies caused by the effect of modern society globalization process cover all aspects of human society activities and cardinally transform stated ideals, perceptions and views into realities of coexistence. The fundamental research issues related to intercultural interaction are becoming more urgent global development priority; thus, there is a necessity of training a multicultural personality ready for intercultural cooperation and interculturalcommunication. Therefore, the productive intercultural dialogue is fundamentally defined as a new education system task, also mentioned in UNESCO strategy (2014-2021). It is noted that convergence has never been so relevant as today. It is becoming increasingly necessary for social integration, mutual understanding and lasting peace.
Contemporary reality is declinable in a plural way 10 ; it breaks down in ininite possible of disinguishing groups, individuals and diferent acions. Inequaliies may be diferent; there are of gender, opinion, development, biographical and cultural. Current debate raises more clearly these diferences; sociologists (but not only them) discuss mainly about cultural diversity and poliical pluralism, in paricular to invesigate collecive imaginaion and social relaionships. It is certain that to understand various expressions of social world individuals should not always apply their own ways of understanding themselves and others. Intercultural communicaion needs a careful atenion in responses formulaion, which, in turn, to be relevant and appropriate, need a deep interpretaion adhering to messages of a communicaive process. Diference in intercultural communicaion is given by the ability to deal with the diversity of cultural perspecives of each individual. So it is essenial to keep in mind that when we exchange messages and informaion we are more oten than imagined in condiion of having in front of us diferent cultural orientaions and thus diferent systems of symbols and signs, which although seemingly similar, may have unusual meanings for those accustomed to own context. Verbal and nonverbal coding are not so easy or obvious: every aspect of communicaion process should be considered which takes part in the exchange does not necessarily have knowledge or share same cultural background. Today occidental socieies are characterized by individualism, which imbued each sector and area of social life. Cogniive skills of each individual are not so important, what really maters is how an individual adapts himself (or herself) to social rules and how he (or she) vehicles them to the other members of society. Thus individual’s intelligence and skills are not central, but rather they are fundamental to adapt to main group in order to minimize the possibility of difereniaion 11 . More oten diferences become inequaliies. This is what happens
The conspiracy of silence is a cultural component ofcommunication which is increasingly apparent in our work and much depends on the patient-professional relationship and the skill of professionals. We have to be very careful when undertaking the communicationof bad news and not only with the language problem, even with patients who speak Spanish there is a cultural component that must be considered. "I deal with conspiracies in the same way independent of culture, I do the best for the patient". "The most important thing is to allow the patient to express himself and the family should help him, I will not do what the family tells me to". "I do not need anyone to help me give bad news".
Several of the concepts which became evident in the research study warrant full research on their own, illustrating the complexity and breadth ofintercultural dialogue. They are briefly discussed below, supported by literature. The complexity ofintercultural work and dialogue are immense, but this immensity should not deter us from working toward a greater understanding. Interculturalcommunication requires openness and a willingness to stay present in the process, through differences, similarities and unknowns. If a person is willing to become someone who can temporarily transcend his or her own culture, beliefs and frameworks in order to understand another person of another culture, then dialogue can at least start on an equal plane and proceed as mutual sharing and reciprocal transaction. 19 A script worked out a priori
The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution has transformed our notion of time and place. It has dissolved the traditional frontiers; it has developed cognitive skills as a driving force to a wider, broader knowledge, to an intercultural and interdisciplinary education; it has transformed certain (previously) local icons into a world legacy, in a sense of appropriacy. Teens (and not only) transform reality (as we know it) and are motivated by performing different tasks or, as Piaget (1988) puts it, to use creativity and invention, to form critical thinking and not to accept passively what surrounds them. Being aware of this, teachers should question and elaborate new approaches more suitable to this day and age. Instead of crystallizing in time teachers should search for action and realize that their students are active agents in action in the whole process. Teaching and researching go hand in hand towards a common goal. Reflexive teaching includes students and teachers in a quest for the examination of attitudes, beliefs and practices and uses the collected information as the basis for the transformation of their knowledge construction. Adapting the teaching practice to the needs is to respect and to live according to the new imperatives and demands. It is to be aware of new realities and to take advantage to grow, it is to be active and always be ready to question again.
This theoretical reflection intends to show the inter-subjective relationship that takes place in health and nursing practices under the following theoretical perspectives: Institutional Analysis, Psychodynamics of Labor and the Theory of Communicative Action, with an emphasis on the latter. Linking these concepts to the Marxist approach to work in the field of health emerges from recognizing the need for its continuous reconstruction—in this case, with a view to understand the interaction and communication intrinsic to work in action. The theory of Communicative Action seeks to consider these two inextricable dimensions: work as productive action and as interaction. The first corresponds to instrumental action based on technical rules with a production-guided rationale. The second refers to the interaction that takes place as communicative action and seeks understanding among subjects. We assume that adopting this theoretical perspective in the analysis of health and nursing practices opens new possibilities for clarifying its social and historical process and inter-subjective connections.
The three features are presented like packages of activities. That means all activities that are part of a package operate under the same goal. All relationships between packages are dependency relationships. That means: the solvability depends on sustainability of the model, the sustainability depends on compatibility of concepts with physico- chemical principles, law, knowledge and with the safety requirements. All three packages of activities are designed and depend on the metamodelling concepts, i.e. in the way in that the modeller sees the process. More, the assumption and documentation made in one stage must be transparent to other stages. The ways in that the communication is made are the metamodelling tasks. A short description of formalism is presented below.
Commerce, Anthropology and Ethnography or Religion and Language. So, the need to knit a multidisciplinary discourse in the different meshes given by the different glances is only possible if we take into account the diverse disciplines of the social and human sciences. In this sense, the opening of the world to its own diversity should be framed in the broader perspective ofinterculturalcommunication, as understood by Cabecin- has & Cunha (2008), in order to accommodate the different readings triggered by their multiple dynamics of relation between people, goods and ideas. From this perspective we could interpret a process reality in which participants from various ethnic groups, religions and cultures intersect, not forgetting their inequality conditions, the boundaries between them and, finally, the enormous distance that separates their real interrelations from their supposed mixture. It is important to stress, therefore, that in this perspective, the object of study will be not so much the historical fact, but rather the processof inter- cultural communication that occurs in the context of this same fact.
Abstract: The search for relevance is a basic feature of human cognition. Whereas the interval between the construction and the use of maps is a communicationprocess, the geosciences professionals can explore the relevance of search condition to better serve the needs of multiple users maps. This research proposal is based on discuss to what extent the relevance theory and the approach of Multimodality may contribute to the increased use of maps, based on the principle of least effort in the communicationprocess. The objective is to analyze the validity of the identification of a set of modes involved in the production (experts) and use (user) so that the geoinformation maps classified by specific purposes meet relevant requirements, and hence are more useful. To accomplish this, the paper presents a theoretical debate between geoinformation and the relevance theory and Multimodality. In the final considerations, it presents possibilities for future studies.
Understanding patients‟ cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon‟s expectancy violation theory (1991) was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violations an advanced technology, quality of services, medicine availability, and emphasis on preventive care. Negative expectation violations included high service costs, complicated insurance system, short medical encounters, and difficulty in building relational history with providers. The study also revealed that culturally related communication barriers as well as negative violations of expectations hinder the quality ofintercultural clinical encounters and can affect health outcomes. Participants emphasized the importance of these interpersonal relations and their connection with perceptions of caregivers‟ professional competence. International patients/students revealed that they believe friendliness on the part of the caregiver is a signal that they are dealing with a “good” doctor or nurse. Intercultural competence is an important asset of caregivers who work in multicultural clinics and in college health. Practical implications emerged in international advising and clinician‟s education.
Com plexity, m ultiaspects and interdependence of civic literacy problem s in intercultural oriented education, defining the practical innovations in pedagogical process, dem ands new ideas and the approaches, new algorithm of procedures of training and the education realized in the dialogue of cultures and new pedagogical technologies. By m eans of developm ent and introduction of skills and abilities of form ation of civic literacy it is possible to provide optim um frictionless interpenetration of national and global, world cultural environm ents - (cultural integration) - at level of traditions, foundations, language, cultural and behavioural im peratives.
REALISING THE PROTOTYPE AND COLLECTING EXPERIMENTAL DATA According to the constructive solution designed and the CAD model, a prototype was realised. The components were checked and carefully measured in order to collect data for experimental testing. These data were also used to confirm the theoretical model created for modelling the dynamic coupling’s behaviour and numerical simulations of operating performances too.
Migration is generally described as a process that is nationally specific and that have features common to several countries. This has been shown by several authors through comparative research that compares the migration processof the same immigrant group to several countries (among others, Engbersen, Snel, & de Boom, 2010) or which scrutinises the migration realities of different countries (Zimmermann, 2005). Most of these studies are about geographically near countries, which are part of the same political system (the EU), and that have an established (albeit differentiated) welfare system. These proximities (geographical, but also political and social) allowed the authors of these studies to conceptualise the existence of several migration models or regimes: the southern European model (Baldwin-Edwards, 2012), the Iberian model of Migration (Malheiros, 2012); the intra-EU mobility regime (Engbersen et al., 2017). These migratory regimes are intertwined by migrant integration models or by different approaches to increasingly diverse populations. Although these are often identified as ‘national models of integration’, they do not fail to integrate the developments that have been recorded in the last decades in the international contexts in which the countries are inserted. Throughout the present text, the Portuguese experience in dealing with immigrant integration is used to reflect on the development ofintercultural policies and practices, and on the role ofintercultural mediation.
Several studies have been done on beef preferences and attitudes. Grunert (1997) did a cross-cultural study on beef quality perception based on the total food quality model (TFQM ), suggesting that most important product attributes on which consumers base their beef quality evaluation are fat content and colour. Similar study was undertaken in Portugal by Banovi´c et al. (2009a), who concluded that extrinsic product information, namely brand, may actually in- fluence consumers’ evaluations of intrinsic product attributes, as fat content and colour, Chapter 11. Verbeke and Viaene (1999a) have analysed beliefs, attitudes and behaviour towards fresh meat consumption in Belgium, and revealed the importance of safety related meat attributes. Later, Verbeke and Vackier (2004), also analysing the Belgian market, investigated the profiles and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat, confirming that pleasure, symbolism and risk affect considerably meat involvement. Krystallis and Arvanitoyannis (2006) studied the concept of meat quality from the Greek consumers’ perspective, concluding that meat prefer- ence, in this country, is mainly evaluated based on pleasure derived from taste, which has to be evaluated according to visual quality cues such as colour, leanness, etc. These authors also found different consumer types who evaluate meat quality differently based, namely, on labels and brand name, nutritional value and microbial or chemical safety. Vanhonackeret al. (2007) undertook a market segmentation in Belgium based on consumers’ perceived importance and attitude toward farm animal welfare. These authors identified specific market opportunities for high welfare products associated with compatible marketing strategies.
In addition to the topics usually discussed in linguistics textbooks, such as writing, speech and critical discourse analysis, ‘How to Analyse Texts’ also covers other analyses and applications, such as multimodality and multimodal contexts and situations, as well as forensic linguistics. Regrettably, some of these are covered very superficially, and occasionally inconsistently. An example of the latter is the explanation of the terms ‘text’ and ‘discourse’: although in the introduction the authors argue that the two terms are often used as synonyms despite the differences between them, in Chapter 4 ‘text analysis’ and ‘discourse analysis’ are used as synonyms to refer to the same research method.
Some authors understand integration in an economic way, as formation of a structure, of an economic body, which comprises a group of separate states of the world economy, considered as an entity. Thus, for J. Tinbergen integration is creation of an optimal structure of the international economy by removing the artificial barriers of trade. Also this idea is supported by M. Allais, M. Halperin, D. Villaery, R. Courtin, T. Scitovsky but also by B. Blass (Dobrescu, 1996:11-12). Polish theorist Z.Kamencki understands this phenomenon as a creation of an economic structure which comprises a group of countries with high economic level of internal links, obtained as a result of integration (܇i܈kov, 1993:56).Other authors, such as for example Karl W Deitsch, characterizes the integration as achieving, in a given territory, a "sense of community" and of some institutions strong enough and widespread practices that provide for a secure long hope of "peaceful change" among the states concerned. For E. Haas integration is the process whereby political actors from different national structures are convinced to change leading, expectations and political activities toward a new center, whose institutions possess, or claim jurisdiction over pre-existing national states (Dobrescu, 1996:12).
Knowledge management and data mining are still in the development phase and they represent interest- ing areas for researchers. Although there is an inte- grative framework for knowledge management in the context of marketing, there are critical research chal- lenges that should be devoted considerable attention. More information about data mining for marketing can be seen in (Berry & Linoﬀ , 2004). Some of them are connected to data mining techniques and knowl- edge discovery process, while others are related to knowledge management. Data research through data mining techniques is an interactive processof learning similar to other processes of acquiring knowledge, like scientii c research. Selection of data mining al- gorithms, hypothesis forming, model evaluation and remodeling are the key components of the research process. Since the cycle of attempts and failures for progressive adopting are made of the most valuable knowledge through data mining, the aspect of learn- ing through experiments can be suitable for that. One of the research challenges is to make sure that this process is multi-structured, and therefore to increase the productivity of data mining trials. Furthermore, it is needed to manage the knowledge in the sense that it outlines organizational borders and further distributes towards the other partners.
Abstract: This article discusses the impact of inter-ethnic conflict in 1999 to the multi-ethnic community life in Sambas and offers a concept of education as a modified formulation of the local wisdom in the communication aspect that the Malay ethnic community in Sambas have in responding relations between ethnic groups post-conflict of ethnics in 1999. The methodology used is literature review, observation, interview and documentation-based qualitative analysis. The result is that ethnic conflict 1999 in Sambas, West Kalimantan causes a number of problems or moral and social impacts in some small communities of Malay. By gaining the value of local wisdom into a new form of education, an effort to respond the post-conflict negative impact through cultural communication greeting of sapa and base that shows a polite language education in Malay Sambas society and even the culture is believed to be an alternative solution that can deal with inter-ethnic conflicts and prevent conflict to happen again
Independent tourists have a great deal of dis- cretion in how they can spend their time budgets, particularly in a multi-attraction visit. Hence, they are the subject of this project. Time used in de- cision making process is related to the absolute amount of time available and to the set of acti- vities that tourists wish to consume during their stay (McKercher, Wong, & Lau, 2006). The ac- tivities tourists take part in, where and how they sequence their visit, deals with the micro-spatial and temporal dimensions of tourism analyzed by Grinberger, Shoval & McKercher (2014) and it is this perspective that will be adopted in order to understand the tourist consumption of a desti- nation. The understanding of the tourist flow of movement in the cities, is a fundamental set of data to improve the city management in a smart city environment. In this context it recommended the possibility to integrate the flow of tourists and the normal city flows avoiding the stress to the tourists and to local citizen daily activities (Curry, Dustdar, Sheng, & Sheth, 2016).
The second group of rheological characterization tests was carried out using a stress/strain control rheometer (Stresstech® from Reologica Instruments AB). In Figure 76 the schematic representation of the rotational viscometer test setup and the actual experimental apparatus are depicted. The test equipment included an oven and a heated bottom plate so that the isothermal temperatures were accurately imposed to the test samples. Since the objective was to measure the evolution of the viscosity up to a high degree of cure (past the gel point), disposable instruments were developed, adapted and calibrated into the equipment. The plate-plate geometry with 40 mm in diameter was selected due both to the easiness of manufacturing and the fact that a quasi-static shear mode was foreseen. Thus, the inexistence of a constant through-the-thickness velocity profile, as guaranteed by the cone-plate geometries, was negligible and reliable measurements were possible to achieve with this simpler geometry. A small amplitude oscillatory shear mode with strain control (2%) was programmed. Since the torque and phase angle responses of viscoelastic materials are known to depend on the applied oscillation frequency, multiple frequency experiments were conducted at 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz and 5 Hz in each sample. The applicability of these frequencies was previously determined through several frequency scans to dummy resin samples and corresponded to the plateau of the corresponding viscosity-frequency curves.