The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate thecausalrelationshipbetweenhealthandeducationexpendituresinMalaysia within the Granger causality framework using yearly data from 1970 to 2007. More specifically, this study attempts to examine the empirical question of whether funds should first be spent on health or education. In reality, resources are limited and hence preferences and choices have to be set by all consumers, firms, government and policymakers during the process of allocation of the available resources so that an optimal outcome could be attained. Therefore, it is useful to establish empirically how the choice could be made. This study adds to the body of existing literature in three ways. First, therelationshipbetweenhealthandeducation for less developed countries is rarely studied. Thus, by investigating empirically such a relationshipinMalaysia, which is a small and open developing economy, meaningful comparison can be made with the results from developed countries. Malaysia is an interesting economy to study because of its impressive growth record over the past few decades. Furthermore, the investment on human capital such as healthandeducationexpenditures also showed an increasing pattern over time. It is evident from Figure 1 that, as a proportion of total development expenditure, education expenditure far exceeded that of health.
Natural disasters are a recurrent event in developing countries, and there is increasing concern that they may become more common due to climate change (Aaalst 2006). Although science points to an underlying relationshipbetweenthe increase of natural disasters and climate change, it has been challenging to identify thecausal influence of environmental conditions on global patterns of economic development (Hansiang, Jina 2015). Detecting the influence of long-term climate change in households’ health is difficult because of the large variability inhealth outcomes and climate variables. In fact, the past couple of decades witnessed many relevant changes, directly affecting health outcomes, such as vaccination, some of which may conceal the negative impacts of environmental variations (Campbell-Lendrum Et al. 2000; Menne Et al. 2000). Furthermore, natural disasters do not impart all households equally. Literature available shows that risk management and coping strategies, which depend on access to well-functioning markets, are context dependent and vary by wealth levels (Carter Et al. 2004).
An analysis of the impact of decentralization andhealth sector reform on immunization programs was presented, illustrated by the results of 16 evaluations of national immunization programs performed inthe last four years by countries and an international team assembled by PAHO. An invitation was extended to World Bank Task Managers to take part in these country evaluations inthe future. Inthe area of vaccine introduction, discussion focused on PAHOs efforts in generating information for the sustainable intro- duction of new vaccines, andthe Organizations efforts in supporting countries to use quality vaccines in immunization programs. An overview of the key elements of the PAHO Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and its role over the past 20 years in providing a continuous and reliable source of funds for the purchase of vaccines at affordable prices was also discussed.
In this paper we use Greek time series data of government expendituresand GDP that have been recently published (Antoniou 2004; Antoniou, Kostelenos, and Kaskarellis 2007) and span for the period from 1833 to 1938 which represents the early phase inthe development of the Greek economy. Moreover, we attempt for the first time, to gain some new insight into thecausalrelationshipbetween economic performance and government size in Greece for such a long period. For this purpose, we use the ARDL approach to cointegration which removes the pre-testing problems related to unit root and cointegration analysis. Also, with the use of econometric tests we ascertain the presence of a structural break inthe data series. The econometric analysis showed that there is a possible structural break around 1880 and this is the reason why we explored the Wagner’s Law andthe Keynesian Hypothesis not only for the entire period but also for the sub-periods 1833-1880 and 1881-1938. The re- sults of the present empirical analysis confirmed the existence of cointegration be- tween the tested variables. The use of EC models confirm the existence of a long-run causality running from the size of public spending to economic performance and vice versa.
Social mobility has been associated with healthin a variety of contexts (83, 84), but the way it operates can be difficult to tease out. One possibility is that it is an accumulation effect. Power et al. (85), for example, showed that in a birth cohort from the UK, the accumulation of unfavourable social circumstances was more important than social mobility per se in determining adult health. This means that, when comparing two people with the same SES, one of whom ‘moves down’ the social ladder and another who remains stable, the first will have worse health outcomes. However, this is not a consequence of the downward social movement itself, rather a consequence of having a lower SES at a given moment in life. Another explanation for the association between social mobility andhealth is an opposite causal effect: extensive empirical analysis has shown a ‘health selection effect’ that pushes people who are unhealthier down the social ladder (84, 86). This is not surprising, as people who are ill can be less capable to study and work, thus reducing their potential earnings and social position. Finally, some evidence also suggests that social movement inand of itself has some effect on health (41, 83). Surprisingly, it is not just the downward movement that seems to have a negative impact, but also upward movement, particularly within short periods of time, can also have a deleterious effect (41). This unexpected effect may be a consequence of an increase in unhealthy behaviour (such as smoking more because one has more available income), or of physiological and behavioural adaptations to a different social setting.
This article presents and discusses the PermanecerSUS Program a proposal of interprofessional education to the formation inHealth. It has a qualitative approach inthe perspective of Institutional Ethnography. The discussion focuses on the content registered inthe field diary constructed by the researcherethnographer during participant observation sessions carried out at the urgent care units of two hospitals located inthe city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. The results suggest that the program develops competencies such as teamwork, intercommunication and joint solution of problems among students, and integrates educationand work. However, the challenges of the PermanecerSUS are based on improving the communication relationshipbetween interns and service professionals and investing intheeducation of internship preceptors, with perspectives of changes in practices and impacts on the quality of care inhealth services.
relationship was even conirmed by multicultural studies (16). In fact a satisfying marital relation- ship by fulilling intimacy needs of both partners enhances the rates of positive emotions between them such as happiness and consequently enhanc- es physical and mental health of each partner (14). Studies on happiness consistently have showed a strong relationshipbetween happiness andhealth, as happier people are healthier (17). This relation- ship has been conirmed through several studies in variety cultures and populations (18-21). Hap- piness and mental health are two key concepts in psychology that have considerably the overlap with each other, because both of them related to psychological well-being. However, these two concepts are regarded as two independent compo- nents in related conceptual details, mental health usually is recognized by behavioral and emotional status without any destructive dysfunctioning but happiness is usually recognized by positive and constructive emotional status (22).
Because of the multivariate kurtosis inthe data, goodness of fit of models was evaluated with the adjusted robust comparative fit Figure 2. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health. Results of a structural equation model testing the mediating effects of the psychological processes of response style and self-blame on the contribution of familial mental health history, relationship status, income andeducation, social inclusion and life events on mental health problems and well-being, with S-B x 2 (3,199, N = 27,397) = 126,654?8, p,?001; RCFI = ?97; RMSEA = ?04 (?038–?039). The path diagram shows completely standardised robust parameter estimates which represent the relative contribution of each latent factor to the model. All coefficients are statistically significant, p,?001. Latent factors are represented by ovals. The double headed arrow between mental health problems and well-being represents the correlations between these latent constructs.
Considering the fact that work in modern society is becoming more heterogeneous and complex, one promising path is to understand it as human activity. By analyzing work activity/action, an intersection be- tween preceding norms and renormalization attempts intherelationship with the environment can be noticed, where constant debate about values occurs, resulting in choices made by individuals and groups. Inthe context of work inthe strict sense, i.e. a paid activity inthe society of market and right, preceding norms are all that anticipates the work activity. Renormalizations result from multiple managements of types of variability that cannot be foreseen, because they are performed by be- ings and groups that are always unique andin equally unique work situations. 12
In order to explore the presence of long-run and short-run relations between Sudan’s economic performance and institutional and economic environment variables, we apply the ARDL approach to cointegration (see Pesaran et al. 2001). he ARDL approach to cointegration, also known as bounds testing, has certain advantages in comparison to other cointegration methodologies. More speciically, the ARDL is a single-equation method and thus requires the estimation of a fairly small number of parameters: as a consequence, this approach is more eicient, especially with small data samples. he commonly used Johansen Maximum Likelihood method is based on a VAR system of equations that is fairly data intensive and there is a substantial loss of degrees of freedom. It follows, therefore, that most of the hitherto econometric results based on relatively small samples are very likely to be of dubious validity. hese limitations do not apply to the ARDL.
views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Internet experience and banking need is defined as the degree to which an innovation is viewed as being consistent with the existing values, needs and experiences of a user (Rogers, 1983; Taylor & Todd, 1995). Trialability is the extent to which users would like an opportunity to experiment with an innovation prior to committing to its usage (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Subjective norm refers to a person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he or she should or should not perform the behavior in question (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Tan & Teo, 2000). Self-efficacy is defined as an individual’s self-confidence in his or her ability to perform a behavior (Bandura, 1982; Taylor & Todd, 1995). While, facilitating condition refers to the easy access of technological resources and infrastructure. Government support is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001).
based on repetition and not on truth and which leads to a numbing of public opinion. Inthe chapter entitled „De la „datoria de opoziţie” la cultura maniheismului politic în postcomunism” / „From „opposition duty” to the culture of political Manichaeism in post-communism” Ana-Maria Ambros starts from the role of the mass-media system inthe evolution of the public space under the circumstances of relative transparency and respect for public good but also inthe blocking of authoritarian deviations, a role which is nevertheless shadowed by the support given by the mass- media to a culture of political Manichaeism by virtue of which the Other (the political opponent) must be destroyed, ruined. Ionela Carmen Bo şoteanu deals with the process of democratisation inthe context of digitalised communication and analysed democracy such as it manifests itself inthe online environment.
The World Health Organization considers chronic musculo- skeletal conditions to be a major source of morbidity and disability, with substantial adverse economic impact on healthcare resources, andthe patient’s ability to earn a living.  Here rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are listed as the chronic rheumatic conditions with the greatest impact on society. If low health literacy was found to have an important association with greater health service use and poorer disease states, then efforts could be focused on tackling the underlying causes, and providing interventions to help improve health literacy. Two systematic reviews have reported some association betweenhealth literacy and general health outcomes, [10,11] but there has not yet been any comprehensive review of health literacy and disease outcomes in patients with musculoskeletal illnesses. Hence, the aim of this present work was to review systematically the prevalence of low health literacy, andthe associated healthcare outcomes in older patients affected by these chronic musculoskeletal conditions.
It is now recognised that the volume of nocturnal urine produced is a critical aetiological factor in many individuals with nocturia. Global polyuria (GPu) is the overproduction of urine occurring over 24 hours (>2.8 litres of urine/24 hr or >40 ml/ kg). A common cause is diabetes mellitus, where high circulating glucose levels lead to an osmotic diuresis. In diabetes insipidus (DI) the kidneys are unable to suiciently concentrate the urine due to a lack of arginine vasopressin (AVP) (or anti-diuretic hormone) production inthe posterior pituitary gland (cranial DI), or loss of renal sensitivity to the hormone (renal DI). Other causes include excessive drinking (either habitual or due to psychiatric causes) and an excessive intake of protein drinks, causing an osmotic diuresis.
ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze the indicators of public and private spending in Brazil and selected countries from 2000 to 2014. Public domain databases from different sources ob- tained through the Internet were accessed. The indicators related to public healthexpenditures decreased or did not increase and those related to private spending remained stable. Brazil was the country with the lowest share of public health spending, differently from what occurred in countries with similar, universal and public health systems. The data showed that spending on private health is relevant inthe family budget. These findings point to a reduction of the role of the State as provider and financier of public health actions and services. As a result of the auster- ity measures, a decline inhealth spending was perceived, for example, inthe percentage of Gross Domestic Product devoted to health, stabilized or slightly decreased in European countries. In Brazil, with the implementation of the ‘new fiscal regime’, public healthexpenditures are ex- pected to decline more, given the severity of the austerity policy.
Studies on health economics provide important insights in terms of policy making. The topic itself is very sensitive and deserves special attention. Countries have different methods of financing health sector. The Portuguese Constitution (1976) states the right to universal and comprehensive health services approximately free of charge. However, in 2013 Portugal registered a share of out-of-pocket spending of 28% (OECD, 2015), well above the average across the OECD countries (19%). The economic reasoning behind out-of-pocket payments is closely linked to the concept of efficiency and aims at reducing overconsumption due to moral hazard. However, this can lead individuals having to pay large proportions of their available income resulting in pushing them into poverty. A study for the USA (Merlis, 2002) shows that when a head of households is an older person, a person with disability or is unemployed those households are more likely to be affected when compared to others. For the case of Portugal there are evidence of this being a sizeable issue. Kronenberg and Barros (2014) identify the most vulnerable groups and suggest exemption for some of them, as a way of mitigate the tendency for those incurring in catastrophic health care expenditures. Most recent works as Borges (2013) show that even with enlarged economic exemptions increases in user charges have a harmful effect on the percentage of people incurring in catastrophic health care expenditures.
The PH domain of PLC-d1 binds to PIP2 with high affinity and specificity, and has thus been widely used as a marker to visualize this phospholipid [33–37]. The specific binding of the PH domain to PIP2 should, in principle, decrease the functionality of the accessible PIP2 at the plasma membrane. Hence, the PH domain of PLC-d1 has also served as a specific molecular tool to sequester PIP2 [38–39]. In this contribution, we have investigated the roles of PIP2 at fertilization of starfish eggs by using the PH domain of PLC-d1 as a PIP2-sequestering marker. At lower doses, the PH fusion protein successfully traced the spatiotemporal changes of PIP2 at fertilization and indicated that PIP2 levels indeed have a dual response at fertilization: a brief early rise and fall followed by a prolonged increase at the egg surface. The late increase was closely linked to the formation of numerous microfilament spikes that may help thrust the elevating vitelline layers during cortical granule exocytosis. At the higher dose that saturated PIP2 binding at the plasma membrane, the PH fusion protein also had an effect on the structure of the subplasmalemmal actin cytoskeleton, and significantly altered the dynamics of Ca 2+ signaling inside the egg.
In this sense, one perceives a conception of childhood that resumes precepts that “apparently” are already obsolete, such as the compensatory (cultural depriva- tion KRAMER, 1982), police state character imposed by the social policy on poor families; the overlapping of care programs for children (Projeto Casulo, Mobral); fragmentation and segmentation inthe pursuit of intersectoral policies, such as the “Early Childhood Education Program”, whose actions aimed at achieving the goal of expanding childcare services, were divided between MEC (Ministry of Education) and MAS (Ministry of Social Assistance) and ended up suffering distortion and inaccuracy as to the target audience, and eventually did not reach the initial goal, which was to increase the attendance at daycare centers for the population 0-3 ye- ars of 10.6% in 2001, according to (PNAD/IBGE) to 34.0% in 2007 (CASSIOLATO, 2004).