drying. Corrêa and colleagues (2011) analyzed the color of marolo (Annona crassiflora) dehydrated by freeze- and convective hot air drying and also found L* values lower for convective dried powders. Krokida and collaborators (2001) justified the significant decrease of the L* parameter and the simultaneous increase of the a* and b* parameters of the fruits dried by convective hot air drying as a result of extensive browning reactions such as caramelization of sugars during heating. Only for spray- and freeze drying with maltodextrin powders, the a* values were negative indicating a tendency to a greenish color, unlike for freeze dried without maltodextrin and convective hot air dried powders wherein the values of a* were positive indicating powders more red. Despite all the samples having positive b* values, indicating a tendency to yellowish color, that color was more intense for freeze dried materials without maltodextrin and convective hot air drying, with higher values of b*, well as higher values of chroma, which is precisely the intensity or color saturation. The hue angle values obtained corresponded to the regions of red (0º) to yellow color (90º), but it was in freeze drying without maltodextrin that these values were higher, with a more attractive yellow color. This is consistent with the study carried out by Krokida et al. (2001), who stated that freeze drying avoids changes of color in dried foods compared to other drying techniques. For each technique, no significant differences (p>0.0001) were obtained in color parameters during storage, except for the powders obtained by freeze drying with maltodextrin for the parameter b* and thus to the chroma and hue angle parameters. In theory, the addition of probiotic cultures should not influence the color of the final orange powders. Antunes and collaborators (2013) added a spray dried culture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 to an acerola nectar
ABSTRACT: Sugarcane juice is composed by 75 to 82% of water and 18 to 25% of soluble solids, which are constituted by sucrose, glucose, fructose, and lower amounts of amino acids, acids, waxes, fats, pigments, and inorganic salts. Due to its nutritional properties, sugarcane juice has shown potential to fulfill athletes’ energy needs. The aim of this work was to obtain sugarcane juicepowder using freeze drying, perform the physicochemical characterization of the raw material and the powder obtained and to determine the powder solubility. The sugarcane juice in natura showed average soluble solid content of 17.71º Brix and ratio of 46.83; its average contents of calcium and magnesium were 33.94mg.100mL -1 and
The smaller emulsion size showed higher retention than the large emulsion size, especially for the insoluble flavor. The distribution curve containing larger emulsion droplets shifted toward a smaller size after atomization, indicating that the larger emulsion droplets would be changed in size during atomization and result in decreasing flavor retention. Paramita, Furuta and Yoshii (2012) used modified starch (wall material) byspraydrying to produce oil-rich powders of oil mixtures of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and d-limonene in mixing ratios from 10 to 100 wt%. The viscosity of the infeed liquid and the particle size of the powder exponentially decreased with increasing oil load, while the emulsion droplet size in the infeed liquid increased. In addition, retention of d-limonene during spraydrying also decreased markedly with increasing oil load, irrespective of the different oil loads. For diverse combinations of carbohydrate carrier solids, the increasing emulsion diameter resulted in a decreasing retention of d-limonene. This implies that a fine emulsion is stable during atomization and spraydrying, and indicates that, for the proper wall materials, the emulsion droplet size is a significant factor for flavor retention (AGHBASHLO et al., 2012). Risch and Reineccius (1988) also reported in a similar research that a smaller emulsion size yields a higher retention oforange oil. As for the effect of the emulsion size on the shelf life of encapsulated orange oil flavor and encapsulated fatty acid, a longer shelf life of larger feed emulsion size was showed.
Due to their low viscosity at high concentrations, maltodextrins have been studied as possible substitutes for gum arabic in atomized emulsions (Bangs & Reineccius, 1988; Trubiano & Lacourse, 1988). On the other hand, maltodextrins have low emulsifying capacity. (Kenyon, 1995; Apintanaong & Noomhorm, 2003). The results obtained by Thevenet (1995) indicated that a 1:1 mixture of gum arabic and maltodextrin was almost as efficient as pure gum arabic for oxidative stabilization oforange essential oil. Bhandari et al. (1992), testing different proportions between gum arabic and maltodextrin, also observed greater retention of volatiles as the gum arabic/maltodextrin ratio increased.
122 extract, in theory the richest in gallic acid, was only able to inhibit the growth of B. cereus and S. aureus, the same bacteria both ethanol: water mixtures inhibited. S. aureus was by far the most sensible microorganism. It not only had the lowest MIC of all (4.7 mg/mL), it was always lower or similar to the MIC of B. cereus, the second most sensible microorganism. Also, while the ethanolic extract was able to inhibit the growth of S. aureus it was unable to inhibit B. cereus. Given that S. aureus is associated with wound infection, mainly surgical wounds but can also occur in other wounds, if no other means of disinfection were available it is possible that washing a wound with an infusion of Arbutus unedo leaves could help against contamination with this microorganism, and therefore prevent the developmentof an infection (Cooper et al., 1999). Taking into account the fact that S. aureus forms biofilms when it contaminates a wound and these biofilms can envelop themselves in a fibril like layer that is able to prevent neutrophils from reaching them, a quick and thorough wound cleaning is important to prevent reaching that stage and facilitate treatment (Yamasaki et al., 2001). In addition it may have some compounds that are able to assist neutrophils in breaching through the fibril layer, as it is known that some 14-ring macrolides present in plants have that capability (Yamasaki et al., 2001). Since this is also one of the most common bacteria linked with food poisoning, one other use for the extracts could be the disinfection of food items prior to their consumption or preparation. When (Orak et al., 2011) tested the aqueous leaves extracts, they also found the leaves to inhibit S. aureus. While they tested a much higher concentration (250 mg/mL) they were still unable to see any E. coli inhibitory effect, which is in accordance with our aqueous extracts results. Also similarly to our work, their aqueous extract only inhibited Gram + bacteria. They however did not test the ethanolic extract. Their reasoning being that aqueous extract had the highest phenolic content, which also happened in our work when compared to the ethanol: water mixtures but not the pure ethanolic extract. Our results indicate the importance of using several solvents when studying the antibacterial activity of Arbutus unedo leaves, since different solvents can provide completely different results.
extract concentration in the solution to be dried was positive for increasing the S, representing an advantage for the process, increasing the productivity by increasing the concentration of product. Furthermore, the quadratic effect of inlet air temperature was negative, contributing to the decrease of the percentage of soluble solids. Higher concentrations of coffee leaf extract in the solution to be dried may have aided in the process, causing an easier release of the powder. With opposite effect, high inlet air temperatures may have caused rigid crusts in powder particles by rapidly removed from the surface, making the output of the nuclei thus damaging the solubility of the material. In spraydrying using maltodextrin as carrier of salvia tea (ŞAHIN-NADEEM et al., 2013) and watermelon juice (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007), negative effect was also observed for the inlet air temperature on the percentage of soluble solids. those authors argue that, by increasing temperature, the agglomeration of the particles is reduced, with consequently reduced S. Based on that study, higher inlet air temperatures lead to obtaining a material with higher moisture content by crust formation on the surface of the particle. the formation of the crust and highest moisture content are two factors pointed out by several authors (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007; toNoN et al., 2009; VARDIN; YASAR, 2012) as responsible for decreased S.
The addition of sugars to the drying medium to improve survival of LAB during dryingby different drying techniques has been reported by several authors [ 10 , 22 ]. Although the survival of these two LAB during spraydrying in orangejuice was demonstrated to be very low in previous studies [ 17 ], the addition of sugars to the juice was excluded as a potential alternative to improve survival as this would result in an increase in the viscosity of the juice with detrimental effects during the drying process. In addition to the use of maltodextrin, recognized as a good protectant during drying [ 5 , 23 ], other factors were combined to increase the survival of LAB. It has been previously demonstrated that the addition of certain sugars to the media used for the growth of various LAB cultures influenced their survival during spraydrying [ 11 ], lyophilization [ 10 ], and other drying methods [ 24 ]. This effect was also observed in the present study.
Microencapsulation of oils in powder particles is a technological process addressed to protect polyunsaturated oils against oxidation, to mask or preserve flavors and aromas. Microencapsulation consists of involving a solid, liquid or gaseous component in a wall material, in order to form a particle that may offer protection against oxygen, heat, humidity and light. In addition, it offers the possibility of controlled diffusion of lipophilic functional food ingredients (Charve&Reineccius, 2009). Spraydrying is a process widely used for microencapsulation of oils and flavors. However, most of the flavoring compounds which give foods their characteristic aroma are highly volatile with respect to water and hence, they are easily lost during spray-drying operation (Madene, Jacquot, Scher, &Desobry, 2006). Therefore, other technological solutions that minimize the loss of flavor are needed.
pulp similar to sweet potatoes, with sweet taste due to the abundance of carbohydrates such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, and inulin with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to 12 (Lachman; Fernández; Orsák, 2003), consequently recognized as fructooligosaccharide (FOS). In addition, several researchers have mentioned that the use of the yacon tuber as a functional food is gaining interest because it contains antioxidants. In addition, a high fraction of its dry biomass is composed of FOS, which are inulin-type oligofructans with prebiotic power (Utami et al., 2013). Furthermore, yacon has a large amount of water, more than 70% of the fresh weight, and its roots do not store carbohydrates as starch, making them potentially beneficial in the diet of individuals with diabetes (Lachman; Fernández; Orsák, 2003). According to Ojansivu, Ferreira and Salminen (2011), the consumption of yacon is recommended for weight control because it has relatively low calorific values. In addition to these health benefits, antioxidant effects have been reported (Takenaka et al., 2003; Sousa et al., 2015b).
In terms of hygroscopicity, according to the GEA Niro Research Laboratory (2003) table, the soursop powders obtained are classified as non-hygroscopic (<10%). The values were much lower than those found by Angel et al. (2009), in a study on spray- dryingof passion fruit juice using maltodextrin and lactose as drying adjuvants, who found higroscopicity values between 17 and 35%. Soursop pulp powder with 15% of maltodextrin showed significant statistic differences when compared to the values of the other powders, but it maintained the same classification (Table 4). The lowest percentage of maltodextrin influenced soursop powder hygroscopicity, showing an inverse relation: the higher the percentage of maltodextrin, the lower the values of hygroscopicity. This occurred because maltodextrin has low hygroscopicity, which can affect the existing affinity between water and other compounds in the product.
kinetics the first one, with higher reaction rate constant, up to 45 – 60 days of storage, and the second one, after this period, with lower degradation rate, with both temperature and water activity negatively affecting anthocyanin stability. Antioxidant activity also decreased with the increase of water activity, but was higher for the powders stored at 35ºC. Maltodextrin 10 DE was the carrier agent that showed the best pigment protection and the highest antioxidant activity for all the conditions studied. Other studies also showed the benefits of the encapsulation process for the protection of food additives used as functional food. Zheng et al. (2011) produced bayberry microcapsules by a phase separation method using ethyl cellulose as a coating material. Pitalua et al. (2010) produced beetroot juice using gum Arabic as wall material; Bakowska-Barczak and Kolodziejczyk (2010) produced black currant microcapsules.
tigated. Microencapsulated cells survive better than free cells in carrot juice with viable cell counts of 8.52±0.2 and 5.74±0.11 log cfu/ml after storage, res- pectively (Figure 5c). Ding and Shah  have also found that encapsulated probiotic cells survived in orange and apple juices throughout the six weeks of storage, while free cells lost their viability within five weeks and confirmed that fruit juices containing microencapsulated probiotic bacteria are more stable than those containing free cells. On the contrary, Champagne and Gardner  have been reported viability of L. rhamnosus , L. plantarum , L. reuteri and L. fermentum incorporated in several commercial fruit drinks to be above 6 log cfu/ml during 80 days of storage at 4 °C. In our study, free cells were in ther- apeutically accepted range upon fifth week of storage, whereas encapsulated showed better resistance to the end of the assay. This result confirmed that the chitosan-Ca-alginate matrix could protect probiotic cells exposed to acidic environment as pH value noticed significant reduction in free cells juice (1.56 units) in comparison with the decline of 0.62 units in synbiotic carrot juice containing encapsulated cells. Figure 5. Changes in viability (full lines) of free (♦) and microencapsulated L. casei (•) and pH values (dashed lines) of free cells juice
ABSTRACT - The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types ofjuice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g -1 ; 8.43 to
subsp. bulgaricus, and S. thermophilus, respectively. Damage to biological systems during freeze-drying can be due to changes in the physical state of the lipid membrane and in the protein structure (LESLIE et al., 1995). Wang et al. (2005) observed a greater cryotolerance for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at -20 °C, when the cells were cultured at 30 ºC to 37 °C rather than at 42 °C, while De Urraza and De Antoni (1997) reported that L. bulgaricus cells pre-incubated at 30 ºC for 60 minutes, with a fermentable sugar, became more resistant to freezing at -20 °C, during 10 and 45 days of storage. The authors reported that this adaptation may be due to two combined physiological responses: a change in the membrane fatty acid composition affecting fluidity, and an increase in protein synthesis.
Here we report the use of HAp as a new coating for iron oxide particles to be applied in cancer treatment. These coated particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and particle size distribution (laser diffraction).
Abstract: Microencapsulation is a process of entrapment, packaging or immobilizing an active (core) material, which can be in the state of solid, liquid or gas, within a more stable, protective secondary (wall) material that can be released at controlled rates under specific conditions. There are several microencapsulation techniques such as: spraydrying, spray cooling/chilling, freeze drying, extrusion, fluidized bed coating, coacervation, liposome entrapment, coextrusion, interfacial polymerization, radical polymerization, molecular inclusion in cyclodextrins, etc.
When a given food solid is associated with water, the glass transition temperature of the system will decrease (Roos and Karel, 1991) , as well as its instant crystallization temperature, although it is more time dependent (Table 1.2). This can be explained by the action of the water as a low molecular weight plasticizer, or its action as a diluent (Roos, 1995). Anyway, it becomes obvious that the material’s water content is very important to account for its stability, when it comes to physical changes during processing and storage; as an example, amorphous lactose crystallizes very quickly at room temperature if stored at 40% of relative humidity (Roos and Karel, 1991). Both temperature and moisture content are responsible for plasticization of the amorphous structure, which increases molecular mobility and decreases viscosity, leading to higher reaction rates (Roos and Karel, 1991) However, crystallization rates are reported to depend closer to the temperature disparity towards T g , i.e. the (T-T g ) parameter; at the same (T-T g )
Microparticles were made with mixture of polymer solution and nucleus byspraydrying in a fluidized bed with top spray (Glatt GmbH D – 01277, Germany), using a 1.0 mm nozzle to adjust the air-flow. Inlet temperature was 80ºC, flow speed was 4.12 mL/minute and flap pressure was 25ºC in sprayer system. For this experiment, magnesium silicate was used as nucleus to simulate the viral OBs, considering similar particle size and high cost of virus production. Evaluated factors were chamber pressure, core concentration and polymer concentration in a factorial design with three factors and three levels for a total of 27 treatments (Table 1), each one carried out three times. Response variables were mean diameter of microparticles (d) and process yield. Factor influence was established with Statgraphics 8.1 software (v. 5.1, Manugistics Inc., Rockville, Maryland) by means of a response surface analysis and Pareto diagrams. A mathematical prediction model was generated and optimal process conditions were selected to proceed with virus microencapsulation.
Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid with important metabolic activities. Its conjugated double bonds make it susceptible to decomposition. Its stability may be improved through fatty acid entrapment with a spray-drying technique; however, the many parameters involved in this technique must be considered to avoid affecting the final product quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the entrapment conditions and yields of fish oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. Microcapsules were obtained from Acacia gum using a spray-drying technique. The experimental samples were analyzed by chromatography and delineated by Statistica software, which found the following optimum entrapment conditions: an inlet temperature of 188 °C; 30% core material; an N 2 flow rate of 55 mm; and a pump flow rate of 12.5 mL/minute. These conditions provided a 66% yield of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in the oil, corresponding to 19.8% of entrapped docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (w/w). This result was considered significant since 30% corresponded to wall material. Keywords: encapsulated fish oil; gas chromatography; response surface; optimized conditions; omega-3.
Enzymes are a special class of proteins formed by a three-dimensional conformation and an active site stabilized by non-covalent interactions . Enzymes such as PPO, pectin methylesterase (PME) and Lipoxygenases (LOX) are the main target on fruit and vegetable studies because the enzymatic activity of those enzymes appear to be one of the most important parameters regarding food organoleptic characteristics such as colour and viscosity . While PPO catalyzes the enzymatic browning on fruits and vegetables, PME and LOX are responsible for texture and flavour changes respectively, acting on the desesterification of pectin and lipid oxidation of some fruits and meats . Pressure effect on enzymes activity seems to be variable. Although in some cases HP process inactivates food enzymes, normally lower pressures, between 100 and 200 MPa, may activate them . Generally pressure induces structural rearrangements by affecting the weakest bonds that maintain tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins [85, 114, 116]. Actually, some studies regarding enzymes activity on orangejuice showed cloud losses and gelation oforangejuice concentrates [115, 117, 118]. Pressure inactivation of enzymes is a complex phenomenon that depends on both enzyme structure and environmental conditions [67, 68, 119]. Since there were not been yet observed changes in covalent bonding after pressure processing, primary structure of enzymes is only minimally affected by this technology and thus constitute one of the most important characteristics in HPP method . On the other hand, changes in secondary structure only take place at pressures above 700 MPa and tertiary structures might be lost during pressure denaturation beyond 200 MPa [14, 29, 89, 110]. In addition, HP process may provoke changes in catalytic rate by affecting the enzyme- substrate interactions or the reaction mechanism, and in some cases, the cell membrane or the membrane of intracellular organelles is altered and those reactions are facilitated .