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Effect of ryanodine on sinus node recovery time determined in vitro

Effect of ryanodine on sinus node recovery time determined in vitro

Evidence has indicated that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) might be involved in the generation of spontaneous electrical activity in atrial pacemaker cells. We report the effect of disabling the SR with ryanodine (0.1 µM) on the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) measured in isolated right atria from 4-6-month-old male Wistar rats. Electro- gram and isometric force were recorded at 36.5 o

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Anesthetic induction and recovery time of Centropomus parallelus exposed to the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla

Anesthetic induction and recovery time of Centropomus parallelus exposed to the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla

As the fat snook is an euryhaline species that can survive in a wide salinity range, the anesthetic effect of the EOA was also verified in freshwater- adapted juveniles. In this experiment, salinity was gradually reduced (10ppt each day) and fish were then maintained for an additional seven days in freshwater prior to the experiment, as described by TONDOLO et al. (2013). The same procedure described for anesthetic induction and recovery of seawater-adapted fish was carried out in this group of animals at 200µL L -1 EOA (n=10). This concentration

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The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes

The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes

Studies analyzing the effect of standard length on induction and recovery times have reported conflicting results ( Prince and Powell, 2000; Walsh and Pease, 2002; Woody et al., 2002; Hoskonen and Pirhonen, 2004; Perdikaris et al., 2010). As with our dissenting results for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp., larger bodied Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) had shorter induction times than smaller ones, while the opposite occurred in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Hoskonen and Pirhonen, 2004 ). The same study found that Brown Trout ( Salmo trutta) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) of different body sizes did not differ in induction times (as we found for Hyphessobrycon sp.2). Of the few studies that have assessed the relationship between fish size and recovery time, two found no relationship (Hoskonen and Pirhonen, 2004; Prince and Powell, 2000), and one found that larger individuals had quicker recovery times than smaller ones ( Woody et al., 2002). This parallels the current results for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.
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Rev. Bras. Anestesiol.  vol.65 número5

Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. vol.65 número5

compared with ketamine alone and the combination of ketamine and propofol for pediatric orthopedic reductions, it was shown that ketamine/propofol combination produced slightly faster recoveries while also demonstrating less vomi- ting, higher satisfaction scores and similar efficacy and airway complications. Both groups did not experience sig- nificant respiratory depression and ketofol group had better sedation levels than ketamine group in our study. We found that ketofol provided more acceptable hemodynamy than ketamine alone. But we did not study for the sedation or recovery time.
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Scheduling Problem with Human Energy Recovery Function under Nonlinear Time-dependent Deterioration

Scheduling Problem with Human Energy Recovery Function under Nonlinear Time-dependent Deterioration

Example. Through investigating a certain large airport in China, an example is given here. There are 6 airplanes (n = 6) which arrives at an airport at time 0. The normal processing time for each airplane is 35min (p = 35), the dete- rioration rate b and the fully recovery time T are respectively designed as different values to solve the problem, i.e., b = 0.054, 0.056, 0.059, 0.100, and T = 10 min, 20 min, 30 min. All airplanes are available for ramp services at 0 and n is an even integer equal to 6. According to Proposition 5.1, Proposition 5.2 and Theorem 5.1, when T < U , an RMA will be scheduled.
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The physiological consequences of varied heat exposure events in adult Myzus persicae: a single prolonged exposure compared to repeated shorter exposures

The physiological consequences of varied heat exposure events in adult Myzus persicae: a single prolonged exposure compared to repeated shorter exposures

In previous studies much attention has focused on the cold tolerance of Myzus persicae (O’doherty & Bale, 1985; Bale, Harrington & Clough, 1988; Clough, Bale & Harrington, 1990; Howling, Bale & Harrington, 1994; Bezemer, Jones & Knight, 1998; Vorburger, 2004) as well as assessments of the effects of temperature on physiological parameters including their thermal tolerance at different latitudes and altitudes (Bezemer, Jones & Knight, 1998; Alford, Blackburn & Bale, 2012a). There is a paucity of knowledge regarding how aphid physiology is affected by repeated exposure to high temperatures. Here, we assessed aphid metabolic rates after different heating regimes (a single prolonged exposure and repeated short-term exposure with recovery time, and no heat exposure) using flow-through respirometry; we also assessed the upper critical temperature threshold, energy reserves and their osmolyte compound profile, as indicators of aphid stress response after exposure to the different heating regimes.
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Farmacodinâmica do cisatracúrio no transplante renal.

Farmacodinâmica do cisatracúrio no transplante renal.

of cisatracurium showed a clinical duration approximately 20 minutes longer for both groups. This difference could be at- tributed to the fact that isoflurane further increases muscle blood flow as compared to sevoflurane, what would promote faster neuromuscular blocker removal from the endplate 28 . Recovery time is defined as time elapsed for single stimula- tion response recovery between 25% and 75% of baseline values. This represents the initial neuromuscular blocker re- covery phase 8 . Generally in this phase there is a linear corre-

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Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have recovered sufficiently to meet their intake requirements. The implications for habitat and elephant management are discussed.
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Anesthesia and sedation of map treefrog (Hypsiboas geographicus) tadpoles with essential oils

Anesthesia and sedation of map treefrog (Hypsiboas geographicus) tadpoles with essential oils

There were no mortalities throughout the experiment. Ethanol at the highest concentration used for dilution of the EOs did not lead to sedation or anesthesia. Time to induce sedation or anesthesia and recovery showed a concentration-dependent relationship for all EOs tested. There was a reduction in the induction time to sedation and anesthesia with an increase in EO concentration, and the recovery time was longer with an increase in EO concentration. The exception was the recovery time with EOLO, since animals exposed to 200µL L -1 did not recover
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The Recovery of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Is Rapid in Subclinical Cushing Syndrome

The Recovery of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Is Rapid in Subclinical Cushing Syndrome

shorter in patients with SC than those with OC (4.0 months vs. 17.0 months, P<0.001), and it correlated well with preoperative cortisol levels. Few studies have compared the recovery time between patients with OC and SC. Di Dalmazi et al. [20] re- ported that only 65% of SC patients had postsurgical adrenal in- sufficiency, compared with 99.7% of OC patients. They also re- ported that the mean recovery time was 6.5 months (range, 1 to 50) in SC patients and 11.2 months (range, 1 to 60) in those with OC, and they observed a tight relationship between the de- gree of hypercortisolism and the time to recovery, similar to our data. Some studies reported that old age at surgery is a critical factor influencing recovery time in patients with adrenal CS [21,22], but the clinical features were only explained as a factor influencing recovery time in patients with adrenal CS indepen- dently of age in our study by multivariate analysis. These results support that SC patients have a lower degree of cortisol excess that is not sufficient to fully suppress the HPA axis. However, Berr et al. [22] reported that ectopic CS, which had the highest cortisol excess, showed the shortest recovery time, compared with CS due to adrenal or pituitary etiologies. In general, ecto- pic CS shows rapid progression of the disease compared with adrenal CS; therefore, the recovery time might be influenced not only by the degree of cortisol excess but also by the period of exposure to cortisol excess. This is explained by findings of adrenal insufficiency after exposure to exogenous steroids. Ad- renal insufficiency is frequently seen in patients treated with long-term glucocorticoids and is related to the duration and the cumulative dose of steroids [23].
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Development and test of resistive superconducting fault current limiter; acting time and its recovery conditions

Development and test of resistive superconducting fault current limiter; acting time and its recovery conditions

The architecture of the commercial YBCO CC tapes, such as stabilizer thickness, high resistivity substrate and use of stainless steel tape as reinforcement, with a linear electric resistance of 0.354ȍ /m, requires the pulsed current-voltage (I-V) measurements using short samples for determining the peak current limiting period, the maximum allowable temperature of 350 K and the recovery time from full normal state transition without any irreversible tape degradation. An efficient cooling scheme should also be considered to expose the broad tape surface to the liquid nitrogen coolant; in this condition the maximum allowed power dissipation per surface area is 32 W/cm 2 [6].
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O uso de manta térmica no intra-operatório de pacientes submetidos à prostatectomia radical está relacionado com a diminuição do tempo de recuperação pós-anestésica.

O uso de manta térmica no intra-operatório de pacientes submetidos à prostatectomia radical está relacionado com a diminuição do tempo de recuperação pós-anestésica.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anesthesia and the surgeries cause substantial thermal changes, and hypothermia can lead to cardiovascular complications, clotting disorders, immunologic changes, and disruption of water and electrolyte balances, besides decreasing drug metabolism and, therefore, increasing post-anes- thetic recovery time (PART). Circulation of warm air (forced-air warming blanket) is the most effective non-invasive warming me- thod currently available. The objective of the present study was to compare the time spent in the recovery room of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with and without the intraoperative use of a forced-air warming blanket.
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RECOVERY OF ASPERGILLUS ENDO-GLUCANASE PRODUCED ON SOLID SUBSTRATE: A DOE BASED APPROACH

RECOVERY OF ASPERGILLUS ENDO-GLUCANASE PRODUCED ON SOLID SUBSTRATE: A DOE BASED APPROACH

significance. The “Pred R-Squared” of 0.8373 was in reasonable agreement with the “Adj R-Squared” of 0.9454. Additionally the adeq precisior ratio of 16.19 indicated an adequate signal and the model could be used for the navigation of design space. The 3D response surfaces were drawn to present the interactive effects of three independent factors and to present the combined effects of those factors on the endo-glucanase activity. From the Fig 2b, it was clear that the increase in contact time between the fermented mass and the 10% aqueous glycerol solution was effective for the enzyme recovery. Time of 2.5 h was actually found to be sufficient for the leaching out of maximum enzyme in liquid phase at 100 rpm shaking condition. Beyond this range further increase in mixing speed and contact time showed marginal effect on the recovery. At higher temperature (35 0 C) the recovery found to be low may be due to the thermal
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The use of propofol as a sedative agent in gastrointestinal endoscopy: a meta-analysis.

The use of propofol as a sedative agent in gastrointestinal endoscopy: a meta-analysis.

Two review authors assessed the methodological quality of potentially eligible trials, without consideration of the results. All the data extracted independently by the two authors, and then cross-checked between them to rule out the discrepancy. Pooled data were examined for cardiopulmonary complications (hypoxia, hypotension, arrhythmia, and apnea) and other aspects of the sedation profile, including recovery time, discharge time, post- anesthesia recovery score (PARS), sedation level, and patient cooperation. Complications were defined objectively as follows: hypoxia as a drop in oxygen saturation below 90%, hypotension as a drop in systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg, arrhythmia as a heart rhythm different from the patient’s usual rhythm, and apnea as cessation of respiratory activity for more than 10 seconds. These complications were not mutually exclusive, and more than one could potentially occur in the same patient. All RCTs were
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Rev. Bras. Anestesiol.  vol.65 número4

Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. vol.65 número4

Four patients with ages between 69 and 76 years were included. The clinical characteristics of the patients are summarized in Table 1, and Fig. 1 shows one of the patients included in the study. The average percentage of body sur- face area burned was 17.25%. Two of the patients received a booster dose of rocuronium (20 and 25 mg respectively). The average recovery time from a TOF ratio greater than 0.9 after sugammadex administration before extubation was 4.95 min with a 95% confidence interval of 3.25---6.64 (p = 0.53). The median of the same variable was of 4.65 min. Typical deviation was of 1.06.
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Clinics  vol.67 número5

Clinics vol.67 número5

In conclusion, our data clearly indicate Landrace/Large White piglets as a favorable swine breed for experimenta- tion on neonatal hypoxia. The hemodynamic fluctuations at baseline, as reported by our group, during normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in this animal model resulted in important myocardial histological changes, indicating the reliability of this model for the study of human neonatal hypoxia (10). Cardiac lesions appear to play an important role in asphyxiated newborns, with coagulative necrosis being the principal and most severe lesion that is strictly associated with recovery time, which differs widely among animals in the same group. This study suggests an inter- individual variability in the response of cardiac cells to asphyxia that is independent from the fiO 2 used during
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Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

Concerning the generality of the present work, we admit that in some aspects our model is more like “a proof of concept” than the general solution that fits the specifics of each and every MFI in existence. However, most real-world cases can be cast into a form analyzable within the proposed modeling framework because of its great flexibility and extendability. For instance, decaying networks could be used to model permanent defaults [6] by excluding intrinsically failed agents with infinite recovery times. Dynamical networks could also be used to imitate mechanisms of moral hazard complementary to the one we have already described. An exam- ple would be failed connections between agents [23] when the information exchange is inter- rupted as a consequence of lax peer monitoring [6, 9]. Additionally, new agents could be allowed to enter the network, leading to a class of models that explicitly incorporates outreach as a vital component of microfinance industry [4, 9]. Finally, competition between two or more MFIs [10] could be modeled in a setting where networks of borrowers overlap, allowing more robust networks to take over parts of more fragile ones. We therefore conclude that the concept of dynamical networks makes a promising new tool for analyzing open questions in microfi- nance with the potential for greatly improving, if not revolutionizing, the perception of sustain- ability in this industry.
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Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

This study was conducted in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal Welfare Act. Procedures were approved by the Medical School Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Wisconsin (UW)- Madison. Animals (Charles Rivers) were purchased through and housed in the UW Animal Care Facility in Inovive system cages, accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, and provided with standard care as well as free access to food and water. Light cycle in the facility starts at 6 a.m., dark cycle at 6 p.m. with an ambient room temperature of 72uC. Four-week old female CD1 mice were treated with 0.143 mg/kg Bort or vehicle control, followed by 20 mg/kg DXR (twice the human equivalent dose) or saline via intraperi- toneal injection (200 m L total volume/injection) 1 hr later. Three mice were injected per time point, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hrs, as indicated. Experiments were performed in triplicate or quadru- plicate for a total of 72 mice. To minimize variability in time from injection to tissue harvest (particularly for short time points), mice were injected and harvested in the same order according to treatment group: control, DXR, Bort+DXR, Bort. Sample size was based on statistical significance achieved in our previous publication describing in vivo DXR insult in the mouse [23]. Utilizing one ovary from each mouse for the comet assay and the contralateral ovary for protein extraction or TUNEL assay reduced the total number of mice needed for the study and allowed pairwise comparison of the data. Mice were housed with 3–4 animals per cage following injection. Injections were performed early in the morning, typically by 8:00 a.m. in the Biological Safety Hood within the UW Animal Care Facility to minimize mouse handling and transport. Mice were euthanized with CO 2 , and ovaries processed as previously described [23].
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Reliable Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-Time Systems with Uncertain Execution Time and Resource Constraints

Reliable Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-Time Systems with Uncertain Execution Time and Resource Constraints

Where, U is the utilization factor. If it’s greater than 1, the task set cannot be scheduled using EDF algorithm. In a real- time system, the task set will have the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) and Deadline (Di) such that WCETi < Di for all i. (Only tasks with WCETi < Di can be scheduled successfully in a real- time system, else the task set is simply discarded). As such, there is always a time gap between the deadline of the task and its actual execution time. In an energy efficient system, we reduce the energy consumption by making processor process at lower frequencies. Dynamic Voltage Scaling is used to minimize the energy consumed. DVS allows a processor to dynamically change its speed and voltage at run time, thus increasing energy efficiency.
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Braz. oral res.  vol.22 número2

Braz. oral res. vol.22 número2

The modiications proposed allowed a signiicant reduction in the time required for processing den- tal amalgam and posterior mercury recovery with a high level of purity. In addition, the modiications greatly reduced the exposure of operators to physi- cal, chemical and ergonomic risks inherent to the original method. Replacing the fossil, organic, inite energy source by an electric source more appropri- ate for preserving the environment resulted in a sig- niicant improvement of the procedure for mercury recovery from dental amalgam.

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