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Evaluation of the Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in
Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Comparative Study

Evaluation of the Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Comparative Study

At present, the diagnosis of diabetes is achieved only by analyzing the blood glucose levels (random/fasting/ post-prandial). But these methods are invasive in nature and are physically as well as psychologically traumatic to the patient. It is a normal tendency in people to avoid a prick. Considering the fact that frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is necessary in diabetic patients, it is always disheartening and a source of constant annoy- ance to the patient. A noninvasive, simple, and painless procedure like salivary glucose estimation is very much desirable in this scenario.
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Doppler ultrasonographicassessment of major salivary glands in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in correlation with salivary quantity  and serum magnesium levels – a cross sectional study

Doppler ultrasonographicassessment of major salivary glands in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in correlation with salivary quantity and serum magnesium levels – a cross sectional study

in Group A and B ultrasonographic changes were also insignificant. Mata et al (2003) conducted a study to investigate specifically the effect of perturbation of extracellular Magnesium (Mg) on both basal and secretagogue-evoked amylase secretion and total protein output and intracellular free calcium concentrations (Ca) in the rat submandibular and parotid glands. It was concluded that in rat acinar cells there was decreased levels of Mg in Type 2 DiabetesMellitus patients which interfere with the Ca exit from the extracellular side. It was stated that hypomagnesemia led to a diminished intracellular Mg concentration which led to impairment of function of Mg dependent enzymes regulating salivary secretion. This reference could be added to the fact that hypomagnesium leads to alteration in the salivary flow [18]. In our study Magnesium has significant decrease in the poorly controlled patients which could be added as a support for decrease in salivary flow.
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Evaluation of Fasting Blood Sugar via Salivary Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Evaluation of Fasting Blood Sugar via Salivary Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

nutritional and neurological abnormalities also with hydration status and medication. It is believed that FSG follows a threshold mechanism that means an increase in FBG leads to increase in FSG due to the “leakage” across the basement membrane of the glands into the saliva (12). According to Qureshi et al. (13), long term hyperglycemia leads to microvascular alterations in the blood vessels, as well as basement membrane changes in the salivary glands. This is an impetus increasing leakage of glucose from the ductal cells of the salivary glands, which demonstrates the abundance of glucose content in saliva (14). Whole saliva is frequently studied as an alternative for blood and can be valuable for diagnostic purpose (15,16). In this study, we compared FBG and FSG concentrations in a sample of 100 Iranian subjects. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient demonstrated a correlation between FBG and FSG concentrations in both groups (p-value: 0.005). Thus, according with this study results, FSG serves as a reliable indicator of FBG in the diabetic patients with elevated blood glucose levels. Shashikumar et al. (12) showed a statistically significant correlation between the salivary and the blood glucose levels, which is accordance with our present study results. However, in contrast to our study, the studies by Jurysta et al. (17) Carda et al. (18) and Vasconcelos et al. (14) failed to prove the
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Evaluation of Serum Anticardiolipin Antibody in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and Without Diabetes Mellitus.

Evaluation of Serum Anticardiolipin Antibody in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and Without Diabetes Mellitus.

In this present study the IgM ACA levels when compared between group A (3.26±0.70) and group D (2.32±0.81), the levels were not significantly lower in group D (P>0.05). This could be probably due to the reason that IgM had inverse association with the severity of cardiac events according to Bili et al. 81 who found that elevated IgM were not associated with any systemic complications. According, to the authors IgM ACA represent protective natural autoantibodies or they have rheumatoid factor activity and thus play a beneficial role in immune homeostasis. Therefore, the ACA IgM levels which were high in Group A proves that these patients are not prone for cardiac events but in group D more prone for cardiac events.
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Evaluation of Salivary Chemerin Levels in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Periodontitis: A Cross Sectional Study

Evaluation of Salivary Chemerin Levels in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Periodontitis: A Cross Sectional Study

Unstimulated whole saliva has been used as adiagnostic fluid as it is easy to collect, non-invasive, and reliable. The whole saliva represents a sample with contribution from all periodontal sites and also includes some molecules originating from GCF and is produced locally in the oral cavity. Analysis of biomarkers in saliva provides overall assessment of disease status, in contrast to the site specific GCF analysis. Majority of the constituents present in the saliva, enter saliva from blood by passing through spaces between cells by transcellular, paracellular routes. Hence, most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva; hence saliva is functionally equivalent to serum in reflecting the physiological state of body.
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Association of Alanine in Serum with Insulin    secretion  among Sudanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (A study in Khartoum State)

Association of Alanine in Serum with Insulin secretion among Sudanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (A study in Khartoum State)

Hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and conditions. While hyperinsulinemia is often seen in people with early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the cause of the condition and is only one symptom of the disease. Type 1 diabetes only occurs when pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in a variety of conditions including diabetes mellitus type 2, in neonates and in drug induced hyperinsulinemia. It can also occur in congenital hyperinsulism, including nesidioblastosis.
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Original Article Circulating betatrophin in pregnant individuals with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal glucose tolerance

Original Article Circulating betatrophin in pregnant individuals with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal glucose tolerance

Abstract: The role of betatrophin in diabetes has been paid attention; however, there were controversial conclu- sions. This study was aimed to investigate serum levels of betatrophin in pregnant participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as the relationships between its circulating con- centrations and some clinical parameters. Between August 2014 and April 2015, a total of 150 women subjects including 50 female healthy controls, 50 NGT participants, and 50 GDM patients were recruited. All the subjects were age-and pre-body mass index (BMI)-matched, along with matched gestational weeks between the NGT and GDM group. Serum betatrophin levels were analyzed using sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHO), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density li- poprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phos- phatase (AKP) were analyzed. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis was applied to determine the correlations between the parameters and betatrophin levels. Serum betatrophin levels were significantly higher in the NGT and GDM subjects than health controls (P<0.001). But no significance was found in the NGT and GDM with respect to all the parameters in our study. In addition, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with pre-BMI, ALT, and AST in the health controls, and positively correlated with pre-BMI in the GDM group, but negatively correlated with AST in the NGT group. These results indicate that serum betatrophin levels were associated with insulin resistance (IR) induced by pregnancy in NGT and GDM.
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Study of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Normal Population and In Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and to Correlate the Serum Uric Acid Levels with GFR

Study of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Normal Population and In Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and to Correlate the Serum Uric Acid Levels with GFR

Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by hyperglycaemia due to an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin. It may be associated with a number of complications which include macro and microvascular diseases. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of the purine metabolism. The association between the blood glucose and the serum uric acid levels has been known for quite some time. A positive association between the serum uric acid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. In individuals with an impaired glucose tolerance, an elevated Serum Uric Acid (SUA) level was found to increase the risk for developing T2DM 49
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Salivary Profile in Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case-control Study

Salivary Profile in Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case-control Study

three tubes. Next, 10l of standard was added to the test tube marked as 'standard' and 'test'. After complete mixing, the test tubes were kept at 370C for 10 minutes in an incubator before aspiration. The reagent 'blank' was aspirated in the analyser first, followed by standard solution, and the readings were noted. Finally, the test sample was aspirated, and readings were noted again. Salivary pH was measured by HI98107 pH-meter (Hanna Co., Italy) with an accuracy of ±0.2 (25°C/77°F). Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Independent t-test was used for comparison of means, and chi-square test was used for comparison of genders in the two groups. Results were presented as mean±SD. Scatter plot and regression line were drawn to determine the correlation of salivary glucose with serum glucose and HbA1c by Pearson correlation coefficient. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
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Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Chronic Periodontitis: An Interventional Study

Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Chronic Periodontitis: An Interventional Study

Weidman E et al. 1996 49 reported that individuals with sustained hyperglycemia, proteins become irreversibly glycated to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These stable carbohydrate-containing proteins have multiple effects on cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions and are commonly thought to be a major link between the various diabetic complications. The formation of AGEs also occurs in the periodontium and higher levels of periodontal AGE accumulation and periodontal destruction are found in those with diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects. Loesche WJ et al. 1998 28 stated severe chronic periodontitis represents a sub- clinical septicemic state. It can produce some inflammatory cytokines (e.g. CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) in the local tissue, as well as elevating their circulating levels. CRP is an important mediator of inflammation, mainly synthesized in the liver. TNF-α is another important inflammatory cytokine, closely linked to insulin resistance, which plays a role in the regulation of CRP expression and both the levels are increased in Type – 2 Diabetes patients with periodontitis.
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Evaluation of serum ferritin and some metal elements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: comparative cross-sectional study

Evaluation of serum ferritin and some metal elements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: comparative cross-sectional study

chronic noncommunicable diseases in Ethiopia has been grossly overlooked by concerned bodies as a consequence of government’s intense focus on communicable disease and malnutrition agendas. The few studies done on diabetes were confined on the issue of quality of care and patients satisfaction in the follow-up clinics. Thus, research on dia- betes in this country can only be described as inadequate. To remedy this situation, research on the causation aspect of the disease needs to be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between diabetic hyperglycemia and relevant blood chemistry and trace metal elements has not yet been investigated in Ethiopia. The study results may contribute to the development of evidence-based decision and intervention strategies to enhance a healthier lifestyles and better diabetes care. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the status of serum ferritin and some selected trace metal elements, such as zinc (Zn +2 ), magnesium (Mg +2 ),
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Spouses of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 at increased risk of high blood glucose levels

Spouses of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 at increased risk of high blood glucose levels

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a grow- ing threat in developing countries already bur- dened with high levels of infectious disease. Screening the general population has debatable advantages. This study aims to determine whether spouses of patients with diabetes mellitus have higher random blood glucose (RBG) levels as well as the benefit of RBG testing as a targetted screening tool. Methodology: The survey em- ployed a cross-sectional comparative study of spouses’ of diabetics and non-diabetics attend- ing the general out-patient department of the La- gos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja. A modified WHO STEPS Surveillance In- strument and a one-touch Glucometer were used to collect data. Blood pressures and BMI were measured and correlated to blood glucose levels. Results: Prevalence of high RBG was found to be 7% among spouses of diabetics and 3.3% among spouses of non-diabetic patients. Mean RBG was 5.57 mmol/L and 7.7 mmol/L within the age group 40 - 49 years and 50 - 59 years respectively among spouses of diabetic patients compared to 5.4 mmol/L and 5.5 mmol/L within the same age group among the spouses non-diabetics. Spouses of patients with diabetes mellitus had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and BMI compared to spouses of non- diabetics. Conclusion: Being male, married to a diabetic patient, lower educational levels and higher body mass index are significantly asso- ciated with higher random blood glucose in the spouses of diabetic patients. Random blood glucose measurements are an effective screen-
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Glucose estimation in the salivary secretion of diabetes mellitus patients

Glucose estimation in the salivary secretion of diabetes mellitus patients

When we compared salivary glucose levels across the three subgroups, we found a statistically significant difference between them. Here, also, an increase in the salivary glucose level was noticed with an increase in HbA 1c percentage. The ideal level control showed a mean salivary glucose level of 2.30 mg/dL, the reasonable control showed 3.81 mg/dL, and the poor control showed 6.72 mg/dL. We found that poor glycemic control leads to a high salivary glucose level, hence, this points toward the poor glycemic control achieved in the patient. These results were similar to our earlier results based on serum glucose levels.
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Serum and salivary ferritin and Hepcidin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Serum and salivary ferritin and Hepcidin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus

pathogens. In the present study, we found CP was the risk factor of increased serum ferritin, increased serum hepcidin and decreased hepcidin/ ferritin ratio. There- fore, a hypothesis can be proposed that CP might be regarded as an independent risk factor for iron overload in the body and inadequate hepcidin production. More- over, T2DM might be promoted by iron excess and in- sufficient hepcidin production [14]. So, a speculation is proposed that CP might promote T2DM development by inducing iron overload and inadequate production of hepcidin, which still need further explore. By correcting hepcidin levels, we can prevent cellular iron overload and reduce the risk of diabetes [48]. Some studies have shown that increased hepcidin levels might help reduce the incidence of T2DM. Thus, several hepcidin-modulating drugs are currently under development [49]. For example, Ramos E et al. found minihepcidins, small drug-like hepci- din agonists, could help reduce the body iron overload [45]. Such new drugs may, at least hypothetically, amelior- ate the endocrinal diabetic functions by reducing tissue iron retention [50]. And also, previous studies showed that after nonsurgical periodontal therapy, CP patients showed decreased ferritin and prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin) levels, suggesting that the iron overload and in- flammatory burden had improved after treatment [35, 51]. The results from the present study might provide theoret- ical evidence regarding the importance of control of periodontitis by using periodontal therapy in patients who are at a high risk of T2DM or those with T2DM.
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A  study of serum glucose in relation to serum uric acid in Prediabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and Normoglycaemics

A study of serum glucose in relation to serum uric acid in Prediabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and Normoglycaemics

levels and serum uric acid levels is thought to be due to the uricosuric effect of glycosuria, which occurs when the blood glucose level is greater than 180 mg/dl. Higher insulin levels are known to reduce renal excretion of urate. Insulin may enhance renal urate reabsorption via stimulation of the urate- anion exchanger URAT1 and/or the sodium-dependent anion cotransporter in brush border membranes of the renal proximal tubule. Many studies have reported that there is a positive association between high serum uric acid level and diabetes (Chien et al., 2008; Hayden and Tyagi, 2004; Thorand et al., 2006). Whereas other studies show no association (Barzilay et al., 2001) or inverse association (Choi and Ford, 2008; Editorial. Uric Acid, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Diseases: References:Fueling the Common Soil Hypothesis? 2008)
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Comparison of Salivary Glucose and Serum Glucose Concentration in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case Control Study

Comparison of Salivary Glucose and Serum Glucose Concentration in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case Control Study

Eliaz Kaufman et al 7 reviewed the diagnostic applications of saliva. In the review they examined the diagnostic application of saliva for systemic diseases. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers distinctive advantages over serum because it can be collected non-invasively by individuals with modest training. Furthermore, saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. Whole saliva, however, is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases, since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents. These constituents are derived from the local vasculature of the salivary glands and also reach the oral cavity by the flow of gingival fluid. Analysis of saliva may be useful for the diagnosis of hereditary disorders, Autoimmune diseases, Malignant and Infectious diseases, and Endocrine disorders, as well as in the assessment of therapeutic levels of drugs and the monitoring of illicit drug use.
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Effect of Nateglinide Alone and Its Combination with Metformine on Serum Glucose, Hba1c and Hepatic Enzymes in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Rats

Effect of Nateglinide Alone and Its Combination with Metformine on Serum Glucose, Hba1c and Hepatic Enzymes in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Rats

be because of formation of oedema in the tissue. In the present study, an increase in the levels of serum glucose and HbA1c in STZ-NIC treated rats confirmed the induction of diabetes mellitus. Significant decrease was observed in the glucose and HbA1c level in diabetic rats after treatment with NAT (30 mg/kg) alone and alone with MET (50 mg/kg) when compared with DB-CON rats at the end of experimental period. STZ causes diabetes by the rapid depletion of β-cells and thereby brings about an eduction in insulin release. HbA1c level has been reported to be increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (15). It was reported that during diabetes mellitus, the excess of glucose present in the blood reacts with hemoglobin to form HbA1c.The level of HbA1c is always monitered as a reliable index of glycemic control in diabetes. Elevated levels of HbA1c observed in our study reveal that diabetes animals had prior high blood glucose level.
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Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus: a Review

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus: a Review

also tuberculosis in diabetic patients. Diabetes depresses or let down the immune response, which in turn facilitates infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and/or progression to symptomatic disease Diabetes mellitus is associated with a modest increase in the risk of developing tuberculosis. The risk is greater among those treated with insulin for diabetes. Diabetes is a common co-morbidity in people with tuberculosis. Screening patients with tuberculosis with fasting blood sugar estimation will help in early detection of diabetes. Strategies are needed to ensure that optimal care is provided to patients with both diseases. Therefore it is recommended that diabetes screening should be incorporated into the routine assessment of all patients with tuberculosis in our environment. In this review we found the high prevalence of diabetes among the tuberculosis patients compare to general population suggest that screening of diabetes among tuberculosis is necessary and should be performed during the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Several studies are in favour that this association is found in males as well as in females having higher weight found compare to males. According to some studies age of the patients having diabetes was found to be significantly high compare to patients of tuberculosis. Some of them revealed that central obesity was found almost thrice among diabetes with tuberculosis as compared to only in tubercular patients. Some of them are in opinion that smoking as a risk factor among diabetes with tuberculosis compare to smoking in only tuberculosis was found to insignificant, beside that drinking habit as a risk factor for diabetes with tuberculosis patients compare to drinking among only tubercular patients, it was found
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Serum Ferritin Levels in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Serum Ferritin Levels in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Amiri, F.N., Basirat, Z., Omidvar, S., Sharbatdaran, M., Tilaki, K.H., and Pouramir, M. (2013). Comparison of the serum iron, ferritin levels and total iron-binding capacity between pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes. J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 4, 302–305. Anderson, E.J., Lustig, M.E., Boyle, K.E., Woodlief, T.L., Kane, D.A., Lin, C.-T., Price, J.W., Kang, L., Rabinovitch, P.S., Szeto, H.H., et al. (2009). Mitochondrial H2O2 emission and cellular redox state link excess fat intake to insulin resistance in both rodents and humans. J. Clin. Invest. 119, 573–581.
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Identifying relationship of lipid profile with hypertension among diabetic patients

Identifying relationship of lipid profile with hypertension among diabetic patients

Methodology: This hospital-based, observational, retrospective and comparative study was carried out from January 2018 to June 2018 in the medical outdoor department of Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur. The study sample was comprised of 50 normotensive diabetic patients as control (group A) and 50 diabetic subjects with HTN were labeled as group B. Comparative values of lipids were primarily observed between the two groups. Quantitative demographic data, blood pressure (BP) recordings, laboratory values of lipid and serum sugar levels were presented as percentage, mean and standard deviation accordingly. To determine statistical assessment, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used and Student t-test was applied to compare the means of two groups for lipoproteins with significance level at 5%.
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