Different sampling strategies and methods were required to recruit par- ticipants in the different sex work modalities. For the independent malesex workers (IMSWs), a list of potential participants was compiled by review- ing the local media where malesex workers advertise. These included La voz del interior, which is Córdoba’s largest daily newspaper, and a chat room for Córdoba that is part of an in- ternational Internet site for gay and les- bian persons (http://www.gay.com). Performed between September and De- cember 1999, this preparatory census revealed that there were then 70 IMSWs in Córdoba advertising their services in the print or electronic media. We planned to contact members of this group of MSWs by telephone. For malesex workers working in or through an agency, a preliminary sur- vey in the La voz del interior news- paper performed in August 1999 re- vealed that one agency advertised male-to-male commercial sex in Cór- doba. We planned to contact this group of MSWs directly or through the management of the agency. We es- timated that up to 10 men worked in this modality of MSW.
Despite these limitations, this comprehensive multicenter study suggests that HIV and syphilis prevalence among MSWs and non-MSWs MSM is high in urban China. MSWs dif- fered from non-MSWs in terms of SES, sexual orientation, usual venues for finding sexual part- ners, high risk behaviors, syphilis prevalence and STI related symptoms. Further studies should be conducted to explore these differences in details. Although malesex workers and non-com- mercial homosexuals have similar rates of HIV and syphilis, MSWs have different characteris- tics which should be considered in designing intervention programs targeting them.
Objective: To identify independent risk factors, complications and early hospital readmission following total knee arthroplas- ty. Methods: Using the ACS-NSQIP database, we identified patients who underwent primary TKA from 2012-2015. The primary outcome was early hospital readmission. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, laboratory data, operative characteristics, and postoperative complications were compared between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Logistic regression identified independent risk factors for 30-day readmission. Results: 137,209 patients underwent TKA; 3.4% were readmitted within 30 days. Advanced age, malesex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of preoperative comorbidi- ties, high ASA classification, and increased operative time were independently related risk factors. Asian and no reported race were negative risk factors. Postoperative complications: acute myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, stroke, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis show positive associations. Conclusions: Advanced age, malesex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of comorbidities, high ASA classification and long operative time are independent risk factors for postoperative complications and early hospital read- mission following total knee arthroplasty. Level of Evidence III, Case control study.
In the crude analysis, the variables associated with physical activity practice in the malesex were: father’s level of schooling, health status perception and partici- pation in physical education classes (Table 3). To the female sex (Table 4), the variables were the following: economic class, mother’s level of schooling, time spent watching TV on a weekend day, health status perception and participation in physical education classes. In the adjusted analysis, all the variables remained associated with the physical activity levels (Tables 3 and 4). The youths who achieved the physical activity recommendations were those whose parents had higher level of schooling (the father for the male youths and the mother for the female youths), middle-class youths and those who watched TV up to 2h/day on a weekend day (female sex), those who perceived their health status in a positive way and those who participated in one or more physical education classes.
About 84% of the HPV DNA-positive group used condoms (sometimes, frequently or always) during sexual activity with fe- malesex workers but this was not statisti- cally significant (Table 3). Franceschi et al. (29), in a similar Brazilian study, found that condom use was 86% and that 37% of the men studied in different countries regularly used condoms during sexual intercourse with female sex workers and demonstrated that the HPV-negative group made better use of condoms in sexual relationships with female sex workers. Although our study did not confirm the important protective role of condoms, this factor in itself indicates the possible existence of other unidentified epi- demiological or behavioral risk factors in the male population infected with HPV and that new epidemiological studies on condom use are needed to better understand our re- sults. In our study, 57% of the HPV DNA- positive men never used condoms with their regular female (non-sex worker) partner while 62.2% of HPV DNA-negative men never used a condom under the same cir- cumstances (Table 3). Hippeläinen et al. (25) pointed out the importance of condoms as a protective factor against HPV infection. We found that a previous history of sexu- ally transmitted disease in the HPV DNA- positive group (33.3%) was not statistically significant (Table 3). Wikstrom et al. (32) found that 23% (not significant) of males studied had previously had a sexually trans- mitted disease, while Hippeläinen et al. (24) reported an incidence of 15.8%. In our study the sexually transmitted diseases most fre-
In our case, the infant had no familial antecedents of Uhl’s anomaly, which may happen in right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia. In regard to sex, the malesex predominates with an incidence of 56% in Uhl’s anomaly and 70% in the arrhythmogenic dysplasia.
RESULTS: Mean age was 53.7 years and the male/female ratio was 0.68. Prevalence of arterial hypertension was 54.8%. Approximately 70% of hypertensive individuals were undergoing antihypertensive treatment and, of these, 47.7% were controlled. Hypertension was positively associated with older age, malesex, being married, higher body mass index and higher total cholesterol level, being a diabetic, having a family or personal history of premature cardiovascular disease, and reporting more medical visits per year. When treated, hypertension was found to be positively associated with the female sex, not being married, being a diabetic, living in an urban area, and reporting more than three medical visits per year. In hypertensive users who were treated, being controlled was positively associated with self-reporting adherent behavior towards antihypertensive treatment, perceiving the effect of these drugs and having a low cardiovascular risk. The predictive models showed areas under the respective ROC curves between 0.72 and 0.78, with an acceptable discriminatory power.
Some investigators have described worse prognostic factors in JSLE such as malesex (6,7), disease activity (8), active chronic disease (9), presence of cumulative disease damage (10,11), arterial hypertension, pro- teinuria, acute renal failure (ARF) (4), lupus nephritis (12), neuropsychiatric involvement (13), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (14), anti-DNA antibody increase (1), acute thrombocytopenia (10), infection (15), im- munosuppressive treatment (10), and ath- erosclerosis (16). Most of the morbidity- mortality studies on JSLE have evaluated worse prognostic factors and survival curves in patients from one or more Services of Pediatric Rheumatology, including outpa- tients and inpatients (8,17).
The first identified family member: Dmrt1, exhibits an expression pattern mainly involved in postnatal (or post hatching) male gonad development (Hodgkin, 2002; Yamaguchi et al., 2006). In some fish species, its expres- sion pattern is restricted to testes (e.g Oryzias latipes, Kobayashi et al., 2004) while in others it is expressed in both gonads (e.g. Odontesthes bonariensis, Fernandino et al., 2008). In hermaphrodite fish species Dmrt1 expression is related to male differentiation phases (Herpin and Schartl, 2011). The interest in this gene was greater after the discovery that Dmrt1 paralogs have moved up in the regulatory hierarchy from downstream position in gonad differentiation to the top of sex determination cascade in at least three distantly related organisms (O. latipes, Xenopus laevis and chicken Kopp, 2012). In O. latipes the malesex specific Dmrt1 copy, Dmrt1b(Y) (Nanda et al., 2002) or dmy (Matsuda et al., 2002), is located in the Y chromosome with a function equivalent to mammalian Sry (male master sex determining gene).The Dmrt1b(Y) gene is expressed in male embryos before gonadal differentiation (early devel- opment: neurula stage, Nanda et al., 2002). It is involved in the specification and maintenance of Sertoli cells fate and
Currently, two complementary evolutionary theories predict how and why parasites should adjust their investment into male and female gametocytes to maximise fertilization success. These theories – Fertility Insurance and Local Mate Competition – predict that parasites adjust sex ratios in response to environmen- tal (e.g. transmission-blocking immunity) and social factors (inbreeding rate), respectively [14,15,29–34]. The ability of parasites to facultatively adjust their sex ratios in response to variation in the inbreeding rate has recently been verified [19,27]. Additionally, data also suggest that sex ratios are altered in response to the development of immunity . Host-derived immune factors make mating challenging for parasites because they can reduce and even block fertilization [35,36]. This phenomenon, called ‘transmission-blocking immunity’ (TBI), has been extensively observed and documented across a variety of malaria parasite species [35–41]. The mechanisms of TBI are varied and include damaging gametocytes, preventing successful gametogenesis [36,37,41,42], decreasing the ability of gametes to interact [35,43] and preventing post-fertilization development [39,44]. Fertility Insurance predicts that when hosts mount an immune response, the fertility of male gametocytes and/or gametes is most affected, therefore parasites should produce more males to compensate [14,15]. Two lines of empirical data support this prediction. First, Paul et al.  showed that P. gallinaceum and P. vinckei increase their sex ratio in response to erythropoiesis, which is thought to act as a cue for the appearance of TBI factors. Second, Reece et al.  provided indirect support by suggesting that sex ratio variation observed during infections of different P. chabaudi genotypes is a mechanism to ensure fertility in face of within-host competition, host anaemia and TBI factors. Fertility Insurance currently provides the best explanation for the observed within-infection variation in the sex ratios of malaria parasites. However, the theory is based upon the untested assumption that TBI factors reduce the fertility of males more than females. Here we provide the first direct test of this key assumption by investigating whether reactive nitrogen species and pro-inflamma- tory cytokines, influence gametogenesis, gamete fertility and ookinete production.
Research into factors contributing to the practice of APP has shown that antipsychotic prescription patterns reflect complex interplay among patient, illness, treat- ment, and prescriber factors. 25 However, inconsistencies and gaps in the evidence remain. The patient character- istics age, sex, and marital status have received most attention, with a lack of information on other patient factors possibly associated with APP. APP is generally examined in the context of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, with fewer studies investigating APP in other conditions. Few studies have explored the relationship of APP with comorbidities and co-prescription of other psychotropic medications. Moreover, there have been no previous studies examining patient, illness, and treatment charac- teristics associated with APP in South Africa.
To evaluate factors associated with influenza vaccination in the elderly, the independent vari- ables were: demographics [sex (male, female), nationality (Brazilian, foreign), age (60-69 years, 70-79, 80 or older), marital status (with or with- out spouse), living alone (yes versus no), skin col- or (white, brown, black, other)], socioeconomic [schooling (fewer than 4 years of formal educa- tion, 4 to 7, 8 or more) current work (yes versus no)], behavioral conditions [alcohol consump- tion, smoking], health conditions [self-rated health, number of self-reported chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, chronic pulmonary dis- ease, heart disease, musculoskeletal disease), falls in previous year, depression, and bedridden status], and use of and access to health services (health care in previous year, place of care, and hospitalization in previous year).
Victim’s age group (FE1: 0-9 years / FE2: 10-19 years / FE3: 20-29 years / FE4: ≥ 30 years); Victim’s sex (SV1: female / SV2: male); Victim’s area of residence (RM1: urban / RM2: suburban / RM3: rural); Victim’s marital status (EC1: single / EC2: widowed or separated / EC3: married / EC4: stable union); Type of violence (TV1: domestic; TV2: community); Mechanism of aggression (MA1: physical force / MA2: firearm / MA3: melee weapon / MA4: other blunt objects / MA5: mixed); Aggressor’s sex (SA1: female / SA2: male); Relationship between aggressor and victim (RA1: partner / RA2: ex-partner / RA3: family / RA4: known person / RA5: strange person); Time of occurrence (TO1: daytime / TO2: nighttime); Type of injury (TL1: soft tissue injuries of face / TL2: facial bone fracture / TL3: dentoalveolar fracture / TL4: lesions in other regions).
Sex steroid hormones regulate the activi- ties of a number of enzymes of the glucose and glutamine metabolism in leukocytes. Azevedo et al. (2) showed that the activity of phosphate-dependent glutaminase is regu- lated by estrogen in rat peritoneal macro- phages. In the same study, the authors found a decrease in the phagocytic capacity and hydrogen peroxide production of macro- phages from castrated female rats. These changes were all reversed by estrogen treat- ment. In the present study evidence is pre- sented that in addition to the metabolic en-
agreement with the overall reduction in courtship (Table 1). These data show that males with feminized blood–brain barrier are capable of all steps of courtship, but perform them with reduced probability. This is not due to locomotion defects, since males with feminized bbb perform indistinguishably from control flies in a short term activity assay  (Figure 1g). In this assay, individual males are placed in a courtship chamber and the number of time they cross a drawn line is counted. To corroborate that the observed courtship reduction is caused by the feminization of glial cells, we used repo-Gal4, a driver that is expressed not just in the bbb but generally in glial cells . We observed a similar reduction, confirming that the male identity of glial cells is important for male courtship (Figure 1b, 1h). This would predict that a similar effect should be observed if these cells were made ‘‘less male’’. Since TraF acts through its downstream targets fru and dsx we next examined the effect of expressing RNAis that target these transcripts in bbb cells. Indeed, SPG-Gal4/UAS- fruRNAi and SPG-Gal4/UAS-dsxRNAi males showed similar reduc- tions as SPG-Gal4/UAS-TraF animals (Figure 1c, 1i). This suggests that FRU and DSXM both have a role in regulating sex-specific molecules in the bbb. It also argues that the effect of TraF is not due to merely overexpressing female-specific DSXF.
Other potential explanations for shorter adult female TL is that males with short TL are selectively removed from the population before breeding, however there is no empirical evidence of differential selective forces acting on juvenile murres. Another explanation for short female TL is that murre parents invest more highly in their male offspring. Seabird parents are often willing to invest more energy into male offspring, because the difference between high and low quality males in terms of future reproductive value is much greater than that between high and low quality female offspring . In the common murre, parents provisioning male chicks bring back more food and lose more mass than those raising female chicks . Access to fewer resources in early life could increase female physiological stress levels, resulting in increased loss of telomere lengths in this sex, despite the similar lengths at the chick stage.
In the genus Ancistrus, the heterochromatization process is involved in the differentiation of the sex chromosome system of Ancistrus cf. dubius (Mariotto et al., 2004) and A. ranunculus (present study), however, the suggested pathway for these two differentiations seems to be distinct. In Ancistrus cf. dubius, there was an accumulation of heterochromatin over chromosome Z, followed by the loss of this heterochromatin segment in W, in such a way that it appears much smaller and only possesses homology with the euchromatic segment of the Z chromosome. In A. ranunculus, the W chromosome is almost completely heterochromatic, with a considerable portion of heterochromatin on the long arm, while the Z chromosome is much smaller and has only a small block of heterochromatin in the centromeric position.
The analysis of the current situation shows that work and leisure patterns have changed. In the past, physical labor and energy expenditure were intense when work was farm-related and without technological innovations, and getting around did not depend on automotive vehicles. However, more and more often, people perform occupational activities that demand less physical effort. They also get around by means of transportation that do not require great energy expenditure, and report doing little leisure physical activity. This corroborates the results found in the present study, which state that male gender, elementary school level of education, and income below four minimum wages are associated with physical activity level.
a role in initiating sex change, the production of sec- ondary sex characteristics, and some aspects of spawning behavior. In a review of the hormonal bases for male alternative reproductive tactics in teleosts, Brantley, Wingﬁeld, and Bass (1993) found that the male morphotype that actively courts and shows the full set of secondary sex characteristics has higher concentrations of 11KT than the non-courting mor- photype (e.g., sneakers, satellites). In contrast for T there is no consistent difference between these two male morphotypes. A characteristic peak of 11KT was associated with the onset of spawning in bluegill Lep- omis macrochirus (Kindler, Philipp, Gross, and Bahr, 1989) and in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus acu- leatus (Mayer, Borg, and Schulz, 1990), and 11KT im- plants were more effective than T implants in increas- ing spawning behavior in these species (Borg, 1987; Kindler, Bahr, and Philipp, 1991). Elevated plasma concentrations of T and 11KT have been found in garibaldi, Hypsypops rubicundus, to be associated with courtship behavior and spawning activity (Sikkel, 1993).
Finally, the development of a species distribution model is a promising tool for the management of the common quail. This model should be based on speciic monitoring, reproducing the species dynamics, and taking into account temporal replicates per site. This would allow the inclusion of a larger number of conditions to estimate environment —species relationships, as suggested in Sardà–Palomera et al. (2012). Data from meteorological stations close to monitoring locations on temperature and precipitation during the breeding season would be desirable to relate male occurrence and densities with variations of climate and weather conditions. As the life cycle of this species is closely linked to the herbaceous farmland habitat, information on changes in the temporal development of vegetation should be included in the model to relect variations in habitat suitability. One means of capturing an element of the phenology of these dynamic landscapes is through the use of vegetation indices (Pettorelli et al., 2005). These indices provide information about photosynthetic activity, vegetation cover and structure, and they are continuously collected via satellite via remote sensors. Such a model may indicate the suitability of habitats for quails in space and time, and may also help to predict possible conlicts arising from agricultural practices and from the start date of the hunting season.