This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field ofdemographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas ofsocial protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood ofsocial conflicts and improve the demographic situation.
In turn, row and column 7 show, respectively, the receipts (or incomes) and the expenditures of the current account of the group of households whose main source of income is the compensation of informal labour 4 . Since the row and column totals are equal, they represent the aggregate income of that group, amounting to 30,601 million Euros, and the corresponding totals of receipts and expenditures. This amount represents 12.1% of the total aggregate income. Reading along the row, one can see that this income is derived from the compensation of labour and capital – 26,374 million Euros (86.2 %) – while the remaining part came from current transfers within households, from the rest of the world and from other institutional sectors – 4,227 million Euros (13.8%). Reading down the column, one can see that this income was mainly spent on final consumption – 15,935 million Euros (52.1%), transferred in the form of current transfers: within households, to the government (namely in the form of current taxes on income, wealth, etc), to the rest of the world and to other institutional sectors – 3,643 million Euros (11.9 %). In reading the column, one can also see that the part of the aggregate income that was not spent on final consumption or transferred, was saved, and this amounts to 11,023 million Euros (36.0%), which represent a significant proportion, especially when compared with that of the formal households: 2.1%.
Retirement is a relatively recent concept. In 1883 German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck implemented the first welfare state in the World, as a response to the rise of new political ideologies (socialism) in Europe. The initial retirement age was 70 and was revised to 65 in 1916. Pensions were adopted all over the world not only as a political need but also as a social one: the few people that would live until 65 would have severe difficulties in working and would not be able to sustain themselves. The retirement age was maintained for almost a century but population and social structures changed considerably, leaving several European systems in distress. Portugal is no exception, as the system in place is the Pay-as-You-Go-System (Paygo), that is highly affected by demographic changes.
Cognizant of the progress that the countries have made in this field and aware that, unless the ministries of health and socialsecurity institutions coordinate their activities, it will be virtually impossible for a large number of countries in the Region to achieve the objective of universal coverage;
A third and significant conflict in the financing of SUS and SocialSecurity occurred in 1994, with the creation of the Emergency Social Fund (later called Fiscal Stabilization Fund (FEF) and currently called Disentailment of Union Revenues – DRU), when it was decided, among other aspects, that 20% of the amount collected from social contributions would be disentailed of their purposes and would become available for use by the federal government. In this scenario of decaying financial condition of the Welfare, where the low collection ofsocial contributions was a consequence of the lack of eco- nomic growth, the Welfare incorporated other re- sources which comprise SocialSecurity as a source of its own resources, in addition to having exclu- sive access to payroll contributions. The financial constraints experienced by Health was unmatched in recent history.
In the article, the transport role in the decision of problems of innovative and scientiically-technological development of territory is deined. Dependence of quality, completeness and timeliness of granting of transport services on replenishment and updating of park of locomotives, cars, i.e. from a level of development of domestic transport mechanical engineering is shown. he basic problems of development given branches –low competitiveness of made production are revealed. he basic accent in the course of such analysis is made on research of competitive possibilities of the enterprises of railway mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk area. Such enterprises play the increasing role, become points of development of region’s economy and maintenance of its social and economic safety. he cooperation communications, which have developed in an industrial complex of Sverdlovsk area on the basis of development of modern manufacture on building of electric locomotives, have allowed to generate inregion cluster railway mechanical engineering. he structure cluster is shown, development prospects, the estimation of its inluence on the economy of Sverdlovsk area and maintenance of its social and economic security is given.
on average, indifferent between the two long-run equilibria 42 .Table 10 shows that private agents will be 4.7% better off in the long run with the 2013 reforms and 7.7% with the 2017 reforms, as wages will be higher and consumption tax (significantly) lower. Public agents also benefit from both reforms. The changes insocialsecurity make higher-z agents move to the public sector, relative to the old steady state. Since z is highly influential to their labor income, they are much better off in the new steady state. Retirees are the ones who lose with the socialsecurity reform. The 2013 reforms induce losses of 7% relative to a steady state with the demographic change only. Interestingly, the 2017 reforms have a general equilibrium effect in the long run that reverses the welfare gains of the retirees in the economy, highlighting the large effects of a reduction in the consumption tax rate, induced by a smaller socialsecurity deficit.
Social and legal protection of children is laid down in Czech law in the 1998 legislative Act No. 359/1999 Coll. (2016). It can be approached from two general knowledge positions. 40 The first is the approach of expert discourse, to which different groups of scientists or epistemic communities contribute (Grundman & Stehr, 2012; Knorr-Cetina, 1999; Stehr, 2001; Stehr & Grundman, 2011). This defines the notions ofsocial and legal protection of children and social and social pedagogical work by expert language, and is involved in the formation ofsocial policy through recommendations to the state apparatus. The second is the public opinion, the popular discourse, produced by various social groups defined by heterogeneous socio-demographic features, such as social status, education or age, and which may take individual standpoints to the issues ofsocial and legal protection of children. Public opinion is equally important for social policy formation as it exerts pressure on political representation through media and various interest groups by which the political agenda of the social state is affected. In this way, problems are approached and resolved – or not (see, for e a ple, Best, ; Deari g & E erett, ; M Co s, ; Škodo á & Nečas, . Tha ks to its power and intensity, the public opinion opens current issues related to social and legal protection of minors in waves (often in connection with media cases), thus contributing to implementation of or, alternatively, prevention of particular changes.
1980s, the population dynamics resulting from the combination of declining fertility rates and the age structure, the result of previous transition stages, allowed Brazil to enter a period of reduction in both the total and youth dependency ratios and only a slight increase in the elderly dependency ratio, the so-called “demographic bonus”. This “window of opportunities” would be the prime moment for generating income, wealth, and savings, including the accumulation of cash reserves for social secu- rity to deal with the imminent aging in more favorable conditions. In this stage, costs with the young segment of the population no longer pressure the public budget so heavily, thus permitting greater investments aimed at the necessary improvement in the quality of education, while the demands for funds in health and socialsecurity resulting from aging tend to be low, and there is an abundant workforce supply 4 .
his paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes relect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of iscal spending on socially signiicant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection) are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of inluence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.
At the same time that the elderly population will increase, there should also be a reduction in the proportion of people of working age in the future. Moreover, this is not a problem of high-income countries alone. Figure 1 shows that countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Chile are among those that can expect large decreases in the old age support ratio, the ratio between the working-age population (20-64 years old) over the retirement population (aged over 65 years old). In Mexico, for instance, old age support ratio is projected to move from 8.7 in 2013 to 2.8 in 2050, and further decrease to 1.4 by 2100. Old age support ratio is an important indicator when considering financial sustainability ofsocialsecurity systems, as most countries in the world adopt PAYG schemes, in which there are intergenerational transfers between the working population and the retired population. Therefore, this demographic shift would decrease revenues and tighten social
numbers of AIDS patients in the region, with a rate of 25.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, according to the Ministry of Public Health (2012). It does not even qualify for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. By the end of 2012, the cumulative number of AIDS cases totalled 8,000, of which 36.5% were women. According to data from the Ministry of Public Health, the age of highest incidence of the disease is between 25 and 54 years. Cases of perinatal transmission from mother to child fell sharply from 26% in 1995 to 4% in 2007 and to 2.14% in 2012, which is significant. The country has embarked on a major health reform, in force since 1 January 2008, which, among other things, extends the coverage of quality health care to all children under 18, children of active parents who contribute to socialsecurity. This reform aims to alleviate, if not eliminate, equity issues associated with access to health care quality differentials and inequities in funding. The new integrated health system aims to eliminate the existence of a “health for the poor" (public) and a "health for the rich" (private) through a mixed and homogeneous system in terms of accessibility with respect to quality care. It is an important matter in terms of health, which, if well managed, can help reduce some of the most pressing issues experienced in Uruguay. Unfortunately, what is conceptually presented as a good public policy did not anticipate that the most disadvantaged would eventually return to the public sector given that in the mixed sector, under the new system, they must face mandatory testing costs, such as paediatric costs, which public health offers them for free. Often, the mere transfer to the mixed system can be expensive in the light of the family income, so people choose to go to the neighbourhood clinic, which depends on public health. In short, in the mixed/private health sector, one notes a drop in the quality of service after the reform, due to the amount of people that the various services had to absorb without generating a real benefit to those who really need it most. Finally, with regard to health professionals, one perceives that a feminization of the medical career has occurred, leading to a massive expertise in paediatrics 18 , which has transformed Uruguay into a
Abstract- Network Security has become very crucial these days where the communication speed has been increasing at rapid rate that data travels from one part of the world to another in couple of seconds. The IEEE professional standard society advances the connecting method throughout the world which resulted from wired to wireless environment with advent of Internet. In such a complex Hybrid network, one can’t abate his system from the need of higher network security as the intruders are also working at next generation level where they have switched from to traditional to smartest intruding methods. Although many security techniques are being developed and a lot of research is going on to protect network but the fields lacks a common integrated platform which can provide the solution to the existing issues. In this paper, we have analyze number of present attacks in network affecting all layers of OSI layered communicating model so that we can understand the security fallacies andalong with them their mitigation techniques are also mentioned to prevent them.
On the other hand, to describe the real changes indemographic scenario of the metropolitan region, I have analyzed the population growth rate in table 6 for Monterrey and its metropolitan region. Table indicates that during 1930-50 the metropolitan population was growing at 7 percent per annum and in the same period the city center region was growing more steadily than the peri-urban region. For example, urban population in Guadalupe and San Nicolas de los Garza was growing more than 12 percent per annum. But the city center region could sustain this growth rate till 1970, after that the pressure of population growth shifted to peri-urban region. Data indicates that currently peri-urban population is growing at more than 20 percent per annum. However, it is necessary to pointed out that San Pedro Garza Garcia (-0.63 in 2005) and San Nicolas de los Garza (-0.80) are currently have negative population growth rate. In San Pedro Garza Garcia the reason of declining population is fall in fertility rate. Data reflects that in 1970 the fertility rate was 2.4, which declined to 1.8 in 2005. It is significant to note that San Pedro Garza Garcia is the only municipality in the state, which has below replacement fertility rate, but in case of San Nicolas de los Garza, urban land saturation and environmental pollution are responsible for out migration and negative population growth.
outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one of the first institutions to install the wireless access points that accessed internet through the main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on to procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, the Heads of departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed to bring their own devices which could be configured to be able to access institutional WIFI (The Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was the beginning of mobile computing at the Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation of applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth to improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points to improve strength of connectivity, upgrading of servers to handle the demand and volumes and expansion of campus area network to cover the whole Polytechnic, procurement of more mobile devices. And the institution now boasts of such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.
By the purpose of the given research was revealing the basic problems and prospects of development of small business in regions. he methodology of reception of results of the speciied purpose consists in the generalized analysis of scientiic and legislative sources in the ield of economic and organizational problems of development of small business in regions of Russia. As a result of research is revealed, that unions, association, and other public associations of the small enterprises more and more actively work at regional levels. System of commercial and industrial chambers having in signiicant potential in the sphere of support of the ine businessmen in regions essentially has become stronger. Area of application of results of the given research can be used by the managers of small business and teachers of higher educational institutions in the sphere of preparation of the managers in economy and management. he results of research allow to make conclusions: he level of development of small business in regions, in comparison of the advanced foreign states, rather lags behind; the analysis of the normative certiicates in sphere of small business from a position of their inluence on development of regions testiies, that the mechanism of state inluence includes economic and organizational measures; the small business has the brightly expressed regional orientation.
In Parsons’ view, neither individual will, nor autonomously decided goals of individuals should prevail. The society as a whole is conceptualised into a system, constructed of four subsystems which interact to maintain social order, namely the social, economic (comprised of two levels: the primary or technical social system and the management-institutional system), political and cultural subsystems. Changes in each of the subsystems trigger effects and consequences in all the others. These equivalences enable Parsons to demonstrate that the self-regulation and equilibrium of the global social system are achieved by „transmission of legitimacy, authority, energy and information among the subsystems, similar to the transmission of information among stakeholders” (Buz rnescu, 2007:237).
Richardson with SOR, Chebyshev with Gauss-Seidel and Chebyshev with SOR. The iterative schemes were applied to Banded system, Tridiagonal systems and SPD system with varying dimensions. The Krylov subspace methods: GMRES, QMR, MINRES and BiCGSTAB converged to an approximate solutions less than or equal to the dimension of the coefficient matrix for each identified systems of linear equations. Again, Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods were the fastest convergence methods in terms of number of iterations. Again, Residual smoothing and the accelerated gradient schemes should be used for large and sparse systems of linear equations. The acceleration processes were very efficient when solving large and sparse systems of linear equation and therefore useful especially for systems resulting from the solution of partial differential equations.
The questionnaire on the quality of life is a useful tool to assess the overall impact of the disease and medical treatment on the patients from their own point of view. Looking at health from this new perspective, attributing due importance to the patient´s own views, implies changes in daily practice (16) .