Energy Life-Cycle Assessment

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Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Fruit Products

Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Fruit Products

Abstract: Currently, there is a growing demand for cleaner and sustainable technologies due to environmental issues. In this sense, there is a necessity to manage the assessment of production processes and the rationalization of energy consumption. In this study, an Energy Life-Cycle Assessment (ELCA) was carried out through energy efficiency indicators, directed to the characterization and renewability of the peach production system life-cycle in the Portuguese region of Beira Interior. The study intends to investigate the non-renewable energy inputs from fossil fuels, as well as the emissions resulting from machinery. In addition, warehouse energy inputs are analyzed, mainly cooling systems of refrigerated chambers where fruits are preserved. This analysis aims to find opportunities for technological, environmental and best practices improvements. Test scenarios were analyzed and revealing soil groundcover maintenance is the operation with the largest impact in the energy consumption of the production process (3176 MJ · ha −1 ). In the post-harvest processes, the energy consumption largest impact is given by the warehouse’s operations (35,700 MJ · ha −1 ), followed by transportation (6180 MJ · ha −1 ). Concerning the emissions resulting from the fuels consumption, the largest impact is due to the plantation machinery and the transportation from warehouse to retailers.
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Sustainable procurement & major events: life cycle assessment as a tool for consumer choices

Sustainable procurement & major events: life cycle assessment as a tool for consumer choices

for land management, for the relationship between the human beings and the natural world, and sent out the first major warning on the importance of sustain- able consumption, a premise that went on to shape the global agenda for devel- opment. Stress was placed on the role governments play in changing patterns through acquisition policies, with repercussions in different chains of production. In the subsequent decades, scientific reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an organisation created by the UN in 1988, con- firmed the existence and the risks of the process of global warming, accelerated by human activity that releases greenhouse gases, primarily methane and carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. Generation of energy, agriculture, deforestation, and pol- lution from transport and industry, are the principle sources of emissions. The warn- ings from successive reports forecasting the negative impacts and financial losses in a scenario of decreased scientific uncertainty, mobilised the planet to mitigate the gases and adapt to climate change narrowing the gap between the economy and the envi- ronment, with repercussions for business. This appeal led to a clearer outline of the multilateral processes of negotiation in different international forums and, in a domino-effect, opened up space for a vision of sustainability - in social, economic and environmental terms – which would gradually become incorporated at the centre of business strategies and public policies.
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PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

The results of this study showed that the improved milling process enabled the total utilization of palm fruit and reduced the GHG emission from the production of CPO. The approach of methane avoidance by preventing the formation of liquid biomass in the form of POME had been found to contribute to significant reduction of climate change impact category using the LCA study. Total utilization of oil palm fruits also increases the value of oil palm by producing a low oil palm based product which is suitable as a low energy food source, containing both water and lipid soluble phytonutrients. With the increasing global focus and trend towards production of sustainable products, it is pertinent to note that the Malaysian oil palm industry continues to adopt
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Decision Model for Life Cycle Assessment of Power Transformer during Load Violation

Decision Model for Life Cycle Assessment of Power Transformer during Load Violation

Use Up: It means using the power transformer until the end of its financial designed life. It is operated with its rated capacity after load violation. It cannot serve the increased load demand beyond its rated capacity. It is assumed that there is no penalty and value of loss load for not supplying energy to the consumers. It has margin to operate it further because the lost opportunity of existing power transformer is greater than the net profit of new power transformer. The lost opportunity is the lost of not supplying energy from the existing power transformer to the consumers after load violation i.e. making it idle. It is expressed in equation 13. LOE R = (NP due to ALD – NP due to DLD) =   AFDL LV i ALD i ) (EVA NPV -   AFDL E IY i DLD i ) (EVA NPV (14)
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Comparison of life cycle assessment for different volume polypropylene jars

Comparison of life cycle assessment for different volume polypropylene jars

Environmental friendly or eco-friendly is the packaging that uses less energy and ma- kes less pollution during the production, application and removal than other materials with the same purpose. For the purpose of easier separation of packaging materials for recycling, universal labels have been introduced to indicate the consumer that the packa- ging material is recyclable, and should be separated for recycling (5). In order to consider the life cycle impacts on the environment, a relatively new method, called the product (packaging) life cycle assessment (LCA), was developed. It is the only standardized method that is currently used to assess the product (packaging) life cycle. The goal, the motivation for the research, must be clearly defined from the very beginning, because it may later affect the certain phases of the life cycle. In the case of packaging, the analysis begins with the process of raw materials extraction from the environment, continues in the production, product consumption and ends when the packaging or its derivatives enter the waste streams. Operations such as transport, recycling, maintenance must be conside- red in the analysis (6). Assessing the product life cycle includes life cycle inventory for- ming and assessment.
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Prod.  vol.24 número4

Prod. vol.24 número4

This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI) under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.
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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate- to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m 3 from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR), Weather Boiling Proof (WBP) Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP) Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and generation and usage of electricity from the grid. The ways to mitigate the environmental impacts are by using substitutes for inorganic chemical adhesives such as groundnut shell lignin adhesive, modified phenol formaldehyde adhesive and developing wood adhesive made from pyrolisis oil of oil palm biomass, establishing a collecting centre for oil palm trunk transportation and efficient use of oil palm biomass as an energy source. The study helped establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil industry from cradle to grave which starts at the oil palm germinated seeds to the production of palm plywood.
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LIFE-CYCLE GREENHOUSE GAS ASSESSMENT OF PORTUGUESE CHESTNUT

LIFE-CYCLE GREENHOUSE GAS ASSESSMENT OF PORTUGUESE CHESTNUT

[1] F. Figueiredo, É. Castanheira, M. Feliciano, A. M. Rodrigues, A. Peres, F. Maia, A. Ramos, J. Carneiro, V. Coroama, F. Freire, “Carbon footprint of apple and pear: Orchards, storage and distribution ”. Energy for Sustainability 2013, Sustainable Cities: Designing for People and the Planet, Coimbra, Portugal, (2013).

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A Life Cycle Assessment study of iron ore mining

A Life Cycle Assessment study of iron ore mining

Table 8 shows the participation (% of total impact) of the com- pany's activities in relation to impacts on the depletion of these resources. Once all the processes studied depend on energy, it is expected that most of these processes contribute in some way to this category of impact, either by the consumption of fuels (diesel, natural gas or fuel oil) or by the national grid electricity con- sumption, comprising about 10% of energy from fossil sources. This portion is relatively low when compared to other countries or even the world average, which depends on average of 80% of fossil fuels (MME, 2013).
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Framework for life cycle sustainability assessment of additive manufacturing

Framework for life cycle sustainability assessment of additive manufacturing

The increasing awareness about environmental protection among society is causing a growing number of research initiatives in the field of manufacturing to make it more sustainable for society and the environment. One of the most common definitions of sustainability and sustainable development was provided by the Brundtland commission [55]: “Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Being an immature technology, AM imposes numerous implications in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. Many authors have done research on energy consumption, cost estimation and environmental and social impacts of several AM technologies [14,46,49,56–58]. However, more research and development in sustainability implications of AM is required to fully integrate AM in modern-day manufacturing industries. As an emerging technology, AM still have high costs and there remain many technical problems that affect the efficiency of the productive system. According to Chen et al. [5], the manufacturing systems are tightly interconnected and this is also true for AM. AM techniques compete with traditional processes, especially for small to medium batch production of metal parts. Machines and materials for AM are still expensive but the cost of these will decrease as AM becomes a more commonly used technology [7]. Also, materials used for AM are not necessarily greener than materials used in traditional manufacturing technique and the process may require high energy consumption [7].
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Environmental assessment of the integrated bio-combustion process: A life cycle energy balance /  Avaliação ambiental do processo integrado de bio-combustão: balanço energético do ciclo de vida

Environmental assessment of the integrated bio-combustion process: A life cycle energy balance / Avaliação ambiental do processo integrado de bio-combustão: balanço energético do ciclo de vida

The furnace was manufactured in lab-scale, consisting of a thermal energy generation system, composed of refractory material, equipped with electrical resistors (600W), and with a central combustion chamber of the primary fuel, the petroleum coke. Simultaneously, the furnace was fed with gaseous products from the photobioreactor, which were considered as improvers of combustion performance. The experimental conditions were as follows: initial coke mass of 1g, a total combustion reaction time of 20 min, and airflow rate of 1 L/min. Further specifications of the integrated process are described in patent WO2017/112984A1 (Jacob-Lopes et al., 2017) and Severo et al. (2018b).
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Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.
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Building life cycle applied to refurbishment of a traditional building from Oporto, Portugal

Building life cycle applied to refurbishment of a traditional building from Oporto, Portugal

Building construction sector includes activities relating to con- struction of new buildings or refurbishment of existent ones, typically including: transportation of materials and products to the construction site, use of power tools and equipment during building construction, on-site fabrication, and energy use for site works. Impacts evaluation of construction fall into this stage in current LCA – Life Cycle Assessment methods [2]. Nevertheless, there are the use and maintenance stage, the longer one, that refers to building operation phase, which includes all activities related to building's use throughout its life cycle. These ac- tivities contain maintenance of comfort conditions inside the building, energy consumption, water use, and environmental waste generation. It also takes into account the repair and replacement of building assem- blies and systems. Transport and equipment used for repair and re- placement in this phase also are considered ([2] and [3]). Finally, there is the end of life, that includes the energy consumed and the environ- mental waste produced due to building demolition and disposal of materials to land fills sites, including the transport of dismantled building materials, recycling and reuse activities related to demolition waste, depending on the availability of data [3].
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Global warming potential assessment for operation of thermoelectric power plant in Manaus

Global warming potential assessment for operation of thermoelectric power plant in Manaus

emissions. Previous study has pointed out similar contribution, such as 89.1 % for TPP (burning fuel to produce energy) (Phumpradab et al, 2009). Despite the decrease in the plant contribution other processes had growth, so that the impact along the life cycle was equal to the monofuel operation. For example, natural gas production contributed, in this category, with 17.31% of the impact. Similar value was observed in the work of Phumpradab et al (2009), which had natural gas production with about 10% contribution in GWP for combined cycle power plant.

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The contribution of life-cycle assessment to environmentally preferable concrete mix selection for breakwater applications

The contribution of life-cycle assessment to environmentally preferable concrete mix selection for breakwater applications

ife cycle assessment (LCA) provides a comprehensive framework for positioning low energy and global warming potential alternatives regarding Portland cement and concrete. Published LCA work on alkali-activated cements is, however, relatively limited. In this paper, we illustrate how LCA critically supports concrete technological studies in the search for low impact concrete mixes. Previous research on breakwater applications explored replacing a low-clinker Portland cement and natural aggregates with seven different alkali-activated blast furnace slag (bfs) binder systems and with coarse and granulated bfs aggregates. Its outcome suggested a sodium silicate-activated bfs formulation as the best match between concrete properties and environmental regulation compliance. To validate this outcome through LCA, our cradle to gate assessments followed ISO 14044
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Editorial

Editorial

The first article comes from Argentina: Life Cycle Assessment of a jean produced in Argentina. Authored by Rodolfo Bongiovanni and Leticia Tuninetti, the paper presents results from the environmental profile of a men’s jeans, from a cradle-to-gate approach. The study data cover the year of 2014 and it has considered six technological models of production, which cover three different regions of Argentina. The impact categories considered were global warming, acidification, eutrophication, depletion of the ozone layer and photochemical oxidation. The authors highlight the energy consumption, both in the agricultural and industrial phases, as the critical process of jeans production, in addition to the application of fertilizers and agrochemicals.
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Rui ZHAO1 , Yao XU2 , Xiangyu WEN1 , Ning ZHANG

Rui ZHAO1 , Yao XU2 , Xiangyu WEN1 , Ning ZHANG

LCA is to assess possible environmental impact based upon the quantitative survey of a product during its whole life cycle, by identifying environmental emissions of all materials and energy, to seek opportunities on improvement of product environmental performances (Huysveld et al., 2015). As defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO), a precise LCA generally follows by four phases: Goal and scope definition, Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI), Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and Interpretation (AzariJafari et al., 2016). Compared with the conventional LCA, the process of life cycle impact assessment is simplified in this study, as it mainly uses different categories of indicators to elaborate results of life cycle inventory (Nigri et al., 2014). However, only the product carbon footprint is considered in the impact category as the global warming potential, represented by kg CO2e per kg emission. Other impacts, such as eutrophication, acid rain potential, toxicity etc., have been omitted in this study. As a lifecycle study may not always need to use impact assessment, the results of the LCI provide information of a product system, including all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flows (Seppälä, 2003), which is used to quantify the impact of carbon emissions in this study.
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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. INTRODUCTION

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. INTRODUCTION

In the 1st stage the main goal definition and scoping have to be determined. A proper description of a product or activity has to be worked out. Therefore, to obtain ade- quate results it's necessary to establish the frame in which the assessment is to be made with identification of the en- vironmental effects inside system boundaries. In the 2nd stage which is mainly the collection stage, according to standard methodology, the accurate tracking of all product "in – out" flows are identified. The identification and quanti- fication of energy, water, materials usage and environ- mental releases (e.g., air emissions, solid waste disposal, waste water discharges, pollution with chemical reagents) have to be properly collected. Furthermore, in the 3rd stage the assessment of potential human and ecological effects of energy, water, and material usage and the environ- mental releases identified in the inventory analysis (2nd stage) has to be fulfilled. The adherence to clear procedure during this stage has to be made to avoid confusion. For example, if manufacturing a product consumes an esti- mated volume of diesel, in the LCIA phase the CO2 emis- sion effects and global warming impact from combustion of that fuel would be calculated [3, 10, 14]. There are various methods proposed for categorizing the life cycle impact of the flows "to'' and ''from'' the environment [3. p.1-18]. The reason is that the complexity of ecosystems leads to the permanent development of alternative impact modules. Table 1 shortly exhibits some of them. As it can be seen from the table, there is an assessment of a life cycle of product with use of different indicators such as releases, recourse use, damages on human health, etc. A large quantity of proposed methodologies indicates that some of them can be efficiently applied to a particular case and miss the aims of researches in another. Thus, after a quali- tative analysis we should admit that every methodology prefers some specific indicators but less attention pays to others. From this perspective it is obvious, that such meth- odologies as LIME, Eco-indicator 99, IMPACT 2002(+) accounted such factors as climate change, human toxicity, pollution agents inside and outside of analysed space, acidification, eutrophication, and energy extraction [15. p.87-88, 20]. Whereas for such tools as EPS 2000d, TRACI, ECOSCARCITY smaller quantity of factors have been taken into account [16, 17, 18, 20]. These are for example the climate change and a human toxicity. In any case it doesn't point at imperfection of some of these ap- proaches. Rather, the major issue is that they indicate the main points for certain systems relatively when the most important characteristics for assessment are chosen. In this way, from our point of view, the complicity and ineffi- ciency of attempts in creating the universal methodology is evident. However, such factors as human toxicity, including
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Avaliação do sistema de gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Quito - Equador através de análise de ciclo de vida

Avaliação do sistema de gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Quito - Equador através de análise de ciclo de vida

Two perspectives can be evaluated for residues: modeling of waste disposal of a product or comparison of various waste disposal alternatives. It might allow finding the most suitable waste disposal and generates co-products as energy with the smallest loads on the environment (Klöpffer, Grahl 2014). Under this context, the present study evaluates the MSW management system of Quito - Ecuador through life cycle assessment approach, focusing on the management of domestic and commercial waste, because they are generated massively and continuously, representing an important environmental load.
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The influence of functional unit on life cycle assessment of lamps: a review of results

The influence of functional unit on life cycle assessment of lamps: a review of results

The use phase represents a range that varies from 88% to 99% of impacts, characterizing it as the main hotspot in lamps life cycle. According to OSRAM (2009), less than 2% of the consumed energy is related to manufacturing step and final disposal (treatment) of obsolete lamps. This behavior is partly because use phase is the largest energy consumption point in life cycle steps, which also explains overall better performance of fluorescent and LED (lower ratio watts.lumens-hour). Sensitivity analysis were performed by Tähkämö et al. (2013), Principi and Fioretti, (2014), Tahkamo et al. (2014) and Tan et al. (2015) to examine the variation on final results when changing possible energy grid. The study of Tan et al. (2015) demonstrates that a “clean” energy mix can reduce by 19% the overall impacts related to lighting whereas Tähkämö et al. (2013), reached a 90% of reduction comparing Finnish electricity grid to a hydropower energy source. Thus, the authors indicate that amongst possibilities, hydropower energy would reach better reductions. Principi and Fioretti (2014) confirms this conclusion, emphasizing the importance of renewable energies for optimal results.
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