However software that is “free as in beer” does not necessarily make you “free as in freedom”. I can give you my proprietary software free of charge until you have your entire corporation adopting it. I can then decide to charge you for the next version ―you are being held to ransom. If you don't pay up, you have to start again with your entire organization. We are interested in “freedom”. With software this can be achieved by giving the user the source code to a program, so they can independently develop it. No longer can they be held to ransom. To make this distinction clear, the term “opensource “ was introduced in 1998 by Eric S Raymond and others, along with the OpenSource Initiative, which aimed to define what was meant by opensource software.
Face recognition applications are widely used today for a variety of tasks, whether personal or professional. When looking for a service that provides face detection and classification, it is easy to find several solutions. In this project another way is described so that it is possible to perform this task according to the desired needs without the need to use proprietary software. With the emergence of the Django Rest Frame Work, web application development has become easier. This work describes development of stable foundation and features that offer an administration panel, relational database management, and support for a Restful Application Programming Interface (API). This takes advantage of the exclusive use of OpenSource technologies thus the application code can be modified and distributed free of charge. For the development of an API that could perform detection and facial recognition, applying an OpenSource philosophy, in addition to Django Rest Framework technologies such as Python, C++, MySql and JSON were used. The prototype is initially capable of recognizing the number of faces per image, assessing eyes, smile, age and gender. Flexibility is designed to increase application capabilities with new algorithms implemented in various programing languages.
This MSc. Thesis presents two study cases related to the architectures of implementation of geographical information systems (GIS) in web environment that ended in the development of a framework composed by a set of components supporting the preparation of new web GIS software packages. The first study was conducted focused on the interoperability of map services in the web, mainly covering the functions of consultation and release of data at varying formats. In order to enable exchange and integration of spatial information, it was necessary to develop components based on proprietary technologies like ESRI Flex API. After understanding the limitations that a central engine of closed source code could bring to the main object of study, that is, the development of an architecture for the exchange of geographic information, we came out with the idea of building a set of software that would circumvent such difficulties. The second study was conducted focusing on the preparation of a free framework for development of GIS in an environment of Rich Internet Application (RIA) and Web 2.0 concepts. The purpose here was to enable indexing and visualization of data from different types of media (photos, videos, documents) that were adherent not only to the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), but also to other data formats. The latter study also sought to reduce the complexity and costs of implementation of such projects and to facilitate customization by end users. This set of developed softwares and its architecture was named XGIS Flex Framework.
Our experience is that this is true with only the most successful projects, but not universally true for all opensource pro- jects. Drupal is an example of a success- ful project that owes its success to getting interoperability right at the very begin- ning. Its modular design facilitated paral- lel development by individuals all over the world, and downstream customers could easily “plug and play”, thus helping drive adoption. But many great product ideas are being left behind because inter- operability was an afterthought. Thus, collectively, the opensource industry faces a significant unmet opportunity. This isn’t only true with developer com- munities, as commercial opensource vendors often make the same mistake. Most vendors are small and take pride in being “focused,” and their natural tend- ency is to focus on core product features so they can better compete with each oth- er and the proprietary alternatives. Product managers request interoperabil- ity, but it frequently ends up “below the line” for product releases because of lim- ited time and resources. Vendors get caught up in the feature competition game, and they plan on “ilities” later, such as interoperability, manageability, scalability and so forth.
QNX has released major components of its own software under opensource li- censes and will continue to release more over time. Many of the QNX board sup- port packages (BSPs) are now available under the Apache License, Version 2.0. This is key to extending the amount of us- able hardware available for QNX applica- tions and will enable users to build their own BSPs to satisfy their own needs or those of other QNX users. QNX deliber- ately chose the Apache 2.0 license for this code in order to give developers the op- tion to offer their derivative works for free or for a fee. While Apache 2.0 doesn't force developers to publish their derivat- ive source code, it does provide a frame- work for open cooperative development. Meanwhile, key proprietary components of the copyrighted and patented techno- logy at the heart of QNX runtime soft- ware remain available only to QNX licensees, as are certain value-added fea- tures of the QNX developer tools. The public cannot freely copy, modify, or dis- tribute QNX software, except for the spe- cific opensource components within it. QNX software as a whole, meaning the QNX® Momentics® development tools, the QNX Neutrino® RTOS (Real Time Operating System), and a variety of mid- dleware, is available for use only by QNX licensees and cannot be redistributed to third parties without QNX permission.
App Store based on their own criteria. (For ex- ample, our first free edition of Tuto’s Nite Light was rejected because it included too many expli- citly disabled features showing what was avail- able in the paid edition.) There are no alternative markets. You must follow Apple’s rules, but you receive free validation and some confidence your application will work for all users. The Android Market does not screen sub- missions. You can sell an application that crashes on launch. The Amazon Appstore is an alternative Android Market that does validate ap- plications before releasing them. Another differ- ence is that the App Store does not allow you to contact your customers and provides limited vis- ibility of deployment details. The Google Market allows you to send customer email messages (through a proxy) and provide customers re- funds. The Android Market provides some de- tailed statistics about users, including platform version, device, country, and language.
É necessário efetuar um planeamento cuidadoso para salvaguardar a possibilidade de adquirir software de diferentes vendedores, o que é mais seguro que confiar numa única plataforma proprietária. A liberdade de escolha reduz os custos, e o passado tem demonstrado que é boa ideia estar-se preparado para migrar os sistemas da organização para plataformas diferentes. Os sistemas opensource são comprovadamente portáveis entre plataformas. Em primeiro lugar, porque o código fonte está acessível, bem como as ferramentas para o compilar/interpretar em diferentes plataformas. Em segundo lugar, porque existem versões de vários sistemas para diferentes plataformas, quando isso faz sentido [KAV04]. Por exemplo, várias aplicações disponíveis para sistemas Linux têm também versões equivalentes para sistemas Windows, como sejam o OpenOffice/LibreOffice ou o Gimp.
V. Jaiganesh et. al.  proposed a novel intrusion detection system (IDS) by back propagation neural networks (BPN). K. U. Rani  proposed a neural network technique for classification of heart disease. The neural network is trained with Heart Diseases database by using feed forward neural network model and backpropagation learning algorithm with momentum and variable learning rate. T. A. Anjit et. al.  presents a new approach for the detection of nasal bone for ultrasonogram of foetus of 11 to 13 weeks of gestation. The proposed method is based on the extraction of image texture parameter of nasal bone region of ultrasonogram and their subsequent classification using Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). From the above, we can draw an inference that OpenSource Software is the common demand of today„s scenario. It costs zero. Artificial neural network techniques are widely used in solving complex non-linear tasks. Breast cancer detection, character recognition, athletics problems, gender classification, filter designing fault diagnosis of analog circuits and stock price forecasting are some of the wide range of applications employing backpropagation neural network successfully.
In the stack of cards enitled, Learn More, for example, there was the following informaion: Tobacco and cocaine use by pregnant women can cause growth retardaion of the baby, miscarriage and premature birth . The fact that tobac- co consumpion harms the pregnancy and the baby did not represent a new fact. However, the informaion on the drug use as a cause for the child’s death and the terminaion or anicipaion of pregnancy elicited surprise in some of the players, revealing that signiicant consequences of drug use were sill unknown. When faced with the informaion that Passive smokers have higher risk of developing the same diseases that afect smokers, some paricipants showed signs of anxiety and concern. The feeling of concern was due to the awareness that the simple fact of being present in places with smokers, even without smoking, means a possibility of developing the same diseases as smokers, and even with a higher risk. This informaion leads to relecions on the responsibility of the individual who consumes this type of drug, once, in addiion to harming him/herself, he/ she impacts other people in his/her own social conviviality, including family, friends and acquaintances. It is noteworthy that the Learn more stack of cards did not pretend to pro- vide direct interacion between players; however, it gave rise to discussions about the organizaion of previous ideas. This fact conirms the thought of this study’s authors who claimed that the educaional game provides an educaional experience in which the individual learns independently (17) .
TileCache is a Python-based protocol/implementation of a TMS (or WMS-C) for serv- ing maps as tiles, distributed under Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license. It was designed associated with OpenLayers, creating a disk cache (e.g. Disk, Mem- cached) for maps and layers. Its service can automatically determinate a set of scales according to a maximum extent, maximum resolution, and number of zoom levels given. Considering OpenLayers API, OpenLayers.Layer.TileCache constructor is used to request tiles cached in a web accessible location. TileCache acts as an enhanced map service, sitting between the map client tier and the map server tier, to render maps (WMS layers) eﬃciently and to increase usability using a cache of static im- ages (pre-rendered tiles) (ESRI, 2006; OpenLayers, 2013). TileCache holds diﬀerent implementation modes (scripts) such as CGI, Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI), mod_python, and IIS (MetaCarta Labs, 2010), capable to draw “meta-tiles” where a large tile is rendered, and then broken down (tiled) into smaller tiles using the Python Imaging Library (MetaCarta Labs, 2010). Its installation include a conﬁguration ﬁle to control the map caching process, where options and parameters and deﬁned (Listing C.1 in Appendix C). The seeding scripts (e.g., CGI) provide an interface between the web server and apps that create web content (WMS layers). To seed tiles executed running tilecache_seed.py tool deﬁning options, layer, zoom start, and zoom stop parameters (<options> are extra seeding conﬁgurations, <layer> is the target layer stated in the conﬁguration ﬁle, <zoom start> is the level to start the process, and <zoom stop> the level to end the process) (MetaCarta Labs, 2010). Most used request mechanisms used with TileCache are WMS and TMS requests (MetaCarta Labs, 2013).
rich in value. Experiential value perceptions are based upon interactions involving either direct usage or distanced appreciation of goods and services. These interactions provide the basis for relativistic preferences held by the individual involved (Holbrook and Coffman, 1995). These preferences may be intrinsic_when the experience helps the shopper to realize some of his purposes_ or extrinsic when the experience is enjoyed for its own sake (Babin and Darden, 1995; Batra and Ahtola, 1991). Besides, they may be experienced as the consequence of active (the consumer assumes the role of co- producer) or reactive (that occurs when the individual simply apprehends, appreciate, or responds to an object) interactions with the product/service. The following experiential value matrix developed by Malhotra et al (2001) represents an integration of the intrinsic/extrinsic and active/reactive dimensions.
Design anddevelopment of a large video game is a challenging software engineering and project management problem. Thus, it is a non-trivial task. This paper describes the design anddevelopment of a game, entitled N-STAL, which embodies nearly every aspect of game design and implementation, including researching, crafting of assets, selection and usage of proper tools, software development, testing, and team play. Key software engineering principles are followed throughout the design, development, and validation stages. Successful execution of such design anddevelopment in an academic setting inspires team-based learning in students. It challenges them to meet project deadlines, prepares them for life-long learning, and helps them understand some of the challenges that are faced with modeling, simulation, and user interfacing.
ABSTRACT. The purpose of this work is to implement an on-line control system able to adjust the pro- duction in real time applying a simulation model with algorithmic optimization and data transfer for a programmable logic controller. The Solver tool of the Excel software was integrated into a simulation soft- ware used to find the optimal dosing of input aggregates in a Hot Mix Asphalt process. Tests were carried out in different scenarios; the results demonstrated that the proposed control was effective, leading to a pos- sible improvement in the quality of the product, enabling it to be kept within the specifications desired for most of the time. Besides, the proposed solution appeared to be simple and accessible for small companies as it applies the Excel software and a freeandopen-source discrete event simulation software.
The “black box” potentiostat conundrum has recently spawned a cottage industry of home-made potentiostats that can be modified as needed for varying applications. These cir- cuits largely fall into four classes: (1) tiny instruments intended for implantation or wearable use, [3–7] (2) inexpensive instruments designed to feature extreme cost savings or field-por- tability [8–12] (at the expense of performance), (3) multiplexed instruments designed for specialized applications involving arrays of electrodes, [13–15] or (4) bench-scale instru- ments constructed around “virtual instrument” frameworks [15–17] (which are useful for prototyping, but are expensive and lack robustness and portability). We applaud the “open- source” philosophy that has driven the development of lab-built potentiostats, which is part of a broader movement in analytical science that is allowing users to adapt their tools to suit their experiments rather than altering their experiments to suit their tools.  But none of the previously reported circuits [3–17] are a perfect match for general experimental use— that is, there are no lab-built potentiostats that match all of the characteristics that are associ- ated with commercial potentiostats (high precision, low noise, compatibility with low current measurements, robustness, ease of use, and portability). Further, while considerable detail has been reported for many of the homemade potentiostats described previously [4, 10, 12], only two of them are truly opensource [8, 9]—with explicit rights granted and encourage- ment given to any user who wishes to construct and modify the original design. There is thus great need for an open-source potentiostat intended for use in research, featuring picoam- pere-level measurement capabilities, compact and robust form-factor, and intuitive cross- platform software.
123 (i.e., many developers each using each other’s code) rather than by systematic testing or other planned, prescriptive approaches. Although Open Software development encourages active participation of potential users but not pay enough attention on reflection and reorganization It is hard to run an opensource project following a more traditional software development method like the waterfall model, because in these traditional methods it is not allowed to go back to a previous phase. But Opensourcedevelopment is not software engineering done poorly. The various software engineering processes are at the center of OSP activity, and are heavily dependent on each other and processes from other areas. Ultimately, the degree of quality with which these processes are performed determines the resulting quality for the products of an OSP. Requirements analysis, prototyping, testing, version and release management, bug triaging, deployment, and documentation make up software engineering in opensource project. Alfonso Fuggetta  mentions that “rapid prototyping, incremental and evolutionary development, spiral lifecycle, rapid application development, and, recently, extreme programming and the agile software process can be equally applied to proprietaryandopensource software”. Firstly if we find the analogy of OSS development with prototype we find that the requirements artifacts are not clearly defined in OSS project and typical OSSD processes start after the release of a software prototype as OSS and are just aimed to improve and maintain this prototype. Thus, an already existing software prototype seems to be a prerequisite for the requirements definition processes which typically occur in OSSD projects. The spiral model originally proposed by Boehm is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the control and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. In this model software is developed in a series of incremental releases. The OSS development process starts with early and frequent releases. Over time, both the Spiral Model and the OpenSourceDevelopment Model continue to refine their respective projects by an iterative process; however, the opensourcedevelopment also seems to adopt some parts of the incremental approach, in which essential features are grown methodically and are not released until they are properly finished.
The evolution that occurred in the last decades has created impacts on several levels: family, work, health, education, research and society in general. Hospitals have been targeted for many changes, namely in their structure, function and operation. They have been gradually considered as companies, in an increasing process of rationalization of practices. Although the opening of Portuguese hospitals to families has evolved in the last years, from the nurses' point of view the family is especially considered a support and a resource for patient care 1 . Nurses recognize the importance of families for the care of the hospitalized patient, however, they lack a comprehensive view of the health and illness concept in the family, since the illness of a relative afects the whole family and its dynamics, leading the family to a need for professional care 2 . Therefore, streamlining the training of professional nurses to help and embrace the hospitalized individuals and their families is of utmost importance.
The benefits of open innovation are widely accepted in opensource software development communities (e.g., Von Hippel and Von Krogh, 2003; http://tinyurl.com/ 7w46h24). In its broadest sense, software innovation refers to research anddevelopment (R&D) activities that involve intellectual capital, physical products, and processes in software production (Vujovic and Ulhoi, 2008; http://tinyurl.com/83za6ut). Chesbrough (2003; http://tinyurl.com/cgu9u7w) observed that strategic innova- tions have typically been regarded as company’s most valuable competitive assets, which also serve as barri- ers to entry by competitors. This kind of proprietary de- velopment and competition is characteristic of closed innovation processes, where technological progress has generally been kept secret to capture the potential for extraordinary returns (Meyer, 2003; http://tinyurl.com/ czo6ob9). Conversely, in an open environment, a com- pany’s ability to remain competitive increasingly relies on utilizing accessible resources in the continuous de- velopment of new and superior products and services. In business environments characterized by growing in- stability, this approach enables them to remain compet- itive (Vujovic and Ulhoi, 2008; http://tinyurl.com/83za6ut). The “F/LOSS phenomenon” describes a new paradigm for the management of software-intensive innovation as well as the developmentand delivery of software. Us- ing this approach, firms work with external partners and users to develop their internal innovations and ob- tain resources related to external innovations that com- plement their offerings. Currently, F/LOSS has established positions in several market segments, ran- ging from operating systems, middleware, and end- user products, such as media players, office suites, and games (Von Krogh and Spaeth, 2007; http://tinyurl.com/ c82ernz).
ground control system with RF modem, and plays important role in sending, receiving, or remotely controlling flight information such as 3D location and positions. In case of South Korea, communication using existing RF modem has communication range of 1-2km, and lines cross often. Thus this research puts its purpose on improving UAV’s wireless communication system using existing RF modem with wireless communication technology like 3rd generation or 4th generation LTE, Bluetooth, WiFi of smart device and materializes communication system capable of data transferring and using UAV with communication system like it, implementing close aerial photogrammetry.
De Seul, mais de 40 países atendem à proposta do noticiário online coreano OhmyNews de que cada cidadão seja um repórter. O bordão anunciado pelo jornalista Oh Yeon Ho, em 2000 – ano da criação do site –, insere-se num espírito global de horizontalização do processo comunicacional midiático atra- vés de ambiente digital. Na capital coreana, mais de 40 mil pessoas aderiram à idéia de serem cidadãos repórteres. A hipótese de aplicar o conceito opensource, tradicionalmente utilizado na engenharia de software, para conceber um novo estilo de produção de notícias deu origem ao jornalismo opensource que, para Gillmor (2004), se diferencia pela coloquialidade do gênero. Em vez de ser pronunciado como um discurso, o noticiário se constituiria aos moldes de um diálogo não restrito aos jornalistas, mas permeado por inter- venções do público leigo.