Lipid oxidation

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Effect of ethanolic fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products

Effect of ethanolic fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products

As in the case of thiamine retention, limiting of changes in protein nutritional value by ethanolic fl axseed extracts were probably connected with their protective action against lipid oxidation. Some etha- nolic plant extracts contained phenolic compounds were also reported to inhibit both lipid oxidation and deterioration of nutritional quality of meat proteins [H ę et al. 2007, 2009, Ganhao et al. 2010]. Phenolic compounds were suggested to act against oxidation- induced damage of myofi brillar protein by two mecha- nisms: metal chelation (leading to inactivation of non- heme iron prooxidant effect) and radical scavenging (they could be scavengers of iron- and lipid-mediated reactive oxidant species) [Estevez et al. 2008]. As it has been maintained in the above section of manu- script, the EFEs had both radical scavenging and chelating ability [Waszkowiak et al. 2012]. However, antioxidant effi ciency of the phenolic compounds in meat products depends on numerous factors, e.g. their structure, localization and interaction with meat pro- teins [Estevez and Heinonen 2010, Lund et al. 2011].
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Lipid oxidation inhibition by natural tocopherols increases the nutritional value of tuna salami

Lipid oxidation inhibition by natural tocopherols increases the nutritional value of tuna salami

The fatty acid profile is also highly marked by the pres- ence of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). Oleic acid (18:1) is one of the most abundant MUFA and frequently abundant in this type of product. Comparatively to the control, DTL-100 showed an increase in oleic acid content, from 71.86% to 79.65% with the statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for day 9, meaning that DLT-100 can prevent lipid oxidation. Similarly, C22:6, n-3 pre- sented higher values for day 9 for samples treated with DLT-100 (6.09%) but also for RNX10 (11.45%). Furthermore, control sam- ples showed the highest unsaturated fatty acids content variation (p<0.05) when compared with the samples supplemented, reveal- ing the importance of the addition of antioxidants to prevent their oxidation. Besides this, no significant differences were found for lipid content between days 0 and 9. Nevertheless, one can be con- cluded differently that commercial mixes of tocopherols, can lead to different antioxidant activity.
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Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during

Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during

Analysis of conjugated dienes and TBARS values Lipid peroxidation is a major cause of quality dete- rioration in meat products. Frankel (1998) reported that the formation of conjugated double bonds (C=C-C=C), which is related to the production of hydroperoxides, oc- curs in the early stage of lipid oxidation. Two treatments with probiotic strains (P) and with sea salt (S) had lower concentrations of conjugated dienes (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the control sample (C) after ripening (Table 2). In all treatments, the concentration of conjugated dienes was stable during chilling storage. An exception was a probe with probiotic mixture for which the count of primary oxidation products increased (p ≤ 0.05) during storage.
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Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

Considering the lack of studies on the effects of Brazilian red pepper essential oil on the oxidative stability of pork meat, comparison of results reported in this research is a diffi cult task. However, compared with other plant-based antioxidants studies, similar results were reported by ROSSI et al. (2013) and AO et al. (2011) evaluating dietary addition of Lippia spp. (Verbenaceae) and Saururus chinensis that observed antioxidant effect in raw meat samples and subsequent lack of protection during storage probably due to the accumulation of lipid oxidation products. Besides that, in addition to the composition of the essential oil and the dietary level, the short half-life of the active compounds from the essential oils can determine the antioxidant response, considering that thermal processing and storage time could accelerate the degradation of the antioxidant compounds accumulated in the muscle membranes, limiting the antioxidant action to the initial stages of oxidation.
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Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acid Profile Related to Broiler Breast Meat Color Abnormalities

Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acid Profile Related to Broiler Breast Meat Color Abnormalities

Through the catalytic action of metal ions, in the presence of various factors such as light, increased temperature and oxygen, these fatty acids increase the unstable organic compounds in autoxidation reactions, involving the free radicals, which can initiate the meat lipid oxidation cycle (St Angelo, 1996). Soares et al. (2003b) postulated that thermal stress promoted higher mitochondrial phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in the presence of higher concentrations of Ca 2+ and that this could be the triggering factor in initiating the characteristic symptoms, leading to broiler PSE meat formation. PLA2 is a lypolytic enzyme which acts upon phospholipid membrane, liberating arachidonic acid (Murakami and Kudo, 2002). Thus, the aim of this work was to determine quantitatively the lipid oxidation and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast samples either with PSE or DFD-like meat color characteristics.
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Methods for the evaluation of the degree of lipid oxidation and the antioxidant activity.

Methods for the evaluation of the degree of lipid oxidation and the antioxidant activity.

É importante estabelecer a distinção entre os testes para determinação da estabilidade oxidativa nas condições normais de armazenamento ou de distribuição ( testes de estabilidade em tem[r]

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Dietary α-tocopheryl acetate on fillet quality of tilapia

Dietary α-tocopheryl acetate on fillet quality of tilapia

1.68 g, were fed diets for 63 days. After that period, they were slaughtered, filleted, and the fillets were grounded to accelerate lipid oxidation. Fish growth, survival, fillet yield, chemical composition and lipid oxidation of tilapia ground fillets were evaluated 0, 30 and 60 days after frozen storage. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between treatments for performance, and also, tocopherol did not influence the chemical composition values of fillets. Increased tocopherol levels in the feeds promoted a reduction in ground fillets lipid oxidation values.
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Pharmacological PPARα activation markedly alters plasma turnover of the amino acids glycine, serine and arginine in the rat.

Pharmacological PPARα activation markedly alters plasma turnover of the amino acids glycine, serine and arginine in the rat.

Despite the large changes in amino acid turnover described above, there was no apparent effect of WY 14,643 on nitrogen excretion (Table 2). Estimated energy production rates derived from the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO), lipid and protein are summarized in Fig. 5. As expected in the fasting state, oxidation of lipid accounted for the majority (67%) of the energy production, however, proteins also accounted for a non-trivial fraction (,21%). WY 14,643 had no apparent effect on protein oxidation, a consequence of the lack of effect on nitrogen excretion, nor did it affect net glucose oxidation (Fig. 5). Somewhat surprisingly, WY 14, 643 induced a minor reduction in lipid oxidation rate
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UCP1 and UCP3 Expression Is Associated with Lipid and Carbohydrate Oxidation and Body Composition.

UCP1 and UCP3 Expression Is Associated with Lipid and Carbohydrate Oxidation and Body Composition.

Here, preoperative Group 1 and the control group differed in terms of lipid and carbohy- drate oxidation. These results contrasted with literature data. Labayen et al. (2004)[27] described different lipid oxidation in obese and healthy-weight individuals, whereas Nicoletti et al. (2013)[28] did not find any differences in carbohydrate oxidation. Studies showing the relationship between longitudinal changes in body composition and substrate utilization[29] pointed to a positive correlation between lipid oxidation and fat mass[27], which was similar to the findings of our study.
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Antioxidant potential of barley extract in rats subjected to a high-fat diet

Antioxidant potential of barley extract in rats subjected to a high-fat diet

Therefore, the abundant content of phenolic compounds in barley suggests its use as a potential source of antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion (LIU; YAO, 2007). Similar studies on barley extracts have also shown its antioxidant effect (GIRIWONO et al., 2010). The objective was to study the effect of evaporated hydroethanolic extract of barley on lipid oxidation in rats submitted to a high-fat diet.

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Effect of starter culture addition on fatty acid profile, oxidative and sensory stability of traditional fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása)

Effect of starter culture addition on fatty acid profile, oxidative and sensory stability of traditional fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása)

This work is concerned with the oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of tra- ditional fermented sausage ЈОtrШvsФп ФХШЛпsК, prШНuМОН аТtС tСО КННТtТШЧ ШП МШЦЦОrМТКХ starter culture (SC). Fatty acids profile, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) values and sensory properties of odor and taste have been determined at the end of drying and after 2 and 5 months of storage. The sum of saturated, unsaturated and poly- unsaturated fatty acids was not significantly different (P>0.05) in SC and control sausa- ge at the end of storage. After 5 months of storage TBARS value of SC sausage amounted to 0.57 mg MDA/kg, and it was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to control (0.84 mg MDA/kg). Also, sensory properties of odor and taste of SC sausage (3.66) were better in comparison to control (3.55). This study demonstrated that the addition of starter culture can hinder lipid oxidation and contribute to the preservation of desirable sensory characteristics of fermented sausages during a long storage period.
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Biochemical changes in fiber naturally colored cottonseeds during storage

Biochemical changes in fiber naturally colored cottonseeds during storage

Lipids are the major reserve compounds of cottonseeds. The reduction in their content during storage is related to lipid oxidation that occurs during deterioration, caused by constant action of oxygen to form hydroperoxides, other oxygenated fatty acids and free radicals that accumulate in seeds during seed germination, secondary toxic products are formed, resulting in declines of seed vigor (Freitas et al., 2006). Due to the presence of double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids prone to oxidation, a reaction between unsaturated fatty acids (regardless of whether they are in their free state or esterifi ed in a triacylglycerol molecule) and oxygen. It is well known that the rate of oxidation increases with the increase in oxygen concentration and the length of storage period. Oil oxidation requires the presence of atmospheric oxygen. This can be reason to explain why the oil percentage of stored seeds to decreased during storage.
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Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

The effects of mango seed extract (MSE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.
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Clinics  vol.64 número8

Clinics vol.64 número8

Statistically significant differences in body composition pre and post orchiectomy were seen in terms of weight, body mass index (BMI) and lean body mass (LBM). Total fat body mass (FBM) exhibited a tendency to increase but failed to reach significance. No significant changes were observed in bone mineral density (BMD) and REE, but we identified a statistically significant change in terms of increased carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox) and a decrease in lipid oxidation (LIPIDox). These results are listed in Table 1.

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J. bras. pneumol.  vol.40 número4

J. bras. pneumol. vol.40 número4

Objective: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation) and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively]) in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. Methods: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group): a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. Results: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice), the greatest differences (increases) in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases) in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily) in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD. Keywords: Oxidative stress; Mice; Respiratory system; Smoking; Inflammation.
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Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

Protein hydrolysates may possess physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities not found in the original proteins, such as antioxidant activity and higher water-holding capacity (Cumby  et  al., 2008). The generated peptides could inhibit the harmful changes induced by lipid oxidation due to the presence of certain amino acid residues, such as tyrosine, methionine, histidine, tryptophan, and proline. Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant potential of protein hydrolysates from many raw materials, such as potato (Wang & Xiong, 2005), whey (Contreras et al., 2011), soy (Peña-Ramos & Xiong, 2003), fish (Dekkers et al., 2011), and shrimp waste (Dey & Dora, 2014). Furthermore, a study has shown that shrimp shell hydrolysates can inhibit human cancer cell proliferation (Kannan et al., 2011).
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Oxidative state of ewes with different number of parity during gestation and lactation

Oxidative state of ewes with different number of parity during gestation and lactation

In dairy cows, lipid oxidation has been reported to be higher at the end of gestation than in the second and third trimester of gestation (Turk et al. 2008), while Bernabucci et al. (2005), who studied the oxidative state during peri- partum, found that oxidation begins increasing 5 days befo- re parturition until it reaches its maximum values 25 days postpartum. In sheep, however, different results have been found. Rezapour & Taghinejad-Roudbaneh (2011) found that as gestation progresses, lipoperoxidation increases, while Öztabak et al. (2005), measuring MDA values at two moments of gestation, found that oxidation is similar on days 105 and 148. Casamassima et al. (2012) found, when measuring lipid peroxidation concentrations in ewes, that this process increases at parturition. In contrast to indi- cations by all those authors, MDA, which is a peroxidation indicator, did not increase. In ewes pregnant with twins, lipoperoxidation increases (Gür et al. 2011); thus, the in- crease in metabolism may be the main cause of increases in lipoperoxidation. In our experiment, all of the ewes gave birth to a single offspring.
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REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Iron dextran increases hepatic oxidative stress and alters expression of genes related to lipid metabolism contributing to hyperlipidaemia in murine model.

REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Iron dextran increases hepatic oxidative stress and alters expression of genes related to lipid metabolism contributing to hyperlipidaemia in murine model.

Copyright © 2015 Ma´ısa Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of ppar 𝛼, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L- FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between ppar 𝛼 expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress.
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Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and slaughter age on the shelf life of lamb meat

Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and slaughter age on the shelf life of lamb meat

On the present study, samples packaged under addition of CD (MAP 2) and under vacuum (MAP 1) had TBARS content lower than that of samples packaged under a high D 2 concentration (70%) (MAP 3) (Table 1). Linares & Vergara (2012) observed the lipid oxidation level in lamb loin stored for 21 days under an atmosphere rich in D 2 (70%) 3 times higher than the oxidation observed in loin stored under the same conditions in an atmosphere containing CD (0.7%). Kim et al. (2012b) also observed a significant interaction between an atmosphere with high oxygen content and SA on the lipid oxidation of lamb meat. The authors identified that lipid oxidation in lamb loin stored under an atmosphere rich in D 2 was higher for animals slaughtered at 10 months when compared to those slaughtered at 3 months.
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Rosemary as natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation in chicken burgers

Rosemary as natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation in chicken burgers

The Rosemary belongs to the Lamiaceae and possesses a number of desirable technological properties. Most of the data found in the literature refers to the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential of Rosemary, which is often related to the presence of rosmarinic acid and carnasol, among other polyphenols (Erkan et al., 2008; Genena et al., 2008; Pour et al., 2014). Rosemary extracts prevent autooxidation in sunflower oil (Chen et al., 2014) and it is used as natural antioxidant to inhibit lipid oxidation in pork-based products (Lara et al., 2011; Hać-Szymańczuk et al., 2011), and other types of foods such as sausages (Georgantelis  et  al., 2007), and chicken nuggets (Teruel et al., 2015).
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