The method used to determine the predictors of a PTF or the estimated variable (ρb) also seems to af- fect their performance. Both ρb and OC (or OM) can be measured by different methodologies (Sleutel et al., 2007; Blake and Hartge, 1986). The LOI and wet- oxidation methods are the two most commonly used methods for quantifying OM. However, the LOI meth- od has no standard protocol and involves potentially confounding factors (Hoogsteen et al., 2015) even if the granulometric data could present variations since na- tional and international classification systems often use quite different particle size ranges. In fact, Wösten et al. (2001) pointed out that there is no single source of variability, either PTF-related or soil-related, that can explain the uncertainty in every calculated functional aspect of soil behavior. The authors suggest using large and reliable data sets as well as PTFs developed from soils with similar attribute ranges to those used for the predictions. Here, we could see that similar ranges of soil attributes are not a guarantee of good predictions. The REC curve allows us to show that the 12 PTFs with the best indices presented, in general, a perfor- mance similar tothe null model. BEN-C and M&J-B models presented the best results. The improvements observed were insignificant and were found only in specific error ranges.
Weights of all cuts increased with slaughter weight (P<0.001) (Table 3). Otherwise, the proportion of shoulder decreased linearly (P<0.001), whereas the proportions ofthe remaining cuts were not affected by slaughter weight. Proportion of individual cuts has been shown to be related with slaughter weight due to variation in muscle, bone and, mainly, fat tissue contents (SILVA et al., 2000b). In contrast with our results, HUIDOBRO & CAÑEQUE (1993b) reported that leg and shoulder proportions in Manchega lambs decreased and rib proportion increased with slaughter weight. SILVA et al. (2000b) reported increases only in rib proportion in Texel x Polwarth crossbred lambs, reaffirming the late maturity ofthe rib (OSÓRIO et al., 1997) related to fatness increase. Nevertheless, genotypes evaluated by those authors present higher proportion of fat in the carcass, when compared to breeds used in the present study, which has high capacity for meat production (PÉREZ et al., 1993; JONES et al., 2002). Leg, a high quality cut (DÍAZ et al., 2002), represented the largest of all individual cuts. According to HUIDOBRO & CAÑEQUE (1993b), the proportions ofthe cuts can be utilized to establish the
AbstractTheaimofthisstudy is to describe in- cipient tobacco use and associated factors among adolescents from the rural zone of southwestern Bahia. It was based on data from the cross-sec- tional Adolescer research project among 390 ad- olescents conducted in 2015. Data were analyzed using frequency and chi-square measurements and Poisson regression with robust variance to es- timate the prevalence ratios (PR) for incipient to- bacco use in relation tothe explanatory variables. Among the adolescents, 5.1% had smoked at some stage and 0.3% smoked regularly. The following variables were associated with incipient smoking: male gender (PR = 6.46); having had sexual in- tercourse at some stage in life (PR = 20.55); hav- ing parents who rarely or never understood their problems (PR=7.89); having 3 or more friends (PR = 0.10). Despite low incipient smoking or the prevalence of regular smoking, which indicate the adoption of a healthier lifestyle or greater autono- my and decision-making ability for non-smoking, it is acknowledged that there is no safe level of ex- posure to tobacco. The recommendation is that an intersectoral partnership between education and health be created to foster health promotion and disease prevention, with an emphasis on curtail- ing smoking habits.
AbstractTheaimofthisstudy is to identify the prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience, along with associated factors among street chil- dren, adolescents and youths in Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The sampling method in this cross-sectional studywas Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS), innovative in research about hidden populations. Interviews were conducted with 307 subjects, aged 10 to 21 years. In multi- variate analysis, Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used. Most ofthis sample were males, with no contact with school and family. Almost half ofthe participants had been on the street for five years or more, spending more than 15 hours per day on the streets. The prevalence of pregnancy experience was 29.3%, independent- ly associated with being a girl, having 10 sexual partners or more in the last year, having a fixed sexual partner in the last year, and being older. The prevalence of abortion experience was 10.4%, independently associated with not living with the family, having more than two pregnancies, and being younger. The high prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience highlights the need for the development of better sexual and reproductive health policies focused on this population. Key words Pregnancy, Abortion, Street adoles- cents, Street youth, Teenage pregnancy
The leaf abscission observed must have occurred probably due tothe increase on the ethylene production through an indirect action of glyphosate (FUCHS et al., 2002; GRAVENA, 2006). According to Yamada and Castro (2007), ethylene increases the cellulase activity, which makes the leaves more susceptible to abscission, in addition to promoting the loss of chlorophyll; therefore, it is one ofthe factors responsible for the chlorosis. Ethylene derives from the amino acid methionine (SCHALLER; KIEBER, 2002), which is, in turn, produced at a greater amount when the molecule ofthe herbicide inhibits the route that originates the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine (YAMADA; CASTRO, 2007).
markable activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis [e.g., betulinic acid ester derivatives such as 7b-(4- hydroxy-benzoyloxy), 7b-(4-hydro-3-methoxy-benzoylo- xy) and 27-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoyloxy)] (Schuhly et al., 1999). Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark also contains an abundance of saponins that have been used as toothpastes, with aqueous extracts showing antimicrobial action against bacteria (planktonic cells and artificial biofilms) related to dental caries and periodontal diseases (Alviano et al., 2008). Other popular therapeutic applications of Z. joazeiro Mart. include the treatment of dandruff, rheumatism, flu, fever, chronic bronchitis, gastric ulcers, indigestion, heart- burn and headaches (Schuhly et al., 1999; Cartaxo et al., 2010). In addition, experimental studies have identified po- tential antifungal (Cruz et al., 2007), antibacterial (Schuhly et al., 1999; Alviano et al., 2008; Leal et al., 2010), antioxi- dant (Alviano et al., 2008) and antipyretic (Nunes et al., 1987) activities, as well as low toxicity (Alviano et al., 2008).
ze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System and was corrected and adjusted by means of pro- portional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analy- sis on both sexes and in all regions ofthe country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade ofthe 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. Thiswas up until the 1950s for men and the 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio -economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.
AbstractThisstudy aimed toevaluatethe Qual- ity of Work Life (QWL) of health professionals in prisons and identify QWL-associated factors. This is an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional survey conducted in five prisons. Thestudy in- cluded 29 health professionals, who answered the TQWL-42 questionnaire. Results were obtained through descriptive statistics and multiple lin- ear regressions. QWL was higher among women, younger workers, professionals with incomplete higher education or who have been working at the prison for 4 to 6 years. QWL overall assessment was 69.55 points. We observed that variables gen- der and education and biological/physiological and environmental/organizational spheres are associated with the overall assessment of QWL. Key words Job satisfaction, Quality of life, Work, Health professionals, Prisons
Abstract - The objective ofthisstudywastoevaluate gas exchange and production of Maçã bananas type, at different times ofthe year and the day in semi-arid environment. Seven genotypes genotypes were used: Maçã, Caipira, BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa, YB42-03, YB42-17 and YB42-47, arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates and four useful plants per plot. For the physiological characteristics, a factorial arrangement 7x7x2 was considered (seven genotypes, seven evaluation periods, two reading times, 8:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.). Photosynthetic rates, carboxylation efficiency, and instantaneous water use efficiency are higher at 8:00 a.m., due to meteorological conditions, while foliar temperature and transpiration are higher at 2:00 p.m., due tothe elevation of air temperature and low humidity. Months with higher radiation and intermediate temperature provided higher rates of photosynthesis, higher efficiency of carboxylation and photochemistry of photosynthesis. In general, genotype YB42-47 wasthe most productive, with higher water use efficiency and photosynthesis rates.
AbstractThisstudy aimed toevaluatethe prev- alence and distribution profile of malocclusion in Brazilian preschoolers and its association with macro-region, housing, gender, and self-reported race. In total, 6,855 children aged five years par- ticipating in the National Oral Health Survey (called SB Brasil 2010) were analyzed. Malocclu- sion was diagnosed according tothe Foster and Hamilton index. We conducted descriptive, bivari- ate and multiple regression analyses (PR/CI95%). We identified that 63.2% of children had at least one ofthe occlusal problems evaluated: canines’ key (22.9%), overjet (32.9%), overbite (34.6%), and posterior crossbite (18.7%) and, thus, were considered with malocclusion. Higher probabili- ty ofthe presence of malocclusion was identified among the residents ofthe Midwest (1.08/95%CI 1.01-1.15), Northeast (1.21/95%CI 1.14-1.28), Southeast (1.27/95%CI 1.20-1.34) and South (1.34/95%CI 1.26-1.42) regions when compared to residents in the North. It was also higher among female children (1.06/95% CI 1.02-1.09). No as- sociations were identified concerning race and lo- cation ofthe municipality (capital/no capital). A high prevalence of malocclusion was identified in Brazilian preschoolers, and it was associated with gender and the macro-region. These findings may contribute to expanded public policies and greater access to treatment for this population.
Due to energy costs, the poultry production systems are looking for technologies to rationalize energy use, such as the use of LEDs (light emitting diode), which can be used in poultry cutting and laying (Borille et al., 2013, Santana et al., 2014) and in quail production (Jácome et al., 2012, Molino et al., 2015). More efficient, cheaper and more durable lamps, such as LEDs, which can reduce energy consumption, are possible to adapt tothe spectral sensitivity (vision) curve ofthe birds, providing adequate brightness and increased photoperiod, which for the egg production in quails should be, on average, from 14 to 17 hours of day -1 light, providing a greater production and
The significance test for the generalized mod- el obtained a p-value of ≤ .000, indicating that the model was significant. The significance value for each ofthe predictor variables SE, IM and DS was less than .05, showing that they were rele- vant. It is interesting to note from the results that normal/high levels of SE inhibit the likelihood of SI, while, conversely, high levels of IM and DS increase the likelihood. The ORs obtained there- fore suggest that high levels of IM result in a two- fold increase (OR = 1.907) in the likelihood of SI. Without doubt, however, the result that stands out most is the fact that the presence of DS leads to a ninefold increase in the likelihood of SI (OR = 9.006), corroborating the theory that high lev- els of depression are conducive to suicidal ide- ation and, ultimately, attempted suicide.
Abstract - theaimofthisstudywastoevaluatethe chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of juices and cuts of ‘Bordô’ and ‘Niágara Rosada’ grapes. The experimental design was in a one-factor scheme, with five levels. Treatments were: T1 – ‘Bordô’ (100%); T2 – ‘Bordô’ (70%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (30%); T3 – ‘Bordô’ (50%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (50%); T4 – ‘Bordô’ (30%) + ‘Niágara Rosada’ (70%); T5 – ‘Niágara Rosada’ (100%). Chemical analyses were: content of soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity, and sensory analyses were: color, aroma, flavor, body and global acceptance. For the soluble solids content, the highest averages were verified in T1, T2 and T3 treatments. As for pH, the highest value was recorded in T3, T4 and T5 treatments, while the highest titratable acidity was recorded in T4 and T5 treatments. In the sensory analysis, in juice with the highest percentage of ‘Bordô’ grape (T1 and T2) or with the same proportion of ‘Bordô’ and ‘Niágara Rosada’ (T3), the highest mean acceptance values were found. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of 100% ‘Bordô’ grape and ‘Bordô’ juice cut with up to 50% ‘Niágara Rosada’ are presented as alternatives for juice production.
AbstractTheaimofthisstudywasto assess the prevalence of being underweight among the elder- ly according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviors, diseas- es and health status. Thiswas a cross-sectional multi-center study with 3,478 community-dwell- ing elders (≥ 65 years). The dependent variable wasthe prevalence of being underweight, classified by Body Mass Index < 22kg/m2. Adjusted preva- lence rate ratios were estimated using multivari- able Poisson regression. The mean age was 72.9 years and 12.0% ofthe elderly were underweight (CI95%:10.9-13.1). Aged elderly ≥ 80 years, for- mer and current smokers, those who reported ap- petite loss and those classified as pre-frail or frail (PR=1.41; CI95%:1.09-1.82) presented a higher prevalence of being underweight. Individuals who received medical diagnosis of hypertension, diabe- tes and rheumatism had the lowest underweight prevalence observed. The results highlight the importance of nutritional status assessment and monitoring among the elderly, with emphasis on the most vulnerable subgroups, particularly the frail elderly, taking into account the health conse- quences of low weight.
Del total de participantes, el 93.3% proviene de instituciones públicas de educación media y el resto de instituciones privadas. El promedio en el último periodo cursado fue de 8.26, con una desviación estándar de .72. Casi la mitad de ellos (50.5%) son originarios de la capital del estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, mientras que el res- to provienen de otras ciudades y localidades de la entidad o bien de estados vecinos del sur de México como Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco y Puebla. El recuento de casos con presencia o no de ideación suicida, sintomatología depresiva, nivel de impulsividad y autoestima, indica que poco más de la mitad de los aspirantes, 2,437 (51.2%), presentaron al menos una de las cuatro problemá- ticas evaluadas. En particular, 369 casos (7.3%) mostraron evidencia de presencia de ideación sui- cida, 633 (13.3%) sintomatología depresiva eleva- da, 2,020 (42.4%) baja autoestima y 262 (5.5%) alta impulsividad. Es evidente que la problemática con mayor prevalencia es la baja autoestima.
AbstractThe scope ofthisstudywastoevaluate drug prescriptions for elderly patients in the geriat- ric outpatient ward of a hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive studywas conducted in a university hospital, with the application of a questionnaire. Patients aged ≥ 60 years were interviewed about their drug prescriptions and a total of 208 patients were interviewed. The average number of drugs used per person was 3.8 and the drugs most used were for the cardiovascular system (37%). 406 po- tential interactions were identified in 140 patients (67.3%), and duplicate therapy was found in two prescriptions. The potentially inappropriate drug most used for the elderly was nifedipine (2.4%). Data from thisstudy support the relevance ofthe issue of drug use among the elderly, thus reinforcing the importance ofthe evaluation ofthe process ofthe prescription of drugs for this population. Key words Elderly individuals, Drug prescriptions, Drug evaluation
In the area of Social Relations, no statistical difference was observed for either sex and the values ofthe scores were all above 60.9, although they were lower for the nursing home residents. Considering that this domain brings together in- terpersonal relationships and social support, it can be understood that the social losses to which the elderly are exposed, that is, everyday roles (professional, political, or family), are recom- pensed with the new activities at the Day Center and even in the Institution, not representing im- pairment in the QOL ofthe elderly, in the same way as the findings in the studies in 3 LSIEs in the interior of São Paulo 21 , in Caxias do Sul/RS 22 , and
The predictors in the present study were com- ponents of time spent in sedentary behavior, in- cluding television viewing, playing video games, using the computer and non-screen activities (talking to friends, playing cards or dominoes, talking on the phone, driving, or as a passenger, reading or studying). The mean time spent in each of these behaviors (in a typical week) was asked separately for weekdays and weekends, assigning weight 5 to weekdays and weight 2 to weekends and dividing the result by 7 to obtain the mean time in minutes per day 14 . Screen entertainment
AbstractThe scope ofthisstudywasto identify the characteristics of sexual abuse against chil- dren including the profiles ofthe victims and the perpetrators, and associated factors notified in a health service of reference with the database ofthe Brazilian Case Registry Database, in a city in the south of Brazil. Categorical variables are present- ed in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. There were 489 notifications from 2008 to 2014 of confirmed or suspected child sexual abuse. The majority was related to female victims, but the repeated abuse was reported mainly with male victims. In most cases, the abuse took place at the victims’ or perpetrators’ homes and the main perpetrators of abuse were male and acquainted with the victims. Twelve victims have contracted sexually transmitted infections; pregnancies were six, five of them legally terminated. Thisstudy highlights that the child sexual abuse profiles were similar in almost all of Brazilian regions, showing that it is possible to have a coordinated national action to prevent this offence.
lish the profile of caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and prospective study in which the caregivers of fibrocystic patients were interviewed during pharmaceutical consultation in a reference center of a University Hospital in southern Brazil. General information was ob- tained about the caregivers and about their un- derstanding ofthe disease, drug consumption and dynamics of treatment at home and at school. Seventy-five caregivers were interviewed. Most of them were female, 37.3 years old on average, mothers ofthe patients who did not work outside the home. Seventy-one caregivers declared dif- ficulties in drug acquisition and patient support associations were highlighted as the main alter- native to avoid the interruption of treatment. Another fact observed wasthe overload ofthe caregiving process on the shoulders of only one caregiver resulting in social and economic impacts and changes tothe family’s daily routine. This fact emphasizes the need of intervention by a qualified multidisciplinary team to identify and alleviate difficulties, investing in interpersonal relations and administering care.