Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) possesses endotoxic activity and also has powerful adjuvant activity. Both of these properties are based upon the recognition of the LPS by the host Toll-like receptor (TLR) complex TLR4/MD-2 and the subsequent ac- tivation of NF-B (35). The relatively high reactogenicity of wP vaccines has been associated with proinflammatory cytokines (2, 28). Hence, a straightforward approach to reducing wP reactogenicity would be the generation of a pertussisvaccine with a reduced quantity of LPS. Furthermore, the lack of a clear correlation between the levels of antibody (Ab) to per- tussis antigens and protection against disease, the persistence of protective immunity long after the disappearance of pertus- * Corresponding author. Mailing address: Center for Investigation in
We evaluated the functional activity of Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib) antibodies elicited in a group of infants immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussisvaccine combined with an Hib vaccine produced totally in Brazil after technological transfer of Hib vaccine production from Glaxo SmithKline, Belgium. Blood samples from immunized infants (N = 985) were collected for the determination of Hib antibodies. Total Ig and IgM and IgG subclasses of antibodies against polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) were analyzed by ELISA. Almost all vaccinees (97.56%, 961/985) developed a strong anti-PRP IgG antibody response (≥1.0 μg/mL), while an anti-PRP IgM response was observed in 64.24% (634/985) of them (≥0.15 μg/mL). Only 18.88% (186/985) of the infants in the group with high PRP antibody IgG concentrations (≥1.0 μg/mL) developed a high IgM antibody response. Anti-PRP IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than anti-PRP IgM. These results demonstrate the predominance of IgG antibodies over IgM antibodies in response to PRP, with a ratio of 17:1. IgG antibodies were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. An increase in IgG avidity was also observed during the course of immunization.
The present study aimed to assess the agreement between data sources for diphthe- ria and tetanus toxoids and pertussisvaccine (DTP) doses administered in a city of Brazil. To this end, the total number of DTP doses (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus inluenzae type b conjugate vaccine) administered in the city vaccination rooms was col- lected and then compared with that from the federal level, obtained from an information system managed by the Ministry of Health of Brazil (NIP/Datasus) 10 .
A BSTRACT – Butantan creates new technologies and industrial processes for vaccines and other immunobiologicals, supplying 150 million doses of antigen vaccines per year, which constitute 82% of all vaccines in the country, at affordable prices which are provided free to all children and older adults. New developments include a pertussisvaccine that can be produced at the same price as the traditional vaccine by a process that also yields an adjuvant that increases the efficacy of seasonal and avian influenza vaccines four-fold, reducing cost and increasing plant capacity; a technology which results in the highest industrial yield of human rabies vaccine to date, a combined vaccine for use in maternity wards for BCG- hepatitis B and pertussis and a lung surfactant that will decrease prenatal mortality not solved with vaccines. In collaboration with NIH, Path and PDVI, Butantan is beginning production and assay of rotavirus and dengue vaccines.
Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) re- cipients lose immune memory of exposure to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated through a lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussisvaccine (children <7 years old), Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, 23- valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after BMT. For most of them, the best time to vaccinate, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immu- nity after vaccination have not been established. Vaccination proto- cols vary greatly among BMT centers, suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the formulation of reliable recom- mendations. The use of other vaccines and the perspectives for differ- ent vaccination protocols are analyzed in this review.
the WHO recommendations based on the comparable vaccine efficacy of whole cell Pertussisvaccine and Acellular type vaccines and the adverse events both vaccines are relatively minor, whole cell Pertussisvaccine remain the vaccine of choice in many developing countries .
T cells can differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, or Treg cells. Th1 cells produce IFN-c, Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, Th17 cell produce IL-17, and most Treg cell subsets produce IL-10 [40,41]. These cytokines were measured in the supernatant of the spleen cells stimulated with antigen or peptides to identify the type of T cell responses that were induced. Spleen cells of mice with a C57BL/6 background immunized with either N. meningitidis OMVs or PBS were restimulated with two P1.5-1,2- Figure 1. Serum cytokine levels shortly after vaccination. Two and four hours after immunization blood samples were taken from all mice and cytokine levels in the sera were analyzed with Luminex. Results for N. meningitidis OMVs are shown in panel A, results for whole cell pertussisvaccine are shown in panel B. There were 3 mice per group for the animals that received PBS and 6 mice per group for N. meningitidis OMVs and whole cell pertussisvaccine. The data are expressed as means, error bars represent S.E.M. An asterisk indicates a significant difference compared to the wild type group, * indicates p,0.05, ** indicates p,0.01, *** indicates p,0.001.
Differing from the other antigens for which minimum levels of protection have been established, there is currently no laboratory measurement for immunogenicity that can be correlated with protective efficacy for the antigens of the pertussis component . Consequently, the immunogenicity of the combined vaccine after the basic scheme in our study was compared with the immunogenicity found in a multicenter study of acellular pertussis vaccines (MAPT) promoted by the American National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The latter was developed using the same diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussisvaccine that serves as basis for our combination vaccine. A field study in Italy demonstrated 84% efficacy for this DTPa vaccine . Since the GMT were similar to (55.1 U EL/mL vs. 54 U EL/mL for the anti-PT antibody and 183.1 U EL/mL vs. 185 U EL/mL for the anti-PRN antibody) or greater than (290.8 U EL/mL vs. 103 U EL/mL for the anti-FHA antibody) those obtained in the multicenter study , the comparison of the results demonstrates that the combination of the DTPa (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis) vaccine with the vaccine against hepatitis B did not result in decreased immunogenicity of the pertussis component of this combination, when compared to the uncombined DTPa vaccine. Consequently, this combination did not interfere in vaccine efficacy.
Vaccination is still one of the most important measures of control against influenza, and it is generally recommended for people with risk factors that predispose them to higher morbidity and mortality. Currently-licensed inactivated vaccines are safe and immunogenic, inducing immunity in 60- 90% of healthy young adults. Strong evidence has demonstrated that influenza vaccination of persons over 65 years is efficacious and cost effective; it reduces the incidence of disease, hospitalizations and mortality by 50% [2,3]. However, some reports have pointed out that immunogenicity in older people is generally lower . Few studies have assessed the influence of health status in the elderly as a risk factor for antibody response to influenza vaccination. Elderly persons with chronic lung disease have shown inadequate immune response rates . Other underlying conditions, like chronic stress and functional disability, have been associated with poorer immune response to influenza vaccine [6; 7; 8].
59 toxinas que poderia influenciar a viabilidade de células infectadas, sendo elas: toxina Pertussis (PT), Adenilato ciclase (ACT), Citotoxina Traqueal (TCT) e a toxina dermonecrótica (DNT). Não foi possível identificar quais dessas toxinas está diretamente afetando as células epiteliais in vitro. Considerando que os isolados analisados possuem o alelo ptxP3 que está associado ao aumento da produção da toxina PT e consequente aumento de virulência e severidade da manifestação clínica (GUTIÉRREZ-FERMAN et al., 2018), podemos sugerir que os isolados apresentam um quantidade maior de toxina PT que pode conferir um maior efeito citotóxico sobre as células epiteliais analisadas. Contudo, estudos de quantificação da toxina são necessários para embasar esta hipótese.
específicos nas amostras de colostro materno com mediana de 1:74. O Immunoblotting realizado com extrato bruto de B. pertussis e Pools de soro materno, de soro de cordão e de colostro com alto e baixo título de anticorpos específicos revelou um perfil de reconhecimento idêntico entre os Pools de soro materno e dos respectivos neonatos. Os Pools de colostro apresentaram, em seu perfil de reconhecimento, diferentes intensidades que variaram de acordo com os títulos de anticorpos IgA específicos. No desafio intracerebral com B. pertussis, embora todos os Pools de soro materno, de cordão e de colostro tenham apresentado capacidade significativa de neutralizar a patogenia bacteriana quando comparados ao controle positivo, os Pools com alto título de anticorpos revelaram maior capacidade neutralizante. Os Pools de soro e colostro absorvidos com B. pertussis e, portanto, sem anticorpos IgG e IgA específicos, protegeram 30% dos animais testados e anticorpos IgG purificados, apresentando alto título de anticorpos anti-B. pertussis (1:2.560), protegeram 65% dos camundongos. Nossos dados confirmaram a transferência de anticorpos reativos com B. pertussis para o neonato via placenta e aleitamento materno e sua eficácia na neutralização da patogênese bacteriana, o que pode proteger a criança contra infecções respiratórias causadas por Bordetella pertussis.
A infecção por B. pertussis é uma doença comum que afeta todas as faixas etárias. Os médicos devem estar cientes dessa condição, realizar o diagnóstico em tempo hábil e iniciar o tratamento precocemente, evitando a transmissão secundária da doença. Esse trabalho mostrou que as crianças podem manifestar características clínicas e laboratoriais que podem auxiliar o médico na suspei- ta da presença de coqueluche. Embora as crianças com 6 meses de idade ou mais e adultos possam apresentar manifestações atípicas da coqueluche, o diagnóstico sem- pre deve ser considerado nesses pacientes, na presença de tosse prolongada.
7.To authorize the Director, under special circumstances, to request and accept contributions of equipment, personnel, material, or other collaboration required to achieve the objective desired. 8.To recommend to the countries producing smallpox vaccine that they adopt measures designed to establish a "smallpox vaccine pool" through voluntary contributions of vaccine, so that supplies may be sent without delay to countries in which emergency situations may arise.
Introdução: Asma e rinite alérgicas são doenças inflamatórias crônicas das vias aéreas cuja principal etiopatogenia é a reação de hipersensibilidade ao ácaro da poeira. O único tratamento específico que modifica a história natural da doença é a imunoterapia alérgeno-específica (ITAE). Porém, as reações adversas ainda são uma dificuldade na consolidação da ITAE como forma de tratamento. Um meio de minimizar as reações e maximizar os efeitos terapêuticos é o uso de adjuvantes, entre eles vacinas e lipopolissacárides bacterianos, que objetivam aumentar o desvio da resposta imune de perfil T-helper (TH) 2 para TH1. A vacina de Bordetella pertussis de célula inteira (Pw) mostrou ter um papel protetor em modelos experimentais de asma induzida por ovalbumina. Porém, seu papel na alergia respiratória induzida por ácaros ainda não é conhecido. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da vacina tríplice bacteriana (difteria-tétano-coqueluche – DTPw) em um modelo murino de alergia respiratória crônica induzida pelo ácaro Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp). Métodos: O protocolo teve duração de 30 dias. Camundongos BALB/c foram divididos em 6 grupos, os quais foram sensibilizados por via subcutânea com solução salina ou Derp 50mcg, em três injeções. Três grupos foram imunizados com Derp, apenas com o ácaro ou associado as vacinas de difteria-tétano (DT) e DTPw, respectivamente. Os outros três receberam soro fisiológico, com ou sem vacinas DT e DTPw. Os animais, posteriormente, sofreram desafio intranasal com soro fisiológico ou Derp por 7 dias e foram sacrificados 24 horas após o último desafio. Medimos IgE, IgG1 e IgG2a séricas específicas anti-Derp; resistência, elastância e hiperresponsividade das vias aéreas; densidade de leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN) e área de muco ácido no epitélio nasal; celularidade no lavado
Some limitations of this study include the exclusion of the societal value of health – although cost-utility analyses could address this, there are no available local indicators for Singapore. In addition, we have not included the pandemic’s macro-economic impact which would likely favor interventions to a greater degree. While we have not considered recurring treatment stockpiles, any additional treatment stockpile costs will be borne equally by both strategies. For comparability, neither treatment nor vaccination was assumed to alter the pandemic’s transmission dynamics. Vaccination, in particular, may reduce total population attack rates through increasing herd-immunity, but it is difficult to predict the impact of an imperfect pandemic vaccine on the transmission dynamics of a pandemic with characteristics that are still not fully defined [30,31]. However, such immunity makes the argument for a pandemic vaccine even more compelling. We also did not consider long-term protection with immediate vaccination as that is associated with uncertainties including technological feasibility, waning immunity, and population turnover. Finally, while these findings are focused on Singapore, we believe that it provides a framework for other countries to consider analyzing in their own setting, which is crucial to determining local economic effectiveness.