It takes into account the number of invasive species at a site and the main forms and consequences of the invasion. Indirectly, upon modifying natural environments, such as filling and/or clearing a region, man may facilitate the spread of invasive exotic species. Invasive species are also those native from Brazil that started to occur outside their original area. Currently, the introduction and the spread of invasive exotic species is one of the three leading causes of extinction of species in the world (IBGE IDS, 2012). Invasive exotic species compete with native species and may cause the extinction of some of them. This contributes to environmentaldegradation in the Caatinga and in the municipalities studied. There is the removal of species native to the Caatinga to the detriment of exotic plants that are introduced. This practice greatly undermines the sustainability of municipalities because the presence of these species causes extinctions and, as a result, the three municipalities were classified as unfavorable regarding this indicator.
The detection and monitoring of environmentaldegradation requires both low-cost and easy-to-perform techniques. This study intended to conduct sampling and use geostatistics to predict the spatial variability of environmentaldegradation indicators. The field of study was the micro- drainage basin of the Itacuruba creek in Itacuruba (PE). The georeferenced samples were subjected to sulfuric acid to determine organic carbon, iron oxide, aluminum oxide and molecular relation of ki and altitude. The data were statistically analyzed where only the altitude presented normal distribution and the organic carbon did not present spatial dependence, which indicated it was a degraded area. The iron oxide content in the soil surface is a good indicator of an environmentaldegradation index, and future sampling may be spaced in 600 m in the Itacuruba region (PE). Geostatistics is presented as an efficient, low cost predictor for studying environmentaldegradation and monitoring.
Many studies have attempted to spatially identify degraded land, although not necessarily in relation to agricultural expansion, including the Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD) , the Assessment of the Status of human-induced soil degradation in South and South-East Asia (ASSOD) , and the Global Soil Degradation Assessment (GLADA) . These efforts coincided with the emergence of the idea to utilize degraded land as a land-use planning strategy to prevent further environmentaldegradation [13,38]. The extent to which the degraded land identification studies of GLASSOD, ASSOD and GLADA can support land-use planning at the local level is, however, limited due to their low spatial resolution. In addition, the GLASOD and ASSOD studies focused on soil degradation, due to wind and water erosion, nutrient depletion and pollution, and are therefore of limited use to the present discussion on land degradation and deforestation as a consequence of agricultural expansion . In GLADA, a different approach was used and degradation was assessed at the global scale in terms of changes in net productivity potential of biomass . Although the objective is closer to our aims, the application of these results for our purpose is limited, not only because of their low spatial resolution, but also due to the lack of information on the current vegetation cover. Although not entirely meeting our meeting our objectives, the focus on degradation of vegetation cover instead of soil degradation seemed a promising approach. Such an approach was also used in a study by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), which focused on the drivers of degradation to identify degraded areas, and assessed the potential of degraded land for oil palm expansion from an agronomic point of view . The WWF definition of degraded land was; ‘land where the native vegetation has been altered by anthropogenic activity resulting in a reduction in tree canopy cover, standing biomass or species diversity from which the system cannot recover unaided within a defined time period’. The study concluded that degradation of vegetation does not necessarily affect the land productivity potential. This means that means that high agricultural yields can be obtained on such lands, including from oil palm cultivation .
(Environmentaldegradation impact on native communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in an urban frag- ment of semideciduous plateau forest). Three forest reserves, with highly degraded areas, are open to visitors in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Impact caused by tree cutting, heavy traffic and visitors on the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was evaluated in two areas with different degradation stages of the Dr. Luis Teixeira Mendes Forest Garden, a remnant of semideciduous forest. Soil samples were removed from three locations within each area; spores were isolated from the soil by wet sieving and sucrose centrifugation and mounted on permanent slides. Spores were counted and identified taxonomically under a microscope. Diversity, dominance, equitability and similarity indexes were calculated from abundance data. The degraded area had the highest number of spores and featured communities with the lowest rates in richness, diversity and equitability. However, high spore density was caused by the frequent presence of G. sinuosum sporocarps. Ten to 12 species were verified in each site from the preserved area while this number varied from 6 to 12 in the degraded area. In the degraded area, Site II, lying in the most protected area of the forest fragment, diversified and equilibrated communities existed, similar to sites in the preserved area. Results suggest that environmentaldegradation had negative effects on the establishment and diversity of AMF.
After the 26 th December 2004 earthquake, a major tsunami wave train traveled with tremendous velocity and transported large quantities of water and sediments, including microfossils. The present study used environmental characteristics and foraminifera distribution to determine the impact of tsunami sediments. The Gulf of Mannar receives input through a number of rivers and streams, of which the Tamiraparani followed by Vaipar River, are the major sources. The coastal area between Mandapam and Tuticorin that was studied was affected by recent tsunamis. The outcome of the tsunami sediment studies of this area based on micro fauna, particularly foraminifera, will give a clear picture about the impacts of tsunami and environmentaldegradation in this region.
The stream groups identified by us represent the typ- ical physionomies present in agroecosystems (Terra et al. 2013b, Teresa and Casatti 2017). The reference streams have well-preserved riparian forests, with a dominance of woody vegetation. These streams also have good physical integrity, with high environmental complexity, and hard substrate that maintains high species richness (Dala-Corte et al. 2016). On the other hand, impacted streams have more unconsolidated substrate, which is evidence of the siltation process that is currently underway in the region (Borges et al. 2015). These impacts, associated with riparian forest removal and loss of native vegetation surrounding streams, cause habitat homo- geneity, favoring tolerant fish species that become abundant (Lorion and Kennedy 2009). The most dominant species was Knodus cf. chapadae, a species with high phenotypic plasticity (Teresa et al. 2016). Like its congener, K. moenkahusii, this species seems to be tolerant of environmentaldegradation, with a great ability to exploit niche opportunities in degraded streams (Ceneviva-Bastos et al. 2007).
Naturally, the southern regions of Bahia are environmentally fragil. This fragility is linked to natural factors such as the terciary and quaternary sedimentary lining, the high pluviometric rates and relatively low slope. All those factors render the area susceptible to erosive processes and mass movements. Man’s occupation and its advance inwards took place in a rather slow manner, however, since the 1940s all the Mesoforms where “antropizadas”, which altered the morphogenetic aspects and enhanced the region environmental fragility, intensifying the effects of floods, the frequency of erosive processes and mass movements, accelerating deforestation (decreasing biodiversity) and altering the climate dynamics. This paper intends to characterize the occupation process of the far south regions of Bahia, identifying key tranfosmations in landscape, in association with demographic dynamics and land usage after 1945. It has concluded that the occupation process of Southern Bahia has been intensified after the second half of the 20th century, boosted local economy, which in turn degraded the area both socially and environmentally, enhancing the negative effects of some related processes: deforestation of the Atlantic Forest, the improper use of the soil, enhancement in intrinsic environmental fragility, accelerated growth in population masses and arising of new cities, culminating in the state’s higher urbanization ratios.
has amplified the effect of human behaviour on the environment. Small- scale but widespread farming and cattle grazing by the groups in Darfur have accelerated desertification. Environmentaldegradation in Darfur is not a new process, nor is it even one that has accelerated in any meaningful way in the past ten years. What is it then about environmental change in Darfur that has led to conflict now?
Initially, we estimated the models using conventional econometric techniques to identify the presence of spatial effects in the residuals. We also estimated several spatial models in order to verify the robustness of the results: SAR, SEM, SLX, SDM and SDEM. The model that best captured the EKC relationship, according to Moran’s I in the spatial model residuals, are the Spatial Lag of Model (SLX), since it is the one that minimizes spatial dependence. In the estimations, we found an inverted-U shape for the EKC, corroborating the initial hypothesis on economic development and environmentaldegradation for the current Brazilian agricultural frontier. Therefore, human development, although leading to deforestation initially, induces a sustainable development after a certain level. The turning point of the EKC curve, where economic development reaches its maximum impact on the environment, is an HDI level of 0.57, which is slightly below the region’s average of 0.61. Therefore, 71.82% of the municipalities in the current Brazilian agriculture frontier have an HDI level above the turning point, which indicates that deforestation will decrease its pace as these municipalities develop. On the other hand, there is still a trade-off between development and forest conservation for the remaining 28.18% of municipalities that are below the turning point. These highlights environmental concerns for the region, since its development could boost degradation in these underdeveloped municipalities
The key findings point out that the pull factors that support the migration decision of people affected by environmentaldegradation are relevant, and they include the higher living standards and incomes in other countries. The truth is that people would only leave their root context if the means of livelihood became unsustainable, in situations like urbanization (in which the land owners may order their removal) and mega-infrastructure construction (as the example of the many displaced people with the construction of the Aswan dam). Due to the paucity of financial means, as the environmentaldegradation has a negative impact on income, it is usually difficult to leave the home context; when migration is possible, the majority of the routes are internal. The question of owning the land is central in this decision: in fact, the mobility of the farmers who hire the lands opposes to the inflexibility of land owners, who would only leave if officially displaced by the government. Despite this highly vulnerable situation, the Egyptian government did not yet consider environmental migration as a serious problem, not taking this as an issue of great priority (Afifi, 2009a).
The literature about the impact of trade and environment on sustainable development has been reviewed. The links of indicators to policy processes, though a relatively new concern for sustainable development, has long been recognized mainly by scholars working on social indicators as a key factor in ensuring effective use. Environmental protection is the concern of all people, including those from developing economies. Developing economies suspect that measures taken by developed economies to link environment with trade might simply be disguised trade barriers. This can be seen from the actions and measures taken by the developing economies to protect the environment and to engage in sustainable development programs. It is argued here that environmental measures should be confined to environmental protection alone and not linked with trade sanctions. Environmentaldegradation and carelessness in developing economies are mainly due to ignorance and to backwardness in environment technology. Industrialization and economic growth have both positive and negative effects on the environment. Malaysia’s economic development has brought large improvements in those environmental problems that are primarily related to poverty and to a low level of economic development. Sustainable development not only yields benefits for the
Titanium dioxide sensitized photocatalytic degradation of a pyridine pesticide ana- logue, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine, was investigated by monitoring the pyridine moiety degradation, as well as by monitoring the chloride generated in the process. Effect of the initial substrate concentration on the rate of its degradation is reported. Here we show that the kinetics of both reactions are of the zero-order in the entire investigated con- centration range. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model successfully described the influence of the initial substrate concentration on the rate of the pyridine moiety degra- dation. It was found that dechlorination of the substrate takes place by direct photolysis. The differences in the kinetics of pyridine moiety degradation and dechlorination were explained on the basis of the electrostatic potential for the investigated compound.
and detection at 225 nm using a UV detector. LC-UV method previously validated was extended to LC-ESI-MS for the characterization of the degradation products (DP-01 and DP-02) formed, without complicated isolation or purification processes, based on retention times and confirmation of molecular weight. Degradation kinetics of DAB was also evaluated and could be described as a first-order process (R 2 = 0.9900). Furthermore, no evidence of cytotoxicity in human mononuclear
The environmental educator should place the students in educational situations, such as within environmental aggression or environmental conservation conditions and indicates means to understand the environmental situation. In environmental terms, the above is not difficult since we are surrounded by the environment. Environmental Education is useless when dissociated with such reality. However, the use of the environment as a motive is much more important that providing information on a river or an ecosystem in the region.
We have entered in the era of globalization where environmental pollution is manor concern due to industrial revolution. Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Now days, number of industrial sector developed on and around the planet earth. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. Each Industrial development requires environmental clearance from Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) in India. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an important tool for integrating the objectives of environmental management into the decision making process to ensure environmentally sound and sustainable development. It is one of the most widely used tools for identifying and mitigating adverse ecological effects of development proposals. In 1987, UNEP adopted a set of goals and principles on EIAs. EIA is an exercise to be carried out before any project or major activity is undertaken to ensure that it will not in any way harm the environment on a short term or long term basis. Any developmental endeavor requires not only the analysis of the need of such a project, the monetary costs and benefits involved but most important, it requires a consideration and detailed assessment of the effect of a proposed development on the environment. The environment impact process was introduced with the purpose of identifying /evaluating the potential beneficial and adverse impacts of development projects on the environment, taking in to account environmental, social, cultural and aesthetic considerations. All of these considerations are critical to determine the viability of a project and to decide if a project should be granted environmental clearance. An EIA concentrate on problems, conflicts and natural resource constraints which might affect the viability of a project. It also predicts how the project could harm to people, their homeland, their livelihoods, and the other nearby developmental activities. After predicting potential impacts, the EIA identifies measures to minimize the impacts and suggests ways to improve the project viability.
the day urea degrades into the two phases of carbon incorporation and CO 2 liberation, while during the night it degrades only into CO 2 liberation. In the Pindaré and Turiaçu waters, the present ratios might increase with depth upon an attenuation of light intensity. The variation in the ratio of dark to light values might be partly caused by the differences in phytoplankton species, as suggested by Webb and Haas (1976), by the physiological condition of the microorganisms, as well as by their lower levels of irradiance due to turbid waters. Although, light intensity was not determined, the turbidity and the high suspended solids concentrations were in the same range as those in Solimões river during the low water season according to previous studies by Mitamura et al. (2000) about grain size distribution of particulate matter and sediment. The irradiance, in the present aquatic systems, might be a key parameter affecting the dark to light ratio in urea degradation.
(days -1) the degradation constant. This agrees with other authors’ results  . Although the degradation of some pesticides is mainly microbial, their disappearance normally follows first-order kinetics because the amount of pesticide in the soil is very small in comparison to other components. Table 3 shows the values for the degradation constant and the half-life for each active ingredient in the different matrices, along with the coefficient of linear regression (R 2 ) of the previous equation transformed logarithmically.