In Bakhtin’s theory, the topic is understood as “the meaning ofthe whole utterance” and it’s defined not only by linguistic forms but, also by the extra verbal aspects ofthe situation: “the utterance topic is as concrete as the historical moment to which it belongs” (VOLÓCHINOV, 2017, p.227-228). In the material analysed, we find proximities between the topics in traditional scientific and the scientific-political- business discourses. The speech topic in the scientific-political-business discourse can be an analogue to that ofthe traditional science, and it’s introduced in two ways: firstly, the event’s written program to name a session or lecture; secondly, it can be announced by the moderator, who is presenting the speakers, to introduce the topic to the listeners and to thank the sponsors. Some examples of this second way of introducing the topic follow below:
The management of namings shaped a feminist cause to legal hegemonic discourses. However, in order to guarantee the traditional and patriarchal bias of this field, it was still necessary to manage certain female representations, emphasized not in the autonomy and freedom of women, but in maternal suffering and its harmful consequences to the health of pregnant women. The term representation in language studies with focus on gender refers to the discursive construction from the ways of being woman / man (LAZAR, 2005). These studies also highlight the fact that representations are shaped from particular perspectives of specific communities of practice in the interest of maintaining certain power relations. Along these lines, the female representation profile emphasized by the Court supports such relations within the framework that the Law values.
While discourse analytical research is always three-di- mensional, thus text and context should be included, it is also emphasized that researchers have to make choices about the data they select, because “no researcher can study everything” (Phillips & Hardy 2002:19). This is caused by the fact that empirical research is restricted to manpower, time, and money, which makes dealing with all aspects ofdiscourse theory in the same depth impos- sible. Another important issue is that, even if there were enough resources, discourses are very complex and all their aspects can never be studied. Subsets of texts have to be selected simply for the purpose of manageability ofthe data. Nonetheless, these individual texts have to be seen within a larger body of texts.
From the point of view ofthediscourseof moderation of foreign policy, having a full understanding ofthe opportunities and opportunities can be well used to achieve those goals. Handicraft is to critique and exploit opportunities for the country by recognizing the region and the world and by calculating the power and status we have. Therefore, it is a development-oriented government that can take advantage of all kinds of opportunities for comprehensive development ofthe country. Essentially, development-oriented foreign policy should provide opportunities for other sectors (Rouhani, 2011: 53). Moderation discourse focuses primarily on economics, saving the country’s economy, and constructive engagement aimed at securing mutual benefits with the world economy by disenfranchising Iran. In the international system, the normalization and improvement of relations with non-hostile countries and the elimination of international sanctions has, in a word, been termed “economic-oriented foreign policy”. From Rouhani’s point of view, constructive engagement based on mutual respect and common interests and on equal footing will form the basis of Iran’s relations with other countries. And it has pursued its foreign policy goals of lifting unnecessary sanctions and restoring Iran’s economic interactions with the Western world in a normalizing and constructive way (Firouz Abadi, 2014: 11).
In turn, Part 3 is not focused on an interface between CDA and Ethnography, but rather on CDA as a method of text analysis. Its three chapters (7, 8, and 9) report analyses of news articles, a brief meeting report, and a piece of news, respectively. Chapter 7, ADC e minorias - representação e peso político na esfera pública [CDA and minorities - representation and political strength in the public sphere], sheds light on a path to new dialogues and avenues by providing five struggle fronts: “[…] knowledge and monitoring of social condition, discovery and preservation of social identity, struggle for rights and more democracy, struggle for a territory in the public sphere, and engagement towards positive representation in the media.” 8 (p.178). Besides explaining each one of
Abstract: Based on a cognitive-rhetorical approach, the author pursues her line of research as deined in past publications, i.e. applying the tools of cognitive linguistics to analyze the main rhetorical devices at work in American environmental policy discourse (BONNEFILLE, 2012, 2011, 2009, 2008). This article undertakes a discourseanalysisof four oicial documents, in order to shed light on the strategies called upon by oicial sources to keep the American citizens, as well as the rest ofthe world, informed about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and its aftermath. An oicial site, RestoretheGulf.gov, was created by the Environmental Protection Agency soon after the catastrophe occurred and three of its postings are analyzed here. The fourth document ofthe corpus corresponds to a conidential email written in May 2010 by Marcia McNutt, head ofthe scientiic team which was dispatched to the Gulf of Mexico by the Department of Interior to evaluate the damage caused by the 2010 oil spill. The email was obtained under the Freedom of Information Act by Greenpeace and, once publicly released, disclosed to the world that the scientiic team had been asked by the White House to underestimate the damage. Analyzing the linguistic data in the selected documents enables us to highlight the mechanisms of representation used both by the E.P.A. and by Marcia McNutt and, more broadly, to describe some aspects ofthe communication strategies at work in the ield of environmental issues.
Fairclough (1992: 233) considers intertextuality as a grey area between discourse practice and text. The purpose of intertextual analysis is to specify what other texts are drawn upon in the constitution ofthe text being analysed. Why is it relevant to know these texts? The main point here is to understand the historical affiliation ofthe voices which represent particular social groups and identities in the advert which is being analysed. According to Kristeva (1986: 36), two dimensions of intertextuality can be distinguished: a) horizontal intertextuality refers to the texts which precede or follow a particular text, for example, a letter relates to other letters which precede it and to which it replies, and it can also anticipate future letters; b) vertical intertextuality is the historical relation which is established between a text and other texts which are part of its immediate or distant social context. A focus on intertextuality highlights the diverse and often contradictory elements and threads which go to make up a text, illuminating the ambivalence of texts (Fairclough 1992: 104). This is a crucial aspect in the study of adverts.
“parliamentary column”. The new forms of public communication favor the birth of certain textual types related to them such as reporting stories, notes, news from the state institutions’ conferences that now play an important role in the informative agenda of publications. The most spectacular “recovery” in the media informative speech is the regain ofthe occurrence, which had been marginalized and even eliminated by the communist media. Introducing the occurrence (and the news in brief) in the media accelerated the elimination ofthe official and institutional speech and favored the journalists giving up on the misconception that the political information and the politically approved social event are the only ones worthy ofthe journalist’s attention, an idea that had been induced in the professional practice by the communist ideology mechanisms. Introducing the public sphere, especially by the occurrence, in the media’s interest domain brought the press closer to the public and thus created the premises for the birth and development ofthe popular press segment.
It must be said that we have ascertained in this very brief and incomprehensive analysis, grounded on the notion ofdiscourse as a product of dialogic relations, the possibility of reading verbal-visuality in the snippet through the concept ofdiscourse: that utterances (videos represented by pictures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively) are set to circulate and signify in the social-historical environment through a dialogic relation that creates and allows them to form another utterance that yields another meaning.The excerpt that corroborates our hypothesis is the insertion of a seal (in the beginning and in the end) during a performance in an aquatic park and, in order for this animal to carry out what was assigned for it to accomplish, this seal has been trained, there is a sequence of movements to be performed in a given time frame, and everything has been previously rehearsed. We believe that the sequencing of verbal-visuality in the montage as a whole creates a trail of interpretation that is ideologically targeted at the interlocutors in this kind of material. This is so pertinent that the utterances underscored by the producer focus on suitable moments for the association ofthe candidate at the time with another discourse, which is not her own. Snippets of other videos that have been clipped in the montage can produce a framing for viewing in order for meaning to be woven. This is intended, presumably, to create an image for interlocutors which is negatively put together, namely the representation ofthe candidate reverberating/based on the idea that she is not spontaneous, that she has been trained to play the role of candidate and future president, and that she has no discourseof her own, so she does not have the knowledge or the skills and, therefore, will be manipulated to act in this way or another.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to comprehend the social construction of meanings about pregnancy-motherhood among pregnant adolescents. An explicative study, conducted in 2014, with 12 adolescents, using individual and group interview, local context observation, consultation of documents and precepts of Fairclough’s Critical DiscourseAnalysis. The meaning of compatibility between pregnancy and adolescence was found, and the contraposition to the dominant discourseof adolescent pregnancy as a problem. The event answered that to which teenagers projected for themselves, in a restricted context of social opportunities. They valued it as a social ideal of maternity and family constitution, foreseeing social recognition, evidence of femininity and greater power and autonomy. However, these gains showed themselves crossed by dificulties seen, such as confronting the family evaluation and the “painful” parity. The comprehension contextualized of these meanings and ofthe social and ideological content is essential to the development of a higher degree of autonomy-accountability of adolescents.
In short, to consider the visual materiality of paintings and its role in interdiscourse means to undo the node of discourses that are entangled in the production of artistic utterances and to highlight discursive heterogeneity, discourse pre- construction, and the relations among discursive formations. On the other hand, analyzing the aesthetic discourse based on M. Foucault ‟s work, specifically at the intersection ofthe archaeological method with the pictorial materiality, has been very productive. As stated by Foucault (2011, p.263), "it would be necessary to show that, in at least one of its dimensions, it [the painting] is a discursive practice that is embodied in techniques and effects" 44 . Analyzing paintings according to their own discursive materiality, characterized by the absence of explicit language registrations, under the French DiscourseAnalysis perspective, also leads to the encounter ofthe verb in the interdiscursive dimension, which goes through the materialities and rules the production of meaning in society. In this study, objects that require certain theoretical movements for their understanding were analyzed. Via Foucault (2002, 2004, 2006a) and inspired by Courtine (2006, p.27, [emphasis in original]), some possible ways were rehearsed: "It is necessary to question other utterances besides political utterances [...]; it is necessary to find texts that disturb" 45 .
As previously exposed, it is interesting to understand the imaginary formation in discourses to increase the knowledge of how the enterprise views itself and how its external and internal public sees it. The discursive partners that are going to take part in this analysis will be: Railroad X, the trade union, the railroad workers and their families. Thediscourseofthe trade union (A) basically projects the employees (B) as readers. Thediscourseof Railroad X (A’), on the other hand, has the employees and their families (B’) as its main addressees. It is still important to point out that thediscourse referent (R–context) is the same, bearing in mind when and where they were mentioned. Figure 1 illustrates these discursive processes:
The metaphysicians of chance point to the probabilistic nature of scien- tiic laws. Such probabilistic laws assert some dependencies and enable us to predict (with a given probability) the future of aggregates or collectives, but not the future of their individual parts. We also meet this kind of unpre- dictability in the case of human behaviour, individual as well as social. All these data give us evidence that our universe has not been created according to a very detailed and precise plan encompassing all substances and all of their properties. Protons, electrons, and genes, but also species, kinds, and particular human beings, are not part of a divine plan and creative volition (Bartholomew 1984, p. 145). How could it be that God brings about the existence of beings which are purposeless, unpredictable and, as such, not determined by his creative volition? If our non-deterministic universe has a Creator, He does not control every substance and every property, de facto, he is not the Creator of all contingent entities in our world. Thus, divine action consists in the creation ofthe universe in its initial stage, and the world is such that God need neither act continuously upon that world nor intervene from time to time in order to achieve His aims. God created the world in such a way that His providence does not have to control absolutely every contingent substance at every moment of its existence in order to realize all that divine will wills to be realized.
of all Western political thought, that’s repeating old complaints against Christianity” (apud SAID, 2007, p.xvii). The generaliza- tions of “all Western political thought”, and the vague proofs of “old complaints against Christianity”, impoverish the attempt of argumentation by Rodman, just like there’s an emptiness of clarity and objectivity. In the follow excerpt Said also transcribes: “The majority ofthe Islamic world is crumbling with the social divi- sions, frustrated by its material inferiority in relation to the West, embittered at Western cultural influences […]” (apud SAID, 2007, p.xvii). It’s clear Rodman’s stance to make inferior the “Islamic world”, without saying which world is that, or bringing proof that justifies the suggested marginalization. The “West”, according to the description, goes beyond ofthe geographical space, and approaches the idea ofthe division in relation to the East and the Eastern culture. This indirect conceptualization ofthe West connects it to the model of economic richness and superiority for such a social structure.
side), depending on the location of a sculpture in the overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception in the buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located in the temple of Bactria before the arrival ofthe Greeks, and with the arrival ofthe Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role in the artistic culture of Central Asia . In the Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding the human scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person in the hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists and the Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, in the area of
Abstract: This research is aimed to test and identify empirical evidence regarding the effect of capital structure and loan to financial performance of cooperative, where the relationship between loan and financial performance is moderated by non-performing loan. The population of this research is 257 Financial Service Cooperative (hereinafter referred to as “KJK”, as the abbreviation for Koperasi Jasa Keuangan) of Urban Village Community Economic Empowerment (hereinafter referred to as “PEMK”, as the abbreviation for Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Kelurahan) in Jakarta, 2011 to 2013. Sample is determined by using purposive sampling method. The data is secondary data which is obtained from the Revolving Fund Management Unit (hereinafter referred to as “UPDB”, as the abbreviation for Unit Pengelola Dana Bergulir) Jakarta. Hypothesis is tested by using multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS 20.00. The number of sample used in this research is 120. Research findings explain that (1) Capital Structure (hereinafter referred to as “SM”, as the abbreviation for Struktur Modal) has positive and significant impact on financial performance (hereinafter referred to as “KIN” as the abbreviation for Kinerja Keuangan), because the probability value of 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. Calculation shows that if the capital structure rises 1%, assuming that the loan and non-performing loan variables remain the same, then the financial performance will increase 0.017%. (2) Loans (hereinafter referred to as "PIN", as the abbreviation for Pinjaman) given has positive and significant impact on KIN, because the probability value of 0,001 is smaller than α 0.05. If the loan rises 1%, assuming that the capital structure and non-performing loan variables remain the same, then the KIN will increase 0.013%. (3) Non-performing loan has negative and significant effect on KIN, because the probability value of 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. PBR varible increase 1%, assuming that the loan and capital structure variables remain the same, KIN would fall 0.001%. It can be concluded that the level of KIN in KJK PEMK Jakarta is determined by the relationship or interaction between the capital structure, loan, and non-performing loans.
Indeed, women are not biologically inferior teachers of a for- eign language any more than Koreans are to Americans; something more significant is happening in the classroom. If native and female teachers are indeed “othered” by their students, how might that af- fect the ratings? Could it lead to the lower ratings native females re- ceived? One study found that “male students rated female professors more negatively than did female students in the same class.” (Basow, 2010). Other studies have not found a statistically significant differ- ence in the average course evaluations for male and [female] instruc- tors, but there are same-gender preferences, such that female stu- dents tend to give higher ratings to female instructors and non-native English speakers have significantly lower course evaluations. Other studies show that faculty of color receive lower course evaluations than their white peers and students rate Asian-American instructors as less credible and intelligible than white instructors. This strongly supports the concept of otherness as a major factor in student ratings (Huston, 2009).
Abstract: The demographic structure ofthe population ofthe European conger eel (Conger conger; Linnaeus, 1758) from the Western coast of Algeria is made up of young individuals who enlarge more quickly than they grow. The estimated parameters of growth using the equation of Von Bertalanffy are: For females: L∞ = 134 mm ; K= 0,13 ; to = -0,69. For males: L∞ = 108 mm ; K= 0,23 ; to = -0,67 The specimens with most advanced stage of maturation appeared from February to April 2012 for both, female and male. The size at the first sexual maturity was 78 mm in males and 88 mm in females. The sex-ratio was in favor ofthe females lasting almost all the year excepting during September, December (2011), and January 2012 for males.
The presented results from a series of analyses indicate lack of dependence of certain sensitivity analysis parameters. In case of increasing the parameter r (the number the matrix B* is generated) obtaining identical results despite increasing r, may be explained as converging ofthe results to a certain fixed value. It should be noticed that increase ofthe number r causes increase ofthe number of required computer simulations. Therefore it is significant to obtain credible results for the smallest r number possible.