Intergroup relations

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Intercultural dialogue and intergroup relations in Europe: contributions of Cultural Studies and Social Psychology

Intercultural dialogue and intergroup relations in Europe: contributions of Cultural Studies and Social Psychology

The greater intercultural contact between different groups, such as what we witness, for example, in European context, also turns collective memories or social representa- tions of history (Licata & Klein, 2005; Liu & Hilton, 2005) into more plural phenomena, challenging representations that are already known within the same group (Liu & Hilton, 2005). This is the case, for instance, of supranational groups, such as the European Union. Although the different countries that comprise it have their specific characteris- tics and, although there are marked power asymmetries between them, it seems impor- tant that they share some elements in common within the social representations of this group’s history and that political leaders take these representations into account when formulating policies that are commonly accepted among those involved and consist- ent with a common reality (Liu & Hilton, 2005). Social Psychology and Cultural Studies have interesting theoretical resources to analyse the (re)constructions of these collective memories and the relations of coloniality that may be involved in these negotiations based on present-day intergroup relations.
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Complex inclusive categories of positive and negative valence and prototypicality claims inasymmetric intergroup relations

Complex inclusive categories of positive and negative valence and prototypicality claims inasymmetric intergroup relations

status position. Research on social identity theory has shown that in secure intergroup relations (with stable, legitimate status differences) lower-status groups often use social creativity strategies when there is little chance for social change (e.g., Jackson, Sullivan, Harnish, & Hodge, 1996; Mummendey et al., 1999; Terry, Carey, & Callan, 2001). We argue that complex inclusive categories can play a central role for lower-status groups in particular. As prototypicality is a basis of legitimate social status (Weber et al., 2002) as well as group privileges and entitlements (Wenzel, 2004), complex inclusive categories may be a way to turn a secure (stable, legitimate) asymmetric intergroup relation into an insecure one, opening the door for social change, and consequently for increasing the in-group’s social status.
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Intergroup relations and fundamental dimensions of social judgment.

Intergroup relations and fundamental dimensions of social judgment.

Costa-Lopes 2010 describes a series of studies detailing how the impact of intergroup similarity/dissimilarity on attitudes towards immigrant groups depends on whether this similarity/di[r]

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“Back to the Future:” Ideological Dimensions of Intergroup Relations

“Back to the Future:” Ideological Dimensions of Intergroup Relations

Accordingly, ideologies that trigger intergroup processes are presented and dis- cussed in this chapter: ideologies of color blind/color consciousness about inter- group [r]

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Dual identification and intergroup relations: the role of superordinate category relevance

Dual identification and intergroup relations: the role of superordinate category relevance

81 We conclude that the simultaneous salience of two self-categories is indeed possible; it is even the case that the superordinate category can be co-activated by the salience of subgroup identity due to spread of activation. However the salience of a superordinate category may also be inhibited when there is a subgroup salient. The comparisons that generally occurs between the ingroup and the outgroup to differentiate the ingroup will, as predicted by SCT’s functional antagonism hypothesis and as shown in our studies, inhibit the salience of a superordinate category that is relevant for these comparisons. Thus, functional antagonism is a valid principle regulating self-categories in social identity representation. In that sense, dual identities that contain a subgroup and the superordinate category that was used as criterion to differentiate it from a outgroup are not possible. Nevertheless a dual identity can be created with a superordinate category that is not relevant for the comparisons of the subgroup identity. Whether a superordinate category is relevant or non-relevant for intergroup comparisons depends on the context in which the superordinate category is to become salient. In the domain of football, for fans the category “Nation” can work as non- relevant for the comparisons between fans if football teams are playing to qualify for an international competition. Here football fans of different teams are not likely to compare each other in terms of nation. But the situation changes if their football teams are playing against each other to win the title in the national championship. In this case comparisons are quite certain.
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Cultures, memories, dialogues under construction

Cultures, memories, dialogues under construction

In the following text, “Intercultural dialogue and intergroup relations in Europe: contributions from Cultural Studies and Social Psychology”, Julia Alves Brasil, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil and Rosa Cabecinhas, University of Minho, Portugal, pull together contributions from different disciplines in order to analyze the challenges that are being raised nowadays in the field of Intercultural Communication. The authors discuss these challenges by means of the articulation of theoretical perspectives about the processes of identity, alterity, social representations, collective memory, colonialism and power asymmetries. Advocating the importance of a critical perspective in the un- derstanding of interculturality, the authors emphasize the necessity of transforming so- cial, institutional and epistemic structures, so as to (re)create ways of thinking, feeling and relating to others, which implies not only the simple recognition and tolerance of the “other” but also to active listening, dialogue and mutual transformation.
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Imagined intergroup physical contact improves attitudes toward immigrants

Imagined intergroup physical contact improves attitudes toward immigrants

Our findings extend and further clarify the results found by Choma et al. (2014) and Hodson et al. (2015) showing that imagined intergroup physical contact is per se effective in ameliorating intergroup attitudes even when participants are not provided with additional information concerning the type of interaction with the outgroup (e.g., intergroup cooperative setting). Also, this set of studies broadens the theoretical frame of imagined contact by showing that even specific forms of imagined contact, such as the one represented by a physical encounter, could be a promising strategy to improve intergroup relations. Note that this set of studies was not designed to compare the traditional form of imagined contact with imagined intergroup physical contact. Indeed, the primary aim of this research is to inform on the effects of physical contact also in intergroup contexts, a topic which has not yet been fully investigated in its indirect forms. In addition, most of the research has focused on the effects of direct physical contact in interpersonal settings while less attention has been given to the role played by physical contact in intergroup settings in both its direct and indirect forms. Thus, this research is informative in the sense that it expands the limited literature on the effects of intergroup physical contact on outgroup attitudes by using indirect contact strategies. Nevertheless, future studies could aim at comparing imagined intergroup physical contact and traditional forms of imagined contact to test if and in which contexts (e.g., countries in which touch is more frequently used or countries which do not often involve in physical contact), one could be more effective than the other.
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More than comparing with majorities: the importance of alternative comparisons between children from different minority groups

More than comparing with majorities: the importance of alternative comparisons between children from different minority groups

Until now, there are -to our knowledge- no studies that examined comparisons between lower status minorities, and their implications for intergroup relations of children. The current study aims to fill this gap. We also intend to examine the perceived social hierarchy established in this more complex setting involving one majority and two minority groups. More specifically, we intend to examine whether the social hierarchy established by the higher status group is altered by minority groups’ needs of decreasing the distance between their in-group and a higher status out-group. This issue is particularly important because most studies analysing such a social structure do this only from the point of view of higher status groups (see Hagendoorn, 1995), as if there was a uni- versal consensus regarding this social hierarchy. Bennett, Lyons, Sani and Barrett (1998), for example, conducted a study with only White-English children regarding their preferences for three other European countries. As expected, they found that they prefer mostly children from their own country, followed by French and Spanish children and show the least preference for German children, but they did not check for the consensus of this hierarchy. More recently Cabecinhas (2002), in a study with only White-Portuguese children, similarly found that these expressed a greater preference for in-group children, followed by Black-Portuguese children, and the least preference for Gypsy-Portuguese children, but she also did not check for the consensus of the other two groups regarding this hierarchy. If different perspectives on the relative positions of groups in the social structure are not taken into account, they appear to converge within society as a whole, where the dominant view prevails. However, different groups may hold different representations of the social structure, which can become the source both of misunderstanding or social conflict and of social identity enhancement strategies.
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Inter-ethnic prejudice reduction in childhood : a common ingroup identity is not enough : the importance of the superordinate category type

Inter-ethnic prejudice reduction in childhood : a common ingroup identity is not enough : the importance of the superordinate category type

1950s. Allport (1954) contended that contact, by itself, is no guarantee that attitudes between members of different groups will become more positive. In fact, contact can actually reinforce stereotypes and maintain hostility between the different groups. A classic illustration of this fact is the field experiment conducted by Sherif and his colleagues (Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood, & Sherif, 1961), which became known as the Robbers Cave study. In this experiment, Sherif and colleagues tested the idea that the functional relationship between the groups, competitive or cooperative, critically shape intergroup relations. If the relationship between different groups is competitive, when one groups’ goals and actions are seen to frustrate and hinder the other groups’ goals (a zero-sum relationship), hostility between the groups emerges. However, in a cooperative situation, when different groups work cooperatively to attain common superordinate goals, intergroup harmony develops. In the Robbers Cave study (Sherif et al., 1961), Sherif and colleagues brought a group of 12 year-old boys to a summer camp. Initially the boys were divided in two groups that were kept apart for one week to allow time for group formation. After, group-oriented competitive activities were introduced and blatant hostility between members of both groups broke out (fighting, verbal insults). In a third phase of the experiment, Sherif and colleagues introduced intergroup contact situations that were neutral and non-competitive. However, hostility between the groups remained, mere contact was therefore not enough to reduce conflict between the groups. Only when the experimenters introduced superordinate goals, i.e., goals that could only be attained with the full cooperation of both groups, did intergroup relations became more positive.
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Being a minority: predictors of relative ingroup prototypicality and strategies to achieve social change

Being a minority: predictors of relative ingroup prototypicality and strategies to achieve social change

For the quality of intergroup relations in pluralist societies such social asymmetries are particularly relevant because they are usually linked to a high potential of intergroup conflicts: as we mentioned already, due to their standing status and power valued groups usually hold a dominant or powerful social position (Deaux, 2006a, 2006b), and tend to develop a sense of "ownership” (Hornsey & Hogg, 2000) over a self-relevant inclusive category (e.g., a certain society) that they share with devalued groups (e.g., immigrants or social minorities such as Gypsies, or other stigmatized groups). Therefore, through such higher status position, valued group’s members, gain a sense of being more entitled to privileges and resources (Wenzel, 2004). As a consequence they are often motivated to preserve social inequalities, for instance in order to maintain their positive social value and their position in the underlying standing social structure (e.g., Blumer, 1958; Dovidio et al., 2009; Morrison, Fast, & Ybarra, 2009). Based on such ethnical membership criteria, members of higher status or dominant groups generally hold negative attitudes, stereotypes, or negative emotions (e.g., Stephan & Stephan, 1985) and can also display discriminatory treatment toward immigrants, ethnic minorities or stigmatized groups (e.g., Deschamps, Vala, Marinho, Costa Lopes, & Cabecinhas, 2005; Ellemers & Barreto, 2001; Pettigrew, 1998). Besides attitudes, it is also possible to identify a “self- fulfilling” impact of stereotypes and prejudice that helps to maintain social inequalities between groups (Wright & Taylor, 2003, p. 439): similarly to what can happen at an interpersonal level (e.g., Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977), at an intergroup level, a set of studies showed that negative attitudes toward certain members of a social group, lead members of other groups to behave in a way that confirm such negative expectations (e.g., Word et al., 1974; see also Major & O’Brien, 2005).
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Having friends with gay friends? The role of extended contact, empathy and threat on assertive bystanders behavioral intentions

Having friends with gay friends? The role of extended contact, empathy and threat on assertive bystanders behavioral intentions

There are several factors that define those who engage in more defending behaviors, such as demographic factors, leadership, justice sensitivity or having LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender) friends (Poteat & Vecho, 2015). Having LGBT friends is associated with engaging in more active bystander interventions in homophobic bullying episodes (Poteat & Vecho, 2015). These findings are consistent with social psychological research examining the impact of extended contact on intergroup relations (e.g., Cameron, Rutland, & Brown, 2007; Eller, Gomez, Vázquez, & Fernández, 2015). The extended contact hypothesis proposes that knowing an ingroup member who has a close relationship with an outgroup member can improve intergroup attitudes (Wright, Aron, McLaughlin-Volpe, & Ropp, 1997). Research showed that the positive effects of extended contact vary depending on the level of intimacy with ingroup members (e.g., Tausch, Hewstone, Schmid, Hughes, & Cairns, 2011) or the quality of direct contact (e.g., Cameron, Rutland, Hossain, & Petley, 2011). Importantly, however, the positive effects of extended contact are consistent across studies even without controlling for level of intimacy or quality of direct contact (e.g., Cameron, Rutland, & Brown, 2007). The extended contact hypothesis has some advantages over direct contact (Eller, Abrams, & Gomez, 2012; Wright et al., 1997). For example, it reduces prejudice in contexts where direct contact is not possible, and can be a less threatening (i.e., less anxious) experience than direct contact (Eller et al., 2012). The positive effects of extended contact have been strongly supported. Previous research showed that extended contact improved attitudes towards refugees (Cameron et al., 2007), predicted lower prejudice towards different status group countries (Eller et al., 2012) and also related to increased humanization of the outgroup (i.e., homosexuals) (Capozza, Falvo, Trifiletti, & Pagani, 2014).
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THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

Even if it has argued that the steps taken by the European Union toward monetary integration has meant a stronger correlation of the business cycles in European countries, the reality s[r]

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NEW TENDENCIES IN INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZATION

NEW TENDENCIES IN INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZATION

This has resulted in a change of the principle of labor division in production units, implying its evolution from a logical foundation based on technical skills and efficiency to one based on competence and scientific knowledge. The increasing role of information and scientific knowledge in the economic activity has determined a growth of the importance of production based on homogeneous competencies and sets of knowledge, which resulted in a functional reconstruction of productive processes. A selection of the relations among companies took place. Vertically structured integration, sub-contractual agreements and market relations are replaced by long term contracts or strategic alliances. These alliances will be organized within a coordinated network. From now on, the criterion of activity location will move from a motivational logic of benefits resulting from comparative costs to a logic of access to specific factors (qualified workforce, positive foreign relations, etc.)
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LA ROUMANIE ET L’ADHÉSION ACCÉLERÉE Ŕ LA ZONE EURO

LA ROUMANIE ET L’ADHÉSION ACCÉLERÉE Ŕ LA ZONE EURO

Même si le Traité de Maastricht fait référence seulement aux critères de convergence nominale, au moment de l’adhésion à l’UE des pays de l’Europe Centrale et de l’Est av[r]

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COMMUNICATIONS AND GEOPOLITICS

COMMUNICATIONS AND GEOPOLITICS

States as Russia and France generate wealth through exploitation of a territory and centralize almost all their decisions in their capital cities. For this reason [r]

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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.9 número4

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.9 número4

Apresentamos o caso de um adolescente de 16 anos com rabdomiossarcoma paratesticular, submetido à linfadenectomia retroperitonial por tumor clínico estágio I (tomografia computadorizada retroperitonial normal), cujo resultado cirúrgico demonstrou três linfonodos aumentados e positivos para doença metastática; o paciente foi encaminhado para tratamento quimioterápico adjuvante. Este caso sugere que o protocolo Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group IV é questionável para adolescentes com rabdomiossarcoma paratesticular, e que a tomografia computadorizada de abdome negativa para linfonodos não deve afastar a necessidade de linfadenectomia retroperitoneal.
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Immunhistochemical analysis of Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta expression in etiopathogenesis of ovarian tumors

Immunhistochemical analysis of Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta expression in etiopathogenesis of ovarian tumors

When intergroup NF-kB positivity was evaluated using immunohistochemical method, statistically significantly higher H score was detected in Group 3 consisting of patien[r]

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J. bras. pneumol.  vol.39 número6

J. bras. pneumol. vol.39 número6

Intergroup analysis showed that the patients had similar values for BMI, degree of airway obstruction, classification of prognosis for mortality, perception of dyspnea in activities of daily living (mMRC scale), modified Baecke questionnaire scores (total score, leisure domain score, and sports domain score), and IPAQ, short version scores (MET-min/wk of moderate and vigorous physical activity). However, the patients in the SPI+ group were found to have significantly higher values for age and for the leisure domain score of the modified Baecke questionnaire, which means more time spent on activities that do not involve body displacement; in addition, these patients had lower functional exercise capacity and reported less time spent on walking activity and total physical activity in comparison with those in the SPI− group.
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PsicoUSF  vol.21 número3

PsicoUSF vol.21 número3

Keywords: intergenerational relations, psychic transmission between generations, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, mother child relations.. Transmissão Psíquica Familiar e Anorexia Ne[r]

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Parental Transmission of Religion and Citizenship

Parental Transmission of Religion and Citizenship

Our study calls for further work on the different ways in which religious and citizen identities are mutually co-constituted and transmitted across generations. Further, the specific role of religious care-work in the pursuit of citizenship compels one to consider that it does not involve the mere transmission of religious values, practices and faith, but rather includes the promotion of certain notions about how religion should be lived in society. The latter dimension requires the parental production and transmission to children of an economy of feelings, sustained by specific religious resources, within which certain forms of attachment and interaction to local and transnational communities, as well as to multiple other socio-religious groups and the nation-state are given a higher value than others. By ensuring certain kinds of citizenship that foster proud affiliation and belonging to a group identity, while simultaneously promoting intergroup identifications to engage across ethnic, religious and national boundaries, religious upbringing may beget varied means and projects for affective citizenship and civic participation.
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