In phylosphere and rhizosphere of plants present a lot of various microorganisms and some of them are pathogenic. he pathogenic soil fungi infect roots and lower parts of the plants, causing their decaying and dying at the end. In this mean they cause the reduction of yields. Many species of fungi colonize seeds ofherbs, which make moving diseases to the next growing season. he fungi occurred and developed very oten, and in the case of biennial and perennial plants also overwinter on aboveground parts of the plant and caused a variety spots and contaminate herbal material with products of their metabolism. Herbs are grown widely in the Lublin region, so there are problems with their health status.
From the 70 taxa recorded in this article, 30 species had both medicinal and non-medicinal applications. Apart from these, four species including Astrodaucus orientalis (L.) Drude, Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss., Froriepia subpinnata (Ledeb.) Baill. and Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC. had no medicinal effect and were only used for other purposes. In totally, thirty-four species have been reported for miscellaneous uses including edible, making pickles, as natural dyes and as flavors in salad, soup, etc. As stated in Table 1, the most cited species for edible uses were Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Cuminum cyminum L., Ferulago angulata (Schltdl.) Boiss., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Pimpinella anisum L., Prangos ferulacea (L.)Lindl. and Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss. Many of these taxa were used all over the country. However, some other species, such as Dorema aucheri Boiss., Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. and Oliveria decumbens Vent. were only used in a small area. Most of these taxa were used as wild vegetables. These species with much narrower distribution were exclusively used in Iran, and therefore could be considered as ‘typical Iranian wild edibles’. It is sometimes hard to know whether a particular sample was wild or cultivated. For example, some species, such as Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. were only native to certain parts of Iran, although they were cultivated in some
Objective: To analyze the Family Health Program replaced by the Family Health Strategy in 2011, based on health indicators and diseases classified as primary care sensitive. Methods: This was a descriptive, analytical and documental study carried out in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo between 2002 and 2007. We analyzed data from Health observatory for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. Pearson’s correlation and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 17.0 were used to calculate data associations. Results: We used 30 of the 31 health indicators of 24 from the 39 studied municipalities. A total of 720 (100%) health primary care sensitive indicators were analyzed in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. Conclusion: Percentages of improvements and worsening were low. In addition, some data were not presented. The majority of indicators remained stable.
Lipid oxidation is one of the major forms of spoilage in foods, because it leads to the formation of off-flavours and potentially toxic compounds. It affects the quality of the product due to the loss of a desi- rable colour, odour, and flavour and reduces the shelf-life. This process also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) which have been implicated in carci- nogenesis, inflammation, early aging and cardiovas- cular diseases . To prevent lipid oxidation, food products should be kept away from oxygen, stored at low temperatures to retard oxidation reactions or sup- plied with antioxidants . Common antioxidants in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butyl- ated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are synthetic. The use of synthetic antioxidants is restricted in several countries because of their undesirable long-term toxicological effects, including carcinogenicity [3-5]. Also, the utili-
SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM BROMELIACEAE FAMILY. This review describes aspects of the Bromeliaceae family dealing the traditional applications, biological activities and distribution of secondary metabolites in distinct subfamilies. Some species are used with medicinal purposed in the treatment of respiratory, diabetes or inlammation diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Special emphasis on cycloartane triterpenoids and lavonoids, typical metabolites of this family, are presented. Bromeliaceae is unique amongst the monocotyledons in the frequency and variety of lavonoids with hydroxylation or methoxylation at the 6-position. Other compound classes as steroids, hidroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropane diglycerides, lignans, are presented.
Functional properties ofApiaceae plants stem from or are determined by the roles and functions of their essential oils. Coriander, dill, cumin, fennel, anise and caraway have great pharmacological potential (Aćimović et al., 2011a; Heamalatha et al., 2011; Kaur and Sharma, 2012; Jamwal et al., 2013; Aćimović and Dojčinović, 2014; Agrahari and Singh, 2014). The study of natural products has been the single most successful strategy for the discovery of new medicines used to treat a great number ofdiseases. Plants were used for healing centuries ago, and in recent years, a large number of studies have documented the efficacy of plants and their chemical constituents as a source of new bioactive natural products. The antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities exhibited by the Apiaceae are a result of the synergistic action between the bioactive compounds present in the seeds (Rajeshwari et al., 2011).
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that produces a persistent infection. Two transmission routes (from mother to child and via sexual intercourse) favor familial clustering of HTLV-1. It is yet unknown why most HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic while about 10% of them develop complications. HTLV-1 associated diseases were originally described as sporadic entities, but familial presentations have been reported. To explore what is known about family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases we undertook a systematic review. We aimed at answering whether, when, and where family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases was reported, which relatives were affected and which hypotheses were proposed to explain aggregation. We searched MEDLINE, abstract books of HTLV conferences and reference lists of selected papers. Search terms used referred to HTLV-1 infection, and HTLV-1-associated diseases, and family studies. HTLV-1-associated diseases considered are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-1-associated uveitis, and infective dermatitis. Seventy-four records reported HTLV-1-associated diseases in more than one member of the same family and were included. Most reports came from HTLV-1-endemic countries, mainly Japan (n = 30) and Brazil (n = 10). These reports described a total of 270 families in which more than one relative had HTLV-1-associated diseases. In most families, different family members suffered from the same disease (n = 223). The diseases most frequently reported were ATLL (115 families) and HAM/TSP (102 families). Most families (n = 144) included two to four affected individuals. The proportion of ATLL patients with family history of ATLL ranged from 2 to 26%. The proportion of HAM/TSP patients with family history of HAM/TSP ranged from 1 to 48%. The predominant cluster types for ATLL were clusters of siblings and parent-child pairs and for HAM/TSP, an affected parent with one or more affected children. The evidence in the literature, although weak, does suggest that HTLV-1-associated diseases sometimes cluster in families. Whether familial transmission of HTLV-1 is the only determining factor, or whether other factors are also involved, needs further research.
Characteristic disease symptoms were observed on the sage stems at the height of 10 to 20 cm from the base. hose were brown, oblong spots, which frequently merged together, covering the stem around. Peeling of and breaking of the bark occurred in such places. Conidioma and conidia with the morphological features characteristic of Phomopsis genus were found in the cracks of the stem bark. Phomopsis sclarea Sarwar was obtained from the sages stems with such symptoms. he isolates of this species constituted 8.86% of all fungi obtained from that part.
Medicinal, aromatic and herb spices fromfamilyApiaceae like Caraway (Carum carvi L.), Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and fromfamily Lamiaceae like Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench.) and Thymi (Thymus vulgaris L.) are widely distributed in Serbia growing as wild or cultivated species (S a r i ć, 1989.). These plants are used like stomachic, spasmolitic, carminative and expectorant in traditional folk medicine and also in official medicine. Essential oils extracted fromApiaceae and Lamiaceae family plants can contribute the quality of food with better odor and flavor what is considerd as very important quality parametar in food manufacturing (K o v a čević, 2001). Other benefites could be application of essential oils in therapeutics purposes due to their antimicrobial effects on some pathogen microorganisms (S t e f a n i n i at al., 2001., K l a u s et al, 2007.).
Abstract: Introduction: Caring for a diseased family member causes an adverse daily life involving suffering for the caregiver. The literature on occupational therapy does not debate coping strategies that caregivers adopt with family members with chronic illness, or how perceptions about the role played interfere with occupations and projects. Objective: To characterize the caregivers’ coping ways in daily life after a month of hospital discharge from a family member with chronic noncommunicable disease (NCDs) and to identify the perception they elaborate about themselves. Method: Descriptive study with qualitative-quantitative approach and cross-sectional design composed of 30 family caregivers of familiar members with NCDs followed in medical ward of a general hospital. Instruments used were sociodemographic questionnaire, Barthel index, Coping Mode Scale, and semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis was performed with descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for repeated measurements, and Duncan and Tukey tests. The thematic content analysis was used to treat
The first all round Community Development Programme was launched in the country in October 1952. It was then proposed to establish one Primary Health Centre (PHC) for each community development block; covering population of 80,000 to 1,00,000 3 . Subsequently, over the last many years the health services organization and infrastructure have undergone extensive changes and expansion in stages following the recommendation made by a number of expert committees. India became signatory to the Alma Ata declaration of 1978 and committed to attaining the goal of `Health for all' by the year 2000 AD through Primary Health Care.
The ethanol is an inductive agent of gastric lesions, what mimics the ulcer in the human, because it causes cell damage and disturbance on the blood low (Brzozowski, 2003); it provokes arteriolar dilatation, vasoconstriction and degranulation of mast cells, resulting in hyperemia (Oates & Hakkinenn, 1988). Kvietys et al. (1990) observed the involvement of neutrophils on the inlammatory process induced by ethanol, that attack the gastric mucosa and this releases inlammatory mediators that are responsible by recruitment of neutrophils. The oxidative stress is also involved on the pathogenesis caused by ethanol, hence the generation of free radicals causes cell and tissue damages, resulting on the gastric lesions (Repetto & Llesuy, 2002).
A three-layer neural network was developed for modeling arthropod abundance from plant composition (Fig. 2; Zhang, 2010). Thirty neurons were used in both the first and second layers. Bias was used to all of the layers. Transfer functions for layers 1~3 were hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig), logarithmic sigmoid transfer function (logsig), and linear transfer function (purelin), respectively. Weights and bias for each layer were initiated by Nguyen-Widrow algorithm (Hagan et al., 1996; Mathworks, 2002; Fecit, 2003). Network initialization was made with a function that initializes each layer i according to its own initialization function (initlay). Network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm (trainlm). Desired performance function was mean squared error performance function (mse). Both the first and second layers received the same inputs from sample space and yielded outputs for the third layer. The third layer learned from the input space. For each layer the net input functions (netsum) calculated the layer’s net input by combining its weighted inputs and biases.
Th e taxonomy of Fagonia is very diffi cult mainly due to a high degree of plasticity and thereby adaptations to climatic conditions (Zohary 1972; Danin 1996). Ozenda & Quézel (1956) grouped the North African Fagonia species into four natural groups: (1) the F. kahirina–cretica–fl amandii group, (2) the F. arabica–bruguieri group, (3) the F. glutinosa–latifolia group, and (4) the F. microphylla- group. However, El Hadidi (1966) classifi ed Fagonia species into three natural groups based on pollen and trichome morphology. Also, El Hadidi (1972 & 1974) classifi ed Fagonia-species into complexes. Beier et al. (2004) studied the phylogenetic relationships within genus Fagonia based on trnL & ITS DNA sequences and they did not support the natural groups of Fagonia, and showed that all species from the Old World, except Fagonia cretica form a weakly supported clade. Abdel Khalik & Has- san (2012) investigated seed and trichome morphology of Fagonia in Egypt and indicated that the seed and trichome morphology are useful in distinguishing the species and not supporting the natural groups. Th e results of both cluster and principal coordinated analysis presented here confi rmed that all species of Fagonia form a well-distinguished group, characterized by several characteristics: obconical fruit shape, smooth seed architecture, non-winged mericarp edge, ovoid seed shape, fi lament length (3-7 mm), seed size (1.8-4.2 x 1.3-3.7 mm), subprolate to prolate pollen shape, 1-3-foliolate leaf and glandular hair shapes. Within this group, we can show that Fagonia arabica, F. bruguieri, F. sinaica, F. latifolia, and F. scabra form a subgroup; F. cretica forms a subgroup and another one includes the remaining species of Fagonia. Th ese results are incongruent with those of Ozenda & Quézel (1956), El Hadidi (1966; 1972; 1974) and partially agree with both of Beier et al. (2004) and Abdel Khalik & Hassan (2012).
among them: 6% of trichomoniasis, 2% of gardenerella vaginalis, and 9% of vaginal candidiasis. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) are among the most common public health problems worldwide. Recent estimates point to the occurrence of more than 10 million new sexually transmitted infections that can develop into symptomatic diseases such as urethritis, cervicitis, sores and genital warts, or remain asymptomatic. This, coupled with the high rate of self-medication, makes the bigger problem, since many of the cases do not receive adequate treatment and guidance, becoming sub-clinical, remaining transmitters and remaining fundamental links in the chain of transmission of infections. 4.9
Phytochemical analysis of three Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae) revealed presence of phenols and phenolic compounds, acicubin, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid and lignins, leucoanthocyanis, catechol, tannins, quinone, naptho-quinones and coumarin are absence in all the species. The chemical compounds like syringin glycosides, saponin are doubtful in these species.
Kozina Zh.L. Principles of individual selection of medical plants for renewal of capacity of sportsmen. Principles of personalising of application ofherbs are developed. They are necessary for opti- misation of operation of adaptive systems of an organism. Application of collect- ings ofherbs promoted normalization of researched parameters. The collecting is constituted according to personalities of sportsmen. They were defi ned on pa- rameters of vegetative balance and the contents of a hydrocortisone, an insulin
H erbal products have been widely used around the world since ancient times. Herbal products are complex of organic chemicals that may come from any naive or processed part of a plant, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and seeds. Herbs are described as dietary supplements, and manufacturers can therefore produce, sell, and market herbs without first demonstrating safety and efficiency, as is required for pharmaceutical drugs. Many different side effects have been reported owing to active components, pollutant, or interplay with drugs (1-2). The safety of using most herbs with drugs is not well established. Some herbs are recognized to interact with pharmaceutical drugs, while most of this information comes from case reports rather than systematic investigations (3). Many different side effects to herbs have been reported, containing effects from biologically active constituents fromherbs, side effects caused by herb–drug interactions or contaminants. Case reports of nephropathy caused by the use of certain Chinese herbs are popular. A specifically morbid case series describes 105 patients in Belgium who had been taking a Chinese herbal product for weight loss and developed nephropathy caused by the herb Aristolochia fangchi (4). While many herbs contain pharmacologically active compounds, certain herbs such as ephedra may cause side effects through excessive biological effects (5). Unfortunately, the true frequency of side effects for most herbs is not known because most have not been tested in large clinical trials. The potential for toxicity from certain herbs is compounded by the frequent use of misleading marketing
When ownership of the property is transferred to the inhabitants, a very different situation can be observed, as in the Ramalde Residential Unit. Given the fact that the building is composed by several dwellings that belong to the residents, the common areas suffer from lack of maintenance, and a global position regarding the building may not occur. This fact contrasts with the stronger investments in the dwellings’ interior and with the exterior expression of occasional interventions. In spite of this deficit in the approach to the building as a whole, the residents are generally more satisfied in this case. The feeling of taking care of what belongs to them and of making lifelong investments in their property seems to supersede the insufficiencies felt with any partial and incomplete maintenance procedures.Some policy changes that may improve affordable housing standard in this particular situation could involve Municipal financial support, being this residential complex a modern paradigm in Porto; closer proximity between the professionals or specialists and the inhabitants, and naturally the implementation of condominium regulations.