Risk is identified in project management literature as an important factor influencing ITprojectssuccess, and it is relevant for both academic and practitioners’ communities. The paper presents the past and current approaches to risk management inITprojects. The objective of this paper is to compare the different approaches and relate them to existing practices. Project management literature and practice have brought different approaches to risk management, and as a result, many projects ended in failure. We present how risk management is considered in the literature, and we compare the main two approaches: the evaluation approach and the management approach. The contingency approach does not consider risk management to be a specific process as it is an embedded process in the other project management processes. Then, we present the main practices in risk management. The methodology applied is based on documentary study review and analysis of the concepts used by the literature. We analyzed the literature published between 1978 and 2011 from the main journals for IT project management and found out that the essence of project management is risk management. The risk management practices have a considerable influence on stakeholders’ perception of project success. But, regardless of the chosen approach, a standard method for identifying, assessing, and responding to risks should be included in any project as this influences the outcome of the project.
One could say that it is not the abovementioned project management techniques or tools themselves that make a project successful, but the people involved. People, that is, project management professionals (including their technical skills, personal characteristics etc.) and the organisational context of a project (including top management’s attitude, the organisational culture etc.) have a decisive role in achievable project success. However, the project management techniques and tools are used and applied by people. In this way the right use, that is, the application of the techniques and tools depends on people. In other words, the appropriateness of using these techniques and tools reflects the attitude of the users and, ultimately, the organisational context of the users. That is why project management techniques and tools are in forefront when the best practice phenomenon in project management is being considered. It is in this way that the followers of the best practice approach confuse learning from experience with copying the experience of others. Learning from experience is, however, essential from the point of view of achieving successinprojects.
Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between project management and knowledge management. To understand the intersection between these two fields of research, the methodological approach selected was a systematic literature review. The multi-stages approach was adopted, starting with bibliometric analysis with descriptive statistical analysis of the population of papers studied, followed by a co-citation and network analysis, and finally a content analysis in order to identify trends and research gaps. The results show that the project management and knowledge management are related to issues involving the skills of project managers and of the organization, governance of knowledge between projects through the area of Project Management Office, and aspects related to factors critical to success and success itself of a project. As a trend, studies aimed at the formation of virtual teams formed by distributed organizations stand out, and as a gap, the importance of knowledge for projects involving sustainability issues, as few studies were identified about this subject. It was possible to notice that these constructs are essential to organizational performance, and that together they have a synergy that may contribute to enable companies to differentiate themselves from their competitors and achieve competitive advantage.
As it was mentioned earlier, the collected data on one hand determine the importance of each factor for obtaining a hundred percent success during the initial phase of projects and on the other hand, determine the level of importance of each criterion from the perspective of every expert. On this basis, through application of neural networks, we can present a model for determining the relationships of the factors for the success and criteria of success. This model is the sum of views of experts regarding the relation between these elements. By using the neural Network toolbox in the software of MATLAB, a multilayer perceptron network was developed for the aforementioned model. For this purpose, the software was tested fifty times and the most optimized and precise model was selected. The selected model is a network with two hidden layers and respectively 50 and 16 neurons in each layer. The whole 33 inputs of this network indicate the importance of factors and its 16 outputs also indicate the importance of each criterion. The importance level of factors and criterions are reflected on a scale of 1 (non-important) to 5 (very important). Fig. 3 provides a view of the components of model.
This statement attests to the potential of individuals and their constant communication over complicated and restraining process and tools. Simplicity and team-work are the keys for success. Agile advocates that teams should be self- organized, cross-functional and capable of ingenious and original solutions. Then they will be able to use simple ways to manage the activities needed to get the job done. Big companies tend to forget the value of the individual, usually seen as mere resources to bundle up in team silos. Traditional processes tend to enforce the same way of work to all the teams in order to standardise activities. This is proved to wear down ingenious spirits and affects motivation.
Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between project management and knowledge management. To understand the intersection between these two ields of research, the methodological approach selected was a systematic literature review. The multi-stages approach was adopted, starting with bibliometric analysis with descriptive statistical analysis of the population of papers studied, followed by a co-citation and network analysis, and inally a content analysis in order to identify trends and research gaps. The results show that the project management and knowledge management are related to issues involving the skills of project managers and of the organization, governance of knowledge between projects through the area of Project Management Ofice, and aspects related to factors critical to success and success itself of a project. As a trend, studies aimed at the formation of virtual teams formed by distributed organizations stand out, and as a gap, the importance of knowledge for projects involving sustainability issues, as few studies were identiied about this subject. It was possible to notice that these constructs are essential to organizational performance, and that together they have a synergy that may contribute to enable companies to differentiate themselves from their competitors and achieve competitive advantage.
Competencies have also been considered along project life cycle. According to Skulmoski  in each project phase different competencies can be considered important. In the same way, Russo et al.  have shown how leadership competencies can influence in the project management phases. Indeed, PMI  have also stated that leadership is important through all phases of the project life cycle, especially when it is important to communicate the vision and inspire the project team in order to achieve project success. Ng and Walter , which also found this topic a relevant one, used an IS/IT project from a public organization in Hong Kong to illustrate how various types of power, and thus leadership styles, were used (by all participants) to influence team members across the identified project phases. To do so, they carried out a case study, directly observing and describing the progress of the project, drawing conclusions through their own (and possibly subjective) analysis of actors and their behaviors, attempting to characterize them with the existing literature.
To address the aforementioned difficulties, several researchers have proposed new ways, not only to measure project success, but to help organizations actually realize business benefits when implementing IS/IT systems. [Yates et al. 2009] compiled and presented a list of process models for benefits management (see Table 2 on page 8). Some of these models, for example the Cranfield Process Model for Benefits Management [Ward et al. 1996], [Peppard et al. 2007] have been successfully used in real projects and it has been proven that using a formal process of benefits management in an IS/IT implementation project helps an organization realize expected business benefits [Caldeira et al. 2012].
Moutinho and Lopes (2011, b) observe that 69,8% of the companies attribute a high importance to the project manager aspects and 53,1% consider human resource analysis important in the project appraisal context. It should also be noted that companies from the commercial industry and with long-duration projects attribute a greater importance to the human resource analysis. On the other hand, CEOs with a lower level of education attribute a greater importance to the project manager analysis, whereas the younger the CEO and the project manager, the greater importance is attributed to human resources. In this study, the area of project managers is also presented as one of those which most contribute to more successful projects. Note, also, that this work shows that the human resource analysis is one of the most evaluated in project appraisal, since 69,8% of companies analyses these issues. On the other hand, nearly 55,2% of firms consider project manager aspects. Despite these results, the study concludes these areas lose importance when attempting to verify their influence in the economic value of the project and their importance in the decision to implement the project. Moutinho and Lopes (2011, b) identify the main critical success factors in investment projects, concluding that the non-financial aspects are very important, with human resource aspects mentioned as one of the five most important critical areas. This work shows that not only is higher success levels inprojects related with higher frequency in the evaluation of human resources and project manager aspects, but also in higher project success companies consider the project manager area more important in project’s valuation than companies with lower project success. It is also apparent that human resources aspects are present in successful projects and that perceived success is higher when the project manager’s reward is entirely variable or goal- based.
The success of free software and open source projects has sparked interest in the use of his model to develop mature software. However, its ad hoc nature can also produce poor quality software or failures inprojects. In this article it is analyze the SourceForge.net projects described in order to test the hypothesis that under the open source model there is a relationship between the levels of maturity of process with success of the projects. The processes are identified as key factors in the success of free software projects and this study addresses the question of whether their level of maturity differs notably between successful and unsuccessful projects. The knowledge gained can be applied to improve the processes used in both projects free software as in software engineering in general.
This work aims at highlighting the importance of knowledge, how it is acquired, used and shared across all departments of a modern organization. It is fundamental to use tools in knowledge management that facilitate the way projectssuccess is reached, making it efficient and thus boosting customer satisfaction. With globalization and market competitiveness, modern organizations need to adapt their internal policies and procedures to this new Era called Knowledge Economy. Therefore, organizations are now focused on understanding and managing the knowledge of people so they can increase their competitiveness in the markets. Today organizations face an overflow of information that, in most cases they don't know how to integrate or even understand the importance of the knowledge management and transfer.
Three types of data mining approaches were conducted in this study. The first approach is descriptive which is concerned with the nature of the dataset such as the frequency table and the average values with standard deviations. In addition, t-test is conducted to determine possible differences between students and alumni, and between genders. The third type of data mining approach, i.e. predictive data mining, is conducted by using four different methods: discriminant analysis, regression analysis, decision trees and neural networks. Among the four methods the neural network models have shown the best results and thus are presented in the paper.
P81 A simple emergency procedure to be used if biotechnological protein production is endangered by bacteriophage infection of Escherichia coli cultures: effective inhibition of bacteriophage lytic development in infected cultures by removing a carbon source from the medium
Because projects aim at solving relatively complex and unique problems within distinct start and end points, temporary organizations need to be established for a limited period of time. Even the simplest projects are installed as distinct organizational units to the base organization and receive from it an appropriate amount of resources and personnel to accomplish specific objectives. As expected, the rigid departmental structure and the formal communication lines are made less important as the people involved belong to both the project and departments. The project team becomes an entity that crosses the departmental boundaries with its own budget, division of work and performance goals. In this sense, the project approach creates less hierarchical and more flexible organizations inside the base organization. This enables the base organization to undertake missions outside the scope of its on- going operations.
Throughout the history of humankind, many cities have arisen and built from different needs and purposes. Mainly after the industrial revolution, many cities appear as the result of a process of urbanization, generating a new social context considered by some as the information society, imposing on the state new way of articulating public policies with society. Moreover, with the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) new concepts associated with the city like cyberspace, cybercity, virtual city, electronic city and Digital City arise. The purpose of this work was to discuss the concept of Digital City, from the search for a theoretical reference since the 1980s, understanding the characteristics of projects implemented since then around the world. From this understanding, bring a discussion to the Brazilian context of the Digital City project promoted by the Ministry of Communications (MC) as a public policy of insertion of the population in some Brazilian municipalities in the information age. Methodologically the research moves into its qualitative character of a specific nature, supported by the authorial coupling. As a result, the paper reiterates concepts and questions about the goa
Unidimensionality is a necessary condition for reliability analysis and construct validation. Items in a uni- dimensional scale estimate one single construct. In the absence of uni-dimensionality a single member cannot be used to represent the value of the scale. One can reduce the problems associated with unidimensionality by carefully selecting the items in the scales This may warrant removing those items from the scales that reduce extent of uni-dimensionality. CFA can be used to access the uni-dimensionality of the scale. To use CFA a measurement model is specified for each construct. In this model, individual items constituting the construct are examined to see how closely they represent the same item. Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.90 or higher for the model suggests that there is no evidence of lack of unidimensionality. The CFI for all the three constructs are computed by using AMOS software version-7 and the results are given in the table. It has been observed that all the CFI values for the individual constructs well above 0.90 and moreover the overall CFI value is 0.934, which indicates strong uni-dimensionality.
This methodology was developed by Carvalho (2009), and provides scientific criteria for assessing the environmental, sociocultural and economic sustainability of projects, to support the choice and specification of construction materials and components. MASP-HIS can assist in the assessment during the design phase in buildings life cycle focusing on sustainability, minimizing impact and ensuring quality in the management of the design process through sustainability indexes. It is user-centered, especially for designers (engineers and architects) in the construction sector focused on SH. It can be applied on: (a) complete projects: verification of complete projects, considering aspects of environmental, socio-cultural and economic sustainability based on previously established requirements; (b) housing elements: specification of materials and components of building elements (e.g. structure, walls, roof etc.), considering environmental, socio-cultural and economic criteria.
In 2013, the PAHO presented the resolution “Human re- sources in health: improve access to qualified health profes- sionals in health systems based on primary health care.” Con- sidering the strategic and critical role of the health workforce to achieve universal coverage and access seeking to develop- ment the health systems, it recommended educational reforms for the training of health professionals to work in systems based on PHC. It also recommended the increase in positions for relevant professionals to the work in PHC, such as family physicians, advanced practice nurses, and non-medical clini- cal professionals in the region of Latin America.
The political sustainability, manifested in international agreements (Viola, 1998, 1997), generates the institution of environmental programs, that included management and decentralization, allied with models of local development projects, taking into account the 21 Agenda and the local resultants of the Conventions of Climate and Biodiversity . In those models it is possible to see also new patterns of planning and execution, based on independence, transparency, participation and partnership. The political and institutional sustainability may be confirmed trough the reunion of these elements, and also by the given articulation between the global and the local, with the maintenance of the connections between the participants of all involved institutions, prioritizing new actors and practices, based on confidence, rigor and responsibility. The Equator Initiative obtained this kind of sustainability in quite all their projects, also innovating with the implementation of laws and local agreements. The best examples are the projects that influenced, in 2001, the Rural Land Law in Tanzania, and the one that developed the concept of benefit-sharing with the tribal community, leading to policy changes in the Biodiversity Bill in India. We may summarize the political sustainability of local projectsin convergent politics of global investments and national socio-environmental decentralization, good institutional strategies, strengthened social actors and independence in decentralized management.