Another issue regarding contamination by S. aureus in food is the increasing emergence of strains resistant to methicillin (MRSA – Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which is often the only available therapeutic protocol. MRSA strains are characterized as unresponsive to treatment with β-lactams and they have the mecA gene which is responsible for encoding the penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a). This protein acts as a target resistant to inhibition by the antibiotic, preventing bacterial death (RIVERA-TAPIA, 2003). Based on this, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic genes and the mecA gene in S. aureus isolated from goatmilk.
The addition of 1 g/L of fully and partially defatted chia enabled the development of ‘dulce de leche’ with an increment of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with omega-3 and omega-6, reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio, the OAT and OT effects, and the energy value. The treatments with FCO and FCPD also showed higher moisture content, reflecting in lower compression force on instrumental analysis of texture. The treatments concentrated at 72 °B were also considered of better sensorial acceptance by consumers. The chia flour proved difficult to solubilise, which was noticeable in the colour parameters and sensory analysis when compared to treatment with AM. The OA was greater than 70% in six treatments in all evaluated attributes. Therefore, the use of chia is promising, mainly in the form of a thickening agent up to the concentration of 72 °B in ‘dulce de leche’ from goatmilk.
Corrêa et al. (2011) determined antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Corynebacterium fimi in sheep caseinate hydrolysates for 3h and the diameters of the inhibitory zones were measured as 9.3 and 11.5 mm respectively. In another study on Italian cheese varieties, Rizzello et al. (2005) detected antimicrobial activities against Lactobacillus sakei A15, Listeria innocua DSM 20649, Bacillus megaterium F6, and Escherichia coli K12 in WSEs obtained from Caprino del Piemonte (goatmilk and no starter) and Crescenza cheeses (cow milk and freeze dried thermophilic starter), and the diameters of the inhibitory zones were determined between 3 mm - 6 mm for indicator Lactobacillus sakei A15. Pritchard et al. (2010) identified antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 in WSEs isolated from Australian Cheddar cheese. Meira et al. (2012) examined no antimicrobial effect in WSEs obtained from ripened sheep cheeses. Rizzello et al. (2005) determined no antimicrobial activity in WSEs isolated from Fossa cheese produced with sheep milk as well. Generally, while antimicrobial activity against Bacillus strains (Gram-positive) was determined in many studies carried out using peptides isolated from cheese, antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative) was identified in this study. In addition to this, the diameter of the inhibitory zone identified in this study was higher than the diameters of the inhibitory zones determined in the previous studies.
Some literature information pointed that milk production has more efficient water use than beef production (Campos, 2006; Silva et al. 2007). Around 10,000L are to produce 10kg dairy milk. Using the same amount of water it is only possible to produce 1kg of beef cattle (Campos, 2006). In this same point of view, for small ruminant system production, 16,835 are necessary to produce 1.0kg of sheep meat (Silva et al., 2007), whereas this same amount of water should be able to produce 19l of goatmilk in the intensive management presented in this paper.
were signiﬁcant. The present research showed no effect of the somatic cell count on the content of protein in goatmilk. However there was noted a signiﬁcant effect of the content of cell elements in milk on its content of lactose; the worse the cytological quality of milk, the lower its value. Analyzing the effect of the somatic cell count on the content of dry matter, it was found that the greater the count of cell elements, the greater the content of dry matter. The research by Strzałkowska et al.  which involved a white improved breed goat population demonstrated that an increased somatic cell count signiﬁcantly affected the increased content of total protein, conditioned foremost by an increasing share of whey proteins. The highest concentration of lactose was found in milk (similarly to the present research) of animals of the lowest level of cell elements in milk, and the increase in the somatic cell count was accompanied by a signiﬁcant decrease in the lactose concentration. A higher somatic cell count was accompanied by an increase in the content of fat, which resulted in a signiﬁcant increase in the content of total dry matter in milk of these animals .
Physicochemical parameters of the Tulum cheeses at determined ripening period has been demonstrated in Table 2. Ot was examined that cow milk Tulum cheese had a higher fat content (P < 0.01) due to the milk composition. The fat ratio did not differ in both cheeses during the ripening period. Changes in the salt content during the ripening period demonstrated varied statistical significants (P < 0.01) and the salt content was higher in goatmilk Tulum cheese (P < 0.05) as was the Ash content (P < 0.01). This could have been due to higher mineral matter and salt content in goatmilk. Furthermore, different ash values in the ash analysis, as an indicator of mineral and salt content, could have resulted from the different titratable acidity and pH values, which affected the absorption of salt. After the 15th ripening day, water losses were insignificant for each cheese, and dry matter content was higher in cow milk Tulum cheese (P < 0.01), especially due to the high fat content. Goatmilk Tulum cheese had a higher total nitrogen content (P < 0.05). Generally, total nitrogen content remained stable during the ripening period. The pH values of both cheeses were not the Jupiter C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, 300 A o ) (Phenomenex,
The administration of probiotics and prebiotics has been reported to be one of the most widely used approaches to modulate intestinal microbiota. Interestingly, type 2 diabetes has been associated with dysbiosis and one of the possible routes for restore a healthy gut microbiota is by the regular ingestion of probiotics, which has been highlighted in the food industry. The present study aimed, first, to develop a flavored fermented goatmilk containing probiotics and assess their metabolic effect in diabetics. Fermented milk with or without probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12) were subjected to physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analysis, besides the nutritional characterization of the product, including antioxidant activity. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of probiotic flavored fermented milk were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than conventional fermented milk. A higher loss in cell viability was observed for L. acidophilus than for the B. animalis. However, the viability of all bacteria was adequate (> 10 6 cfu/mL) until day 28 of storage. The fermented milk showed good sensory characteristics and no significant sensory preference among the fermented milks was found. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study including 50 diabetic patients, was developed later. The subjects were divided into two groups, receiving 120 mL/ day one of the fermented milks for 6 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, fasting blood and faecal samples were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. The study demonstrated a significant decrease in fructosamine levels (p ≤ 0.05) and haemoglobin A 1 c tended to be lower (p = 0.07) in probiotic group. TNF- α
Goatmilk products have been characterized by unusual consumers with lower acceptance due to their flavor and odor known as goaty. In this context, it was aimed to optimize the cupuassu goatmilk yogurt formulation by fat-replaces addition using a Just-about-Right scale (JAR). Five treatments were performed: whole goatmilk (W); skimmed goatmilk (S); inulin (SI); maltodextrin (SM); and whey protein (SW). The cupuassu goatmilk yogurts were evaluated by acceptability index, JAR and penalty analysis. The addition of inulin, maltodextrin and whey protein increase consumer acceptance and purchase intention. However, lower scores were observed for flavor. In Just-about-analyses, caprine flavor and odor were rates as a JAR. All the treatment was penalized as lower cupuassu flavor and odor. These results suggest that the addition of fat-replaces and cupuassu pulp improves the sensory characteristics of skimmed goatmilk yogurt.
The residues of all the pesticides under study showed a positive correlation with respect to pH and % fat present in the milk samples (Table 3). This finding is in accordance with some previous studies [21,22] which reported the accumulation of a high level of pesticide residues in high fat milk as compared to low fat milk. Yang et al.  and Sheng et al.  showed that differ- ent pesticides show higher solubility at lower pH (acidic) level and this is consistent with the findings of the current study. Further, a similar dependence pattern of all the pesticide residues under study except cyhalothrin was observed for specific gravity and specific gravity has been regarded as a good determinant for prediction of heavy metal residues in the milk cattle and goat . Earlier, no study has been conducted on the correlation of pesticide residues in the milk sample with its refract- ive index; however, present study showed a very strong negative correlation of all the pesticide residues with the refractive index depicted by higher refractive index coef- ficient values (Table 3). Therefore, refractive index may be considered as one of the most important determi- nants in this regard for the prediction of pesticide resi- dues in the goatmilk. The variable pattern of pesticide residue dependence upon milk characteristics signifies the need to construct the region specific QSAR models for residue prediction in the goatmilk.
in the elaboration of milk drinks, yogurts and cheeses. The elaboration of the mentioned products based on goatmilk, such as yogurt, can present significant alterations in its rheological properties, such as low consistency and a tendency towards whey separation (syneresis). Therefore, to obtain satisfactory results with fermented goatmilk products, the addition of stabilizers is recommended. According to LORENZEN et al. (2002), the enrichment of the dry matter content and/or the proteic content are standard measures used to avoid syneresis and to improve the texture of the yogurt. As such, the soy proteins, specifically, the water-soluble soybean extract (WSSE), deserves prominence to improve the nutritional value of the product and to affect the gel structure formation of the yogurt.
The same is true for why hypocholesteromic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids are not prescribed as a reference value for dairy products. The literature uses as a standard of comparison the value 2.0, assigned to meat products; however, in the present study the rates remained below 1.0 for all treatments, but were slightly higher in ‘dulce de leche’ with FCO and FCPD. This result with low H/H is influenced by the high content of myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0), which represent more than 55% of the total fatty acids in the treatment of ‘dulce de leche’. As for the other fatty acids, significant concentrations (13.56 to 14.86 g/100 g lipids) of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) are noted that are characteristic of goatmilk, as demonstrated by Molina et al. (2015).
Studies comparing good and bad roughage used as dairy goat feed showed negative influence of bad quality silage over the body weight gain and milk production. The animals, which received low quality roughage, had greater values in the somatic cells count (SCC), showing greater impairment than those which received silage and hay of good quality (Hussain et al., 1996). The food consumed by the dairy goats can have an effect over the milk organoleptic qualities. Badly kept silage and other feeds may harm these qualities of the dairy goatmilk. This is important as it may alter the quality and techniques of preparing the milk products, which makes many researchers seek information about quality variation of this product.
OPTIMIZATION AND INTRALABORATORIAL VALIDATION OF METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF CHLORAMPHENICOL RESIDUES IN GOATMILK BY GC/ECD. The presence of chloramphenicol residues in goatmilk can cause toxic effects in the population. The present work consists of the optimization and validation of analytical methodology for determination of chloramphenicol residues in goatmilk by GC/ECD. The extraction was made with ethyl acetate and the clean-up with SPE-C18. The identiication was made by comparison of retention time and GC/MS, and the quantiication by external standard. The method was selective, linearity (0.998), precise (5.8-13.4%), exact (69.87-73.71%) and robust. The LOD and LOQ of method were 0.030 and 0.10 μg/kg, respectively. The method was eficiently for analysis of chloramphenicol in goatmilk.
Goatmilk is a natural source of oligosaccharides derived from lactose, conjugated linoleic acid, A- and B-complex vitamins, and calcium (Haenlein & Anke, 2011; Paz et al., 2014). It also tolerates different technological treatments, thus yielding products with the ability to meet consumer demands in terms of health, nutritional value, safety and sensory attributes, indicating a promising future for the dairy goat sector. Thus any effort to encourage the production and scientific research in this field is positive (García et al., 2014).
Summary. The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximate- ly 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million) constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goatmilk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goatmilk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland is estimated at 190 000 heads. With regard to the content of basic con- stituents, goatmilk is similar to cow milk, although it differs from it as to the qualitative composi- tion of fat and protein. Species protein structure of goatmilk, different from that of cow milk, causes fewer allergic reactions which are observed to occur in the case of intolerance to cow milk proteins. Rennin curd from goatmilk is softer and less compact. A wide range of different prod- ucts is manufactured from goatmilk including: liquid milk (pasteurised and UHT), rennin and cottage cheeses, fermented beverages such as yoghurt, kefir, butter milk, cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, rice goats, butter and even chocolates “Goat’s Milk”.
Fifty liters of pasteurized and homogenized whole goatmilk were purchased from a local dairy plant, bulked, and concentrated in a pilot batch evaporator (Fisatom, São Paulo, Brazil), under vacuum. By using these conditions, the boiling point was kept at a low temperature (± 68 °C) during the entire process to avoid major changes in the milk constituents. The goatmilk was concentrated until reaching a total solid content of 50.5 ± 0.4% w/w. Experimental samples containing different solids content were prepared from the same concentrated goatmilk by diluting it with distilled water until reaching the concentrations of 10.5 to 50.0% w/w. The composition of the goatmilk was determined, and the main results are as follows (ASSOCIATION…, 1990): 87.6% moisture (wet basis); 3.2 g protein.100 g –1 ; 3.9 g total lipid (fat).100 g –1 ;
Cont rol of goat m ilk product ion is im port ant because of t w o reasons: 1) it alows t he farm er t o feed anim als according t o t heir product ion, 2) it provide Am inist rat ion w it h reliable breed im provem ent obj ect ives. The Murcia Region has an official dairy cont rol nucleus wit h 22.000 Murciano- Granadina bred goat s. The aim of t his nucleus is t o obt ain obj ect ive and reliable dat a of cuant it at ive and qualit at ive product ion values for each goat of t he nucleus. I n t his w ay it is possible t o carry out a high- qualit y genet ic select ion process relat ed t o t he am ount and qualit y of m ilk product ion.
An inverse relationship was observed between concentrate supplementation and fat content in the milk (Table 4) which can be related to the reduction of precursors for the synthesis of fat in the mammary gland (BAUMAN; GRIINARI, 2003). According to these authors, the increase in the production of propionic acid in diets with high content of grains promotes a glycemia increase through gluconeogenesis, which would result in a greater secretion of insulin. As a consequence, there would be a decrease in lipolysis, reducing the contribution of preformed fatty acids for fat synthesis in the mammary gland.
. colitic group), the levels of pro-inflammatory citokynes, TNF- α (p <0.01 vs. colitic group) (p <0.01 SAZ vs. LC, ICM e ICM/2x) and IL1- (p <0.01 vs. colitic group). It also promoted a significant reduction in oxidative stress that could be observed by the reduction in the MDA (p <0,01 vs. colitic group) (p <0.05 LC vs. SAZ) and the increase in the glutathione (p <0.01 vs. colitic group) (p <0.01 SAZ vs. LC, IC e ICM/2x). The benefits of the pre-treatments were also demonstrated by the preservation of the colonic cytoarchitecture, and the decreased expression of the COX-2 (p <0.05 vs. colitic group) and the iNOS (p <0.05 vs. colitic group). In conclusion, it was observed that goatmilk, goat yogurt and sulfasalazine exerted anti-inflammatory effect on colitis model induced by acetic acid in rats. Therefore, these goat dairy products may be a valuable alternatives to traditional medications and a potential functional food for the prevention of IBD.
Several biochemical approaches have been applied, in the attempt to reduce the allergenic potential of milk pro- teins, especially BLG. Heat treatment, enzymatic hydroly- sis, fermentation and glycation (Fritsche, 2003; Hattori et al., 2004; Ehn et al., 2005), as well as the Maillard reaction (Guanhao Bu et al., 2010), are examples. Notwithstanding, these always entail increased costs and the accumulation of unexpected by-products. Hence, how to decrease BLG con- tent in goatmilk, and thus deaden milk allergy by genetic modification, remains a major challenge among modern goat-breeders.