Cisco a leading networking company all over the world right now with the highest sales rates all over the world becomes the first premiere networks company in our time. So, in this paper we will define, illustrate and configure some of routing protocols,(Domain Name Server) DNS, (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)DHCP and Access List (ACL) and (Network Address Translation) NAT that can be used during the communication ways with all data packets of sending and receiving processes. The usage of Cisco real routers and switches will give us an advance in high data processing. So, our goal can be targeted definitely is the “Time” of sending, receiving and acknowledgment due to the TCP/IP protocol called by 3 ways hand shake. In addition use to the encryption and the last step using (Wi-Fi Protected Access) WPA/WPA2 technologies. 
This study presents with the routing overhead analysis of impulse radio - Ultra Wide Band basedwireless networks which Employs Dynamic Nature Routing (EDNR) method for determining and selecting the stable route in MobileAdhocNetwork (MANET). This method requires only two sample packets and uses piggyback information on Route-Request (RREQ) and Route-Reply (RREP) packets during a route- discovery procedure. Conventional ENDR results in better routing overhead and packet delivery ratio characteristics with higher energy consumption. The proposed method explores the characteristics of UWB nature of routing basedon Node lifetime and Link lifetime prediction for reducing the required bandwidth while maintaining higher packet delivery and lower routing overhead. Simulation results illustrate the improvement of packet delivery ratio by 5% and reduction of routing overhead by 4.8% of the proposed UWB EDNR method over the conventional EDNR method. For higher packet delivery ratio and reduced routing overhead with efficient bandwidth utilization can be achieved by applying UWB based EDNR routing that is desired for real time data communications.
In this work, we study the relationship between topological metrics of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and the network performance. We are interested in applying different concepts and metrics related to the network topology to three differ- ent network models, namely (i) wireless sensor networks (WSNs), (ii) mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and (iii) vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). These three models cover a wide variety of network topologies, ranging from typically static or nearly static topologies (WSNs) to highly dynamic topologies such as the ones present in VANETs. The main contributions of this work are: firstly, we pro- pose an expressive topology model able to describe a wide variety of deployment strategies for WSNs. We present a topology-related feature estimator derived from the betweenness metric, suitable for representing the energy depletion re- lated to the sensor relay task in WSNs. We developed a distributed algorithm to compute this metric, which was used to design a routing algorithm that aims to make a fair balance of the relay task of nodes in a WSN. For MANETs, we de- veloped a new localization system for Internet capable devices, basedon A-GPS technology, which offloads the GPS raw signal data to the cloud. We show that this technique is able to reduce the energy consumption up to 80% when com- pared to traditional A-GPS. To tackle with the highly dynamic topologies present in VANETs, we proposed the use of a cooperative target tracking solution to track
Initially wireless networks were fully infrastructure based and hence imposed the necessity to install base station. Base station leads to single point of failure and causes scalability problems. With the advent of mobileadhoc networks, these problems are mitigated, by allowing certain mobile nodes to form a dynamic and temporary communication network without any pre- existing infrastructure. Caching is an important technique to enhance the performance in any network. Particularly, in MANETs, it is important to cache frequently accessed data not only to reduce average latency and wireless bandwidth but also to avoid heavy traffic near the data centre. With data being cached by mobile nodes, a request to the data centre can easily be serviced by a nearby mobile node instead of the data centre alone. In this paper we propose a system , Time Index Based Approach that focuses on providing recent data on demand basis. In this system, the data comes along with a time stamp. In our work we propose three policies namely Item Discovery, Item Admission and Item Replacement, to provide data availability even with limited resources. Data consistency is ensured here since if the mobile client receives the same data item with an updated time, the previous content along with time is replaced to provide only recent data. Data availability is promised by mobile nodes, instead of the data server. We enhance the space availability in a node by deploying automated replacement policy.
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is utilized in battery-powered electronic devices as it uses very small amounts of electric power. LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocket calculators have individual electrical contacts for each segment. An external dedicated circuit supplies an electric charge to control each segment. Connection or linking of an external device (that is not inbuilt in the micro- controller) to the micro-controller basedon some rules for that particular device. The LCD interface is a parallel bus, allowing simple and fast reading/writing of data to and from the LCD.
The authentication of the supplicant by the authenticator\authentication server takes place using EAP\TLS public key authentication. The authenticator only allows access to itself via a single port; the supplicant has no access to the rest of the network. The authenticator challenges the supplicant for credentials, which could be a digital certificate or a username and password, and passes this information to an authentication server. If access is approved, the authenticator hands over a unique per-supplicant master key from which the supplicant's network adapter derives the TKIP key (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol), the packet integrity key, and other cryptographic necessities. After a user has been authenticated, EAP is used to frequently refresh the master key, reducing the window of opportunity for intercepting packets for cracking. Note that while EAP itself is not encrypted, and EAP-TLS is difficult to implement in wireless networks, there have been works to tunnel EAP within a tunnel. (See ‘PEAP’ in Microsoft TechNet for Microsoft’s solution). WPA was designed for communication between wirelessdevices and a central access point. The limitations of this system for ad-hoc networks are immediately obvious. It would be possible to implement this 802.1X-based authentication for ad- hoc networks where there exists a permanent, always-available device with enough resources to operate as an authentication server. This is not the case for a stereotypical ad-hoc network, without any pre-existing infrastructure. The article in does list an alternative for networks without an RADIUS server, where WPA supports the use of a pre-shared key. This alternative is, similar to the WEP symmetric key, subject to the same limitations as in distribution of this key to the nodes in the ad-hoc network prior to their joining the network. WPA provides confidentiality by discarding WEP’s encryption and using AES. It also uses TKIP to update the security key for each frame sent. TKIP is operational for both the RADIUS based and pre-shared key based implementations of WPA.WPA provides data integrity by use of an 8 bit MIC (message integrity code) that is added to the 32-bit ICV (integrity check value) from WEP, which was found to be susceptible to attack in.
constraints, error prone channel states, and hidden and exposed terminal problems are the major challenges faced while designing a routing protocol for ad hoc wirelessnetwork. Since the nodes are battery operated, extending the battery lifetime has become an important objective and a great amount of research has been done to consider energy-aware design of network protocols for MANET. For establishing communication among different nodes, each mobile node in a MANET performs the routing function; the “death” of even a few of the nodes due to energy depletion might cause disruption of service in the entire network and can lead to network partition. The conventional on demand routing algorithm like DSR, AODV [10, 11] being unaware of energy of nodes, establishes connections between nodes through the shortest path routes. These algorithms may result in a quick depletion of the battery energy of the nodes along the most heavily used routes in the network . This paper attempts to modify the most popular on-demand routing protocol AODV. A number of parameters are added to AODV that balances the energy of nodes inside the network while selecting a route to the desired destination. The transmission power of the nodes is also varied according to the distance between the nodes, thus optimizing energy utilization further. The proposed protocol increases the battery lifetime of the nodes and hence the overall useful life of the network.
Abstract— Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) belong to emerging technologies where networkdevices can interact with the surrounding environment by sensing physical parameters. Recently, with the dissemination of mobiledevices to Internet connectivity, users can interact with sensor networks and collect environmental data, anytime, anywhere using user-friendly mobile applications. Following the Internet of Things vision, the integration of all sorts of Internet-baseddevices is considered a big challenge. New infrastructures are required in order to interconnect these devices independently of the used technologies. This paper proposes a model for WSNs monitoring basedon a REST Web service and XML messages to provide a mobile ubiquitous approach for WSN monitoring. Data collected from a WSN is stored in a database. Then, mobile clients send XML based messages to a HTTP server through a well-defined REST interface, requesting WSN collected data. A WSN laboratory testbed was used to perform the evaluation, demonstration, and validation of the proposed model. Results show that proposed solution is able to collect and present data in a mobile environment, and it is ready for use.
which combines the best features of both proactive and reactive approaches. Examples of such kind of protocols are Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) ,, Distributed Dynamic Routing algorithm (DDR). The Zone Routing Protocol, as its name implies, is basedon the concept of zones. A routing zone is defined for each node separately, and the zones of neighboring nodes overlap. The routing zone has a radius r expressed in hops. Cheng e.t. al  has highlighted the vulnerability of the famous AODV routing protocol in his recent work. Rakesh  has presented and examined analytical simulation results for the routing protocols DSR and TORA network performance, using the well known network simulator OPNET 10. 0. Shukla  presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Javad  has proposed an algorithm for multicast routing protocol in wirelessadhocnetwork using learning automata. Rafael  presents a performance analysis of different mobile payment protocols. The performance analysis includes the computational cost required by each entity to perform all the cryptographic operations and the transmission time required to transmit each message. But the work did not considered analysis using mobile payment protocols using elliptical curve cryptography. Suresh Chari e.t. al.  have identified some frameworks and their inherent exposures in security issues in m-commerce. Alia Fourati  has worked on secure and fair auction over adhocnetwork. Even in this work also, some specific security issues to adhoc networks were not treated. Osman  presents a fully distributed and self-organizing approach to managing group membership in such a loose trading community. It is designed to suit the dynamic nature of ad hoc wireless networking and the social characteristics of ad hoc m-commerce.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wirelessmobile hosts without fixed network  infrastructure and centralized administration (Figure-1). Communication in MANET  is done via multi-hop paths. MANET contains diverse resources and nodes operate in shared wireless medium.  Network topology changes unpredictably and very dynamically. Radio link  reliability is necessary as connection breaks are pretty frequent. Moreover, density of nodes, number of nodes and mobility of these hosts may vary in different applications. There is no stationary infrastructure. Each node in MANET  acts a router that forwards data packets to other nodes. Therefore selection of effective, suitable, adaptive and robust routing protocol is of utmost importance.
72 Management Protocol (ISAKMP) defines packet format and procedures to negotiate, modify, establish and delete Security Associations (SAs). ISAKMP defines payloads for exchanging key generation and authentication data. ISAKMP is separate from key exchange protocols in order to cleanly separate the details of security association management (and key management) from the details of key exchange. There may be many different key exchange protocols, each with different security properties. Separating the functionality into three parts adds difficulty to the security analysis of a complete ISAKMP implementation. However, the separation is vital for interoperability between systems with differing security requirements and should also simplify the analysis of further evolution of an ISAKMP server. ISAKMP is intended to support the negotiation of SAs for security protocols at all layers of the network stack Within ISAKMP, a Domain of Interpretation (DOI) is used to group related protocols, using ISAKMP to negotiate security associations. Security protocols sharing a DOI choose security protocol and cryptographic transforms from a common namespace and share key exchange protocol identifiers. They also share a common interpretation of DOI-specific payload data content, including the Security Association and Identification payloads .
The video production for learning has been evident over the last few years especially when it involves aspects of the application of hardware and software for automation spaces. In Librarianship Undergraduate Degrees the need for practical learning focused on the knowledge of the requirements for library automation demand on teacher to develop an educational content to enable the student to learn through videos in order to increase the knowledge about information technology. Thus, discusses the possibilities of learning through mobiledevices in education reporting an experience that took place with students who entered in March, 2015 (2015.1) Bachelor Degree in Library Science from the Universidade Federal do Cariri (Federal University of Cariri) in state of Ceará, Brazil. The literature review includes articles publicated in scientific journals and conference proceedings and books in English, Portuguese and Spanish on the subject. The methodology with quantitative and qualitative approach includes an exploratory study, where the data collection was used online survey to find out the experience of the elaboration of library automation videos by students who studied in that course. The learning experience using mobiledevices for recording of technological environments of libraries allowed them to be produced 25 videos that contemplated aspects of library automation having these actively participated in production of the video and its publication on the Internet.
Este projeto foi realizado por Teemu Ahonen, Reino Virrankoski e Mohammed Elmusrati na "University of Vaasa"no "Department of Computer Science"em "Vaasa"na Finlândia, em que foi desenvolvido um sistema de monitorização de quatro variáveis de uma estufa, para mais tarde poderem controlar aquecedores, humidificadores, rega automática, etc. As variáveis estudas foram a temperatura, humidade, luz e dióxido de carbono, que são as mais importantes para crescimento das plantas. A arquitetura proposta implica que cada sensor tenha um rádio "wireless"e que comunique com um "gateway", que por sua vez está ligado a um PC para armazenar os dados dos sensores. Esta arquitetura permite que os sensores sejam deslocados em qualquer momento para outro local pretendido. A arquitetura foi testada e a conclusão retirada foi que os sensores têm um alcance de 10 [m] utilizando uma topologia tipo estrela com 5% de perda de pacotes. Isto dá-se devido à elevada concentração de humidade e da quantidade de vegetação existente na estufa. O sistema foi capaz de detetar os diferentes climas dentro da estufa .
M-learning definition has been on the focus of scholars attention; Moura and Carvalho (2003) defined m-learning as an extension of distance learning supported by wirelessmobile technologies, Trifonova and Ronchetti (2003) defined it as e-learning through mobile computational devices. Defined m-learning as the intersection of mobile computing and e-learning: in terms of accessible resources wherever you are; strong search capabilities, rich interaction; powerful support for effective learning; and performance-based assessment. Thus, M-learning is considered as the next form of e-learning using mobile technologies to facilitate education for teachers and learners anywhere and anytime.
lected at multiple sensors without mutual communica- tion between these sensors, and sets the multiple coding rates at these different sensor nodes. DSC works in a unique way profoundly different from the typical data aggregation methods [9,10,11,12,13,14] .The data aggregation method combines data flows, and attempts to remove the redundant data among them by collecting informa- tion from multiple correlated sensor nodes. In order to prevent the redundant data from flowing into the whole network, data aggregation usually has to be performed early in the local area. This results in the bottleneck problem on aggregation points and the lack of load balancing, which deteriorates the network lifetime. In DSC design, because the inherent redundancy among the information bits collected from sensor nodes is al- ready removed, there is no need of data aggregation. DSC information bits are collected independently, separately, and at different data rates to reach the sink node for source decoding. Therefore, it is desirable for efficient WSN designs to support such multi rate data- flow in network. Due to the nature of distributed and collaborative signal processing in WSN, these multi- rate data transmission requirements in DSC are not limited to a small category of applications, but are rather general in many signal processing related WSN applications. To date, there is a lack of multi-rate WSN designs and a strong need for such efforts on the other hand, while the complexities of both sensor nodes and networks grow.
The main constraint in designing a routing protocol in WSNs is limited power of sensor nodes that mandates the design of energy-efficient communication protocol. There are many protocols proposed for other wireless networks like mobile or ad-hoc. How-ever, these protocols cannot be used directly due to resource constraints of sensor nodes like limited battery power, computational speed, and human interface of node device and density of nodes in network. Much research has been done in recent years, but even after many efforts, there are still many design options open for improvement. Thus, there is a need of a new protocol scheme, which enables more efficient use of energy at individual sensor nodes to enhance the network survivability. In this paper, we analyze energy efficient homogeneous clustering head selection algorithm for WSN. We first describe the protocol and then we provide simulation results in MATLAB  and determine performance analysis of given protocol compared with benchmark clustering algorithm LEACH.
Shen et al. using a one-lead ECG extraction, proved in  that an identification system can be created using heartbeat as a biometric feature. Using the QRS complex and normalizing the QT interval to extract features, they were able to successfully identify individuals within their study group with 95% and 80% rates, using two different classification methods, Template Matching and Decision Based Neural-Network (DBNN), respectively. In  they again proved the viability of building an identification system using the heartbeat as biometric trait. In this approach, they used a single lead to extract ECG readings and added an additional step, after pre-processing the wave, called pre-screening phase, where they would filter the samples to classify using template matching. They obtained 17 features, mostly extracted form the QRS complex, since “this waveform is most easily recognized, easy to detect, essential for life and stable with different heart rates”. They shown promising results, obtaining identification rates of 100% in a predetermined group with 10, 20 and 50 individuals, 96% and 95.3% when the number of subjects were 100 and 168, respectively. When comparing the standard three-step procedure with the proposed model, they highlight the fact that with their model, there is need for training process.
We used an android mobile device to test our algorithm, and to make sure that the application works with all of the layouts and classes. We used three android mobiledevices, which are Samsung Galaxy Tab 2, Samsung Galaxy Tab 4, and Motorola Moto X Smartphone to test all the functions of the Tigerticketz’s application. This experiment was created to test our application, and to see if it is an usable and reliable tool for campus police. Many trials and tests were completed to figure out the best practices for writing tickets, retrieving tickets, searching permits, and printing tickets. This application is best suited to accomplish these tasks on newer android mobiledevices where print functions can be easy used rather than creating code from scratch. Currently, the application can only work if an authorized user is connected to the internet to retrieve Google Spreadsheets and Forms to access the information. Moreover, users need to activate the Google Chrome web browser in order to print a ticket. The good news is that the code can be easily adjustable when a user is trying to make the layouts or even classes for Android Application. The experimental results reveal that our mobile application can be used by campus police to write tickets, retrieve tickets, search for a permit, and print tickets, as illustrated in fig. 5.
the system - the annotation of soccer matches. Special care was dedicated to the design of this mobile application, because, in order to be efficient, it would have to represent the different moments and events that occur during a soccer match as best as possible. The state machine that makes this possible is also presented on this paper, where it is possible to understand the different flow of screens (and the corresponding user interface) appearing to the user annotating the games, reacting to the different choices the user makes on each individual screen. The authors of this system opted by allowing each user to follow only one of the teams on the match field (to maximize efficiency) and also to allow multiple different users to annotate the same team concurrently. This concurrent annotation of the events on the soccer match decisively contributes to a much complete identification of all of them, through a posterior aggregation and consolidation of all the collected data.
As we know in Mobile Ad hoc network our Nodes are highly mobile. They move around the Network. Due to this network topology and number of neighboring nodes in each node frequently change. Movement of nodes from one to another network also affect to the communication between them. As we know if nodes are within the range of each other they will work properly. But any of one node is not in the range of other node communication will Break. As the number of nodes increases interference and complexity of MANET increases in various issues. For this reason various approaches has been produced to reduce the complexity such as cluster head technique and dominating set based gateway technique introduced. We remove the limitation from the above mentioned approaches using Cluster Head Gateway node (CHG) . In this paper we introduces the selection of Antenna in such a way that if CHG nodes want to send the data to other (CHG or Cluster Nodes) then how the communication will takes place with minimum interference and High QoS. By selecting the appropriate antenna we will reduce the interference and overhead , try to re-establish the break link between nodes and increase the performance, throughput and QoS for an ad hoc network and also prevent packet drops during Nodes mobility when data transaction going on between nodes. Finally, this paper conducts simulation experiments in the conditions where we will do the comparative study between Omni-Directional and Directional Antenna.