This is one of the few studies specifically addressing physical habits in a very large series of patients submitted to epilepsy surgery and followed-up for a mean of 4 years post-operatively. This study assessed the degree of participation in physicalactivity among Brazilian patients with epilepsy before and after epilepsy surgery, applying a standardized questionnaire. This random sample from Sao Paulo’s twenty million inhabitants very likely represented the average Brazilian population since data were collected from a public hospital treating individuals from different social strata and from all over the country.
In conclusion, the results of this study showed that phy- sicians and nurses deemed physicalactivity promotion and counseling of great importance in primary health care in Brazil. However, these health teams would benefit from continued education programs to improve their know- ledge regarding physicalactivity since few demonstrated familiarity with current physicalactivity recommendations or applied standardized instruments for assessing physicalactivity of patients. Standardized education strategies are therefore needed , similarly to what happens in other developed countries that have universal health care system [11,13,36]. Finally, because physicalactivity levels are not increasing in Brazil , interventions are urgently needed to promote more physicalactivity counseling in primary health care. These interventions must be linked to the recently launched ‘Academia da Saúde’ program , a nationwide policy that will fund over 4,000 cities to build capacity for physicalactivity promotion by the year 2015.
Defined as the constant or recurrent inability to attain or maintain a satisfactory erection, erectile dysfunction (ED) has multifactorial causes. Regular physicalactivity can be used as a preventive tool for ED. In this sense, the main objective of this study was to analyze the scientific literature, published in the last ten years (2004-2014), about the relationship between physicalactivity, ED and the associated factors among men older than 17 years in cross-sectional studies, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies. A systematic review was performed in articles published in the Bireme, ScienceDirect, and PubMed/Medli- ne databases, in the SciELO electronic library and in the Portal of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) Journal and written in Por- tuguese, English and Spanish. A total of 230 studies were identified, and only 19 met the inclusion criteria, all of which were published in English. ED was diagnosed in all studies. Concerning physicalactivity, 17 studies identified a significant association with a lower incidence of ED, including cross-sectional and quasi-experimental studies and randomized clinical trials. ED appeared to be associated with different factors related to men’s lifestyle, particularly their level of education, non-communicable chronic diseases, body mass index and age.
university extension program was impossible due to the difficulties found in terms of available resources. After three years of uninterrupted work, this program has gained experience and taken advantage of this for its own development. EducAtivo has recently recei- ved funds from the university’s Programa Aprender na Comunidade (Learning in the Community Program), which supports extramural activities developed by stu- dents in their professional practice and whose resour- ces are used to improve the services and increase the impact of physicalactivity promotion actions in Erme- lino Matarazzo.
Moreover, the reports were extracted and validated by two trained researchers and independently, allowing for greater consistency in the classification of barriers. Finally, we used a conceptual approach taken in the literature related to studies of the determinants and correlates of physicalactivity. The main limitation of the study relates to inclusion of adults of higher social class and in the preparation stage, which limits the understanding of what the barriers for physicalactivity are in such groups.
The 1 st domain addresses school siting and connections to community. Its strategies are pri- marily intended to support students’ active commuting to and from school. The 2 nd domain, building massing and programming, has not been addressed in the literature related to PA, but it is an essential and substantial process in designing school environments. Therefore, these strategies largely draw upon best practice, and they are intended to lead designers to consider how massing and programming decisions could impact PA. The 3 rd domain addresses school indoor and outdoor fitness facilities, with evidentiary support for specific strategies ranging from substantial empirical evidence to best practice. Empirical studies have pointed to a need for adequate school spaces to integrate physicalactivity throughout the school day. Although there are few empirical studies of PA directly addressing the 4 th domain, classroom design, the strategies presented draw upon this work, as well as encourage spatial designs to accommodate ample movement and activity breaks. Strategies for the 5 th domain, outdoor learning areas, draw upon emerging work revealing the benefits of gardens and other outdoor spaces as active learning environments. The 6 th domain, active play and leisure areas, draws upon emerging evidence in playground design, and upon theory and best practice. Active navigation areas, the 7 th domain, draws upon empirical work along with best practice. The 8 th domain, signage and wayfinding, recommends using point-of-decision prompts for stairs and other school-based PA opportunities. In addition, strategies suggest that wayfinding systems developed by design- ers should encompass PA goals. Specifications for detached furniture are often developed by individuals and/or groups distinct from those who develop the building plan and site, and therefore these strategies are grouped into a 9 th domain. Current evidence indicates that dynamic and stand-biased school furnishings could have a positive impact on students’ PA. Finally, the 10 th domain, technology and virtual reality environments, builds on emerging work in both public health and human factors engineering. These strategies are intended to prompt school designers to consider potential health impacts of new technologies in the school facility infrastructure, as well as to consider designing virtual environments as extensions of the school educational environment.
large percentage of women, namely 45% were excess of body mass. Approximately 21% of the women used the hormone replacement therapy for about five years. The physicalactivity of the participants, including daily time spent in walking, moderate, vigorous, moderate plus vigorous or total physicalactivity, are also present in the Table 1. Differences in these variables between groups were not detected, except for vigorous physicalactivity, where postmenopausal women spent more time at this intensity level than perimenopausal women. Walking was the most frequent form of physicalactivity chosen by both peri and postmenopausal women. Total physicalactivity reported values (walking + moderate + vigorous) were above the current recommendations for the
A pre-developed standardised form was used, to extract the following data: paradigm and study design; country; stage of disease progression; intervention outcomes and measurement tools. Outcomes were defined as any effect (positive or negative) of physicalactivity, which had been measured or described as a result of a physicalactivity intervention. Outcomes were identified from the methods, results and discussion sections of the included papers. To avoid double counting of outcomes, multiple publications of the same study were analysed as one (i.e., protocol and pilot of the same study).
This study has some limitations that have to be mentioned. This review focuses only on physical education and school-based physicalactivity. Although these activities can provide a general basis for the physicalactivity habits of children, they do not cover the complete range of physical activities in which children can participate. Therefore, the study results can be biases because some children could be very active outside school and less active in a school setting. Studies were not ranked or weighted, consequently, findings from studies with weaker designs and smaller sample sizes were given no less importance than findings from studies with more rigorous research designs and larger sample sizes. Nonetheless, the assessment of the methodological quality helped to partially minimize these discrepancies. Finally, the study results are difficult to interpret and compare, because of the several methodologies used and outcomes measured.
Initially this project was intended to be developed to assist pregnant women, during and af- ter the gestation time. Pregnant women have to be very careful with their lifestyles, namely their eating habits and physicalactivity because every decision that they make can have an impact on the babies’ health. So, although they have medical consultations in a regular basis, we thought that, with all the developments technology has had in the last few years and mainly with the ap- pearance and development of the smartphone and their quick dissemination through the popula- tion, that it would be an important help to have an application for smartphones that would help women control not only what they eat but also the exercise that they perform, according to their gestation time.
First, we ask whether Tsimane lifestyle is best characterized by light to moderate or moderate to vigorous activity. It is usually assumed that adults in subsistence societies are vigorously active, and that activity is a primary reason for why cardiovascular and other chronic non-communicable diseases are minimal . However, intense subsistence activities may be of brief duration, or interspersed with days of rest, especially in less nomadic societies . Disability from illness and injury may also depress physicalactivity in traditional societies . Determination of activity levels in a population largely free of obesity and coronary heart disease would be instructive, especially in light of recent CDC and WHO recommendations promoting a mix of moderate and vigorous aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities. Con- trary to assumptions, activity might be primarily of moderate intensity, rather than in line with these recommendations. If physicalactivity profiles overlap considerably with those in industrialized societies where CVD and diabetes are prevalent, factors other than activity may be better candidates for limiting chronic disease. For example, reduced caloric intake, diets high in potassium and omega-3 fatty acids, low psychosocial stress due to kin-based residence and frequent transfers across households, and an immune system shaped by chronic exposure to a variety of diverse pathogens may promote low rates of cardiovascular and diabetic disease [10,14].
description of the sample in terms of socioeconomic, auto perception, and parents’ perception of weight and physicalactivity. More than 50% of the participants be- longed to the classes C and D (28.1% and 32.7%, res- pectively) of socioeconomic status. Nearly 50% of the adolescents find themselves as having an ideal weight and ~61% believe they are in good physicalactivity le- vels. These results coincide with the parents’ perception of the level of physicalactivity of their children. Table 2 displays that ~60 % of parents believe that their chil- dren are at good levels of physicalactivity and most of them reported that TV time varies between 1 to 2 h/ day and 2 to 3 h/day (20.3% and 24.8%, respectively).
the correlation between data from LAF and accelerometers, and the operational equivalence of LAF using data concerning the application of the instrument, and includes data from 118 school children aged between 7 and 10 years from EAUSP. Results: Manuscript 1: Eighteen questionnaires met the eligibility criteria and are presented according to their characteristics, physicalactivity measurement methods, psychometric properties and operational aspects. Manuscript 2: In relation to the reliability analysis, the lower limits of the ICCs varied from 0.84 to 0.96. Precision and agreement varied between 0.83 and 0.97 and between 0.99 and 1, respectively. Manuscript 3: The correlation between the results from the questionnaire and from accelerometer ranged from 0.34 to 0.40. It was found that LAF overestimated the time of moderate to vigorous physical activities when compared to the accelerometer. In terms of operational aspects, mean duration of the interview was 24 minutes (minimum = 13, maximum = 41, standard deviation = 5 min). The interview item showing the poorest result was the ability to estimate the time (poor or fair in 24.8% of the interviews). Conclusion: The PACI, identified from a systematic review, is presented in a way adapted to Brazilian culture following the model of cross-cultural adaptation that resulted in Lista de Atividades Físicas - LAF. However, its use in epidemiological studies must be viewed with caution.
Physicalactivity organizations and leaders should develop plans within each country, and with the WHO, to make physicalactivity education and promotion a public health goal during and after the pandemic. Physicalactivity organizations and experts should vol- unteer for pandemic planning groups so they educate decision makers about how physicalactivity can make positive impacts on the pandemic and influence rec- ommendations and policies. Here are several actions that may be helpful as part of shelter-in-place orders or when economic and social activities resume.
7. A worldwide phenomenon of secular weight and height gains first began to be detected about a century ago, but it was not until recently that obesity emerged prominently at a global scale. Recent economic studies highlight the fact that technological change has at once raised the cost of physicalactivity and lowered the cost of caloric consumption. The latter is largely driven by improved technology and more efficient agricultural production, while the former becomes more costly as domestic and work activities become increasingly sedentary. The result of these changes is that individuals must make larger investments in time and money in order to achieve the same levels of physical activeness as their ancestors.
To determine the level of physicalactivity a stranded questionnaire and a dairy card (PIN3 physicalactivity questionnaire) were used. Apart from the initial recruitment, two pregnancy interviews were carried out at two different times during gestation to assess gestational age specific physicalactivity level. A brief post-partum interview was done in order to collect data on labor pain. The first pregnancy interview was done around mean gestational age of 224 days. Participants were questioned with regard to the physicalactivity they performed at home, at occupation as well as transport. They were asked about the types of physicalactivity they often engaged in. In depth queries were made, only on activities that caused at least some increase in breathing or heart rate. Therefore data on sedentary activities, such as watching television, reading or sewing, were not collected. Questions were correlated to predefined categories of physicalactivity as recreational, outdoor, indoor, child and adult care, transportation, work and other activities. Mothers were further questioned about lifting and carrying weights, standing for a long period and stair climbing, either at occupation or at home. Frequency and duration for each activity were noted down. The questionnaire was designed to recall activity during the week prior to the interview. The participants were questioned on how many times in the past week and on average for how many minutes or hours usually they engaged in that particular activity. Women were interviewed again around the mean gestational age of the 252 days.A small percent (7%) of these interviews were done over telephones.
There are four dimensions of physicalactivity commonly described: Transportation, house- hold chores, physical labor at worksite and leisure-time physicalactivity (LTPA). Among them, only LTPA is promotable and effort-related and has been most reported with improved health benefits, and extended life expectancy. Its positive effects are extensive with multi- system involvement.[18, 19] The current recommendation for LTPA is at least 30 minutes of daily exercise for 5 days or more per week (150 minutes/week) with moderate intensity.[20, 21] However, our recent study has shown the ability of extending 3 years of life from a daily exer- cise, not requiring 30 minutes each time but starting from 15 minutes or more of dedicated exercise in moderate intensity.
Each activity is represented by a row, with the activities within a location being always filled with red, orange or green. These colours tell the user how sedentary he is being at the moment, at that given place, and they change whether the user has been walking (which can be subtended as a break) on the last hour or not. These walking activities, if inside that same location, are not displayed as a separate row, but are hidden “inside” the location/idle activity row, being part of that same row. The name of each place is picked from the Foursquare venues existent nearby, with the exception of “Home” and “Work”, which are there by default from WalkNRide. The application is also powered by a (software) pedometer, which is a precious help to tell the user how much he has walked. The user’s covered distance is calculated taking into account his genre, height, and of course the steps he took. “In vehicle” distances were not as straightforward to calculate as the walking ones, since the accelerometer would not give us all the information we needed, so, the distance is calculated taking into account the user’s previous and next location, and also how much he walked between those two locations (which is subtracted from the total distance between those locations).
This section contains six questions that cover the number of days and daily time spent on recre- ational, sport, exercise and leisure physical activ- ities, performed in the seven days immediately prior to the administration of the questionnaire. The physical activities during Physical Educa- tion classes were disregarded. The score for lei- sure-time physicalactivity was established based on the time spent on walking and moderate ac- tivities. In addition, the time spent on vigorous activities was multiplied by two. For the purposes of analysis, individuals with a score <300 min- utes of physicalactivity per week were considered inactive in leisure.
carried out among healthy pregnant women in their first or second pregnancy trimesters who were attending one of four private obstetric clin- ics in Porto, Portugal. Previous consent was ob- tained from the private practice physicians spe- cializing in obstetrics and gynaecology to recruit participants from their offices. From 1 May to 30 September 2005, pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, with 10-15 weeks of pregnancy and aged 18-40 years were invited to participate in the study. Women were not eligible if they had one of the following exclusion criteria: were not able to read and/or write Portuguese; had severe mental illness that seriously compromised men- tal functioning; had an obstetric, physical disease or adverse health condition that restricted ha- bitual physicalactivity.