Top PDF The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308), 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female) and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit); basal diet + whole wheat (without grit) and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine) and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05), whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.
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Comparison of The Effects of Several Feed Restriction Periods to Control Ascites on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Hematological Indices of Broiler Chickens

Comparison of The Effects of Several Feed Restriction Periods to Control Ascites on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Hematological Indices of Broiler Chickens

The ascites syndrome (ascites) is the primary cause of death for rapidly growing broiler strains, resulting in economic loss (Hassanzadeh et al., 2009). Ascites is a condition in which the body cavity accumulates serous fluid, leading to carcass condemnation or death (Julian, 1993). The causes of the syndrome are multifactorial and mainly induced by exogenous and/or endogenous factors. An imbalance between oxygen supply and the oxygen required to sustain rapid growth rates and high food efficiencies is believed to be the primary cause of ascites in broiler chickens (Decuypere et al., 2000 & 2005; Julian, 2005). The housing environment, including factors such as temperature (cold or fluctuating temperatures) and air quality (dust concentration, carbon dioxide levels, and oxygen levels), is known to influence the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. The incidence of ascites greatly increases at altitudes greater than 1300 meters above sea level, presumably because of the low oxygen partial pressure (Hernandez, 1987). Physiologically, low
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Different Selection Strategies for the Improvement of the Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Japanese Quails

Different Selection Strategies for the Improvement of the Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Japanese Quails

In the present experiment, significantly (p≤0.05) better FCR was observed in pedigree birds (2.38±0.01) compared with mass-selected birds (2.39±0.01) and random-bred controls (2.45±0.01). Birds from 10-week-oldparents showed better FCR (2.39±0.01) compared with those from 12 (2.40±0.01) and 14-week-old (2.43±0.01) parents. In the present experiment, CBF had no effect on FCR; however, FCR was significantly affected (p≤0.05) by the interactions between CBF and selection strategies and age groups. The interaction of selection strategies with parental age groups significantly influenced (p≤0.05) cumulative FCR. However, no significant effect of selection methods, CBF or parental age groups on mortality % was observed in the current experiment. In the present experiment, pedigree birds presented significantly better FCR compared with mass-selected and random- bred control birds, which may be due to the lower maintenance requirements and lower fat deposition of pedigree-base selected birds. Usually, there is a favorable correlation between feed conversion ratio and growth because of enhanced pulsative growth hormone release and ultimately live weight gain. The selection for better feed conversion in broiler chickens resulted in direct selection for carcass leanness. Similarly, in another study (Marks, 1980), better FCR was observed in Japanese quails selected for high body weight for 42 generations compared with random- bred controls. Birds from 10-week-old parents showed better FCR compared with the progenies of 12- and 14-w-oldparents, possibly because younger birds have better feed conversion ratio than older ones. However, Sohail et al. (2013) did not report any significant effect of age on the FCR of Peshawari Aseel chickens.
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Performance, Carcass Traits, and Body Composition of Broilers Fed Different Linseed Oil Levels between 21 and 56 Days of Age

Performance, Carcass Traits, and Body Composition of Broilers Fed Different Linseed Oil Levels between 21 and 56 Days of Age

Dietary linseed oil inclusion levels had a quadratic influence (p<0.05) on feed conversion ratio (Table 2) in both studied periods, as shown by the equations FCR = 1.9342 - 0.032015X + 0.0020349X2, R2 = 0.92 and FCR = 2.1884 - 0.03445X + 0.00203547X2, R2 = 0.90, up to the levels of 7.87 and 8.46% for the periods of 21-42 and 21-56 days of age, respectively. This behavior may be related to the linear increase in feed intake without the corresponding increase in weight gain. These results are consistent with those of Murakami et al. (2009), who included increasing linseed oil levels in broiler diets during the period of 1-43 days of age and observed a linear improvement in feed conversion ratio, demonstrating the beneficial effects of this oil source on broiler performance. However, in a subsequent study, Murakami et al (2010) found that feed conversion ratio worsened when linseed oil was fed during the starter phase (1-21 days) and no effect thereafter (22-49 days).
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Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

Proximate composition, pH and bulk density of the two types of banana meal are given in Table 2. The proximate composition of the two types of banana meal was not significantly different. The proximate components of the banana meals were similar to those values reported by Adeniji et al. (2007). The CP contents of banana meals were lower than that of the commonly used cereals and their by- products in poultry feeds (NRC 1994). Furthermore, the protein profile of banana was found to be deficient in lysine, methionine and tryptophane (Emaga et al., 2011). Therefore, the protein value of banana meal is assumed to be low.
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Yeast extract and prebiotic in pre-initial phase diet for broiler chickens raised under different temperatures1 Vanessa Karla Silva2 , Janaina Della Torre da Silva3 , Rodrigo Antonio Gravena3 , Rafael Henrique Marques3 , Fabricio Hirota Hada3 , Vera Maria

Yeast extract and prebiotic in pre-initial phase diet for broiler chickens raised under different temperatures1 Vanessa Karla Silva2 , Janaina Della Torre da Silva3 , Rodrigo Antonio Gravena3 , Rafael Henrique Marques3 , Fabricio Hirota Hada3 , Vera Maria

of broiler chickens raised under different temperatures that received feed with or without yeast extract and prebiotic in the pre-initial phase. One thousand four hundred and forty one-day old male chicks were used, raised in different climate chambers. Feed with or without the addition of yeast extract and prebiotic was offered only in the pre-initial phase (1 to 7 days). From the eighth day on, every chick received the same feed, readjusted according to usual recommendations. A randomized complete experimental design was used in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of three environmental temperatures (hot, comfort and cold) and two levels of yeast extract (with or without) and prebiotic (with or without). The performance of the birds was evaluated considering weight gain, feed intake, food conversion and viability at 42 days of age. Carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were also evaluated. Environmental heat impaired performance and carcass yield. Prebiotic inclusion in the pre-initial feed increased weight gain and enhanced food conversion of birds raised under hot conditions. The inclusion of products in the feed of broiler chickens raised in hot and cold environments has beneficial effects on chicken intestinal villi.
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Bone Mineralization, and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chickens

Bone Mineralization, and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chickens

This study evaluated the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D 3 ) on the growth performance, bone mineralization, and carcass traits of 1- to 21-day-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 600 male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to 12 treatments, with five cages of 10 birds each. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, 0.40%, or 0.45% NPP and 0 or 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D 3 . The basal diet contained 0.52% calcium (Ca) and was not supplemented with vitamin D 3 . Dietary NPP levels significantly affected growth performance and tibia mineralization (except width) of broilers; by contrast, meat yield and organ relative weight were not influenced by NPP. The inclusion of 1α-OH-D 3 improved growth performance, tibia mineralization, and carcass and breast yield, whereas it decreased the relative weights of the liver, heart, and kidney. A significant interaction between NPP and 1α-OH-D 3 was observed for body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency (FE), mortality, serum Ca and P levels, tibia breaking- strength, ash weight, and Ca content, as well as breast yield and heart relative weight. These results suggest that broilers fed with 5 μg of 1α-OH-D 3 per kg of diet obtain optimal growth performance and tibia mineralization when dietary NPP level was 0.30% and the analyzed Ca to NPP ratio was 1.97.
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Starter Dietary Lysine Level and Strain Cross Effects on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Females 1,2

Starter Dietary Lysine Level and Strain Cross Effects on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Females 1,2

Lysine needs of starting chicks (up to Day 21) have been studied extensively (Schwartz et al., 1958; Hewitt & Lewis, 1972; McNaughton et al., 1977; Han & Baker, 1991; Han & Baker, 1993). Different recommended levels of dietary lysine have been determined across laboratories because numerous variations have existed among experiments (e.g., genetic strain, environmental temperature, feed ingredients, protein source and quality, and sex (Han & Baker, 1991; Han & Baker, 1993). It has been shown that current NRC (1994) recommendations for lysine up to d 21 are too low for today’s commercial broiler (Han & Baker, 1991; Vasquez & Pesti, 1997; Kidd & Fancher, 2001). Furthermore, recent studies have shown an increase in performance when dietary lysine during the starter phase is higher than recommended levels (Kidd et al., 1998; Kidd & Fancher, 2001). Such effects were observed for the Ross x Ross 508 male (Kidd & Fancher, 2001) and the Avian 34 x Avian male (Kidd et al., 1998). Carcass traits in the former studies were also improved by early dietary lysine. It was concluded that optimum performance was obtained when birds were fed high dietary lysine levels not only during the starter period, but when
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Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

al., 2004). Similarly, Gowda and Sastry (2000) confirmed a significant improvement of SMS on body weight gain and attributed its effects to antioxidant activity in the protein synthesis stimulation by the bird’s enzymatic system. The higher weight gain was reported by Chakarverty and Parsad (1991), in SMS supplemented group. Kalorey et al. (2005) reported the protective role of SMS against aflatoxicosis on the weight of bursa of fabricius. As evident from some researches, aflatoxins reduced lymphoid organs weight (thymus, bursa and spleen) in aflatoxicosis (Tedesco et al., 2004). Silybum marianum was more efficient to protect the spleen against adverse effects of aflatoxin as compared with the synthetic toxin binders (Kalorey et al., 2005).
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Effect of energy intake on performance and carcass composition of broiler chickens from two different genetic groups

Effect of energy intake on performance and carcass composition of broiler chickens from two different genetic groups

No signif icant int eract ion w as observed bet w een genetic group and dietary metabolizable energy level f or w eight gain (Table 2); t heref ore, only t he main treatment effects w ill be discussed. AgRoss 308 group w eight gain w as 46% higher than PCLC. Analyzing perf ormance dif f erences bet w een t ypical 1957 and 1991 broilers, Havenst ein et al. (1994a) report ed a w eight gain improvement of more than 300% during this period. The authors also found the diet based on 1991 recommendat ions improved non-select ed line w eight gain in 26% at 43 days. As PCLC line represents a more modern broiler than 1957 one, these significant dif f erences w ere expect ed. A comparison bet w een diets reveals progressive rise in w eight gain according t o elevat ion in energy consum pt ion. Leeson et al. (1996) also observed im provem ent in w eight gain according to rise in energy consumption; how ever, as broilers are capable of controling feed intake according t o energy requirement s, t he same result s w ere not described w hen diets w ith different energy levels w ere applied in an ad libitum feed program.
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Effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with roasted guar korma and supplementation of mannanase on performance and carcass traits of commercial broiler chickens

Effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with roasted guar korma and supplementation of mannanase on performance and carcass traits of commercial broiler chickens

Bir d h u sba n dr y: A straight run flock of one-day-old determination of carcass traits. The chickens were Cobb-400 broiler chickens (N=1600) with an average mechanically stunned followed by exsanguination. body weight of 43.5 (±1.19) g were assigned to four The carcasses were defeathered and eviscerated. The dietary treatments for 35 days. Each treatment group dressed carcass weight was determined after complete had four replicates with 100 birds in each replicate. The removal of organs and gastro intestinal (GI) tract. replicates were housed in pens (3.2m x 3.2m) on litter Internal organs (heart, liver and spleen) and gizzard composed of saw dust and wood shavings. All birds were severed out and washed with phosphate buffered were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (on days 5 saline to remove blood and tissue debris. Giblet weight and 20) and Infectious bursal disease (on day 13). Bird was expressed as the combined weight of heart, liver management was according to the recommendations of and gizzard. Liver and spleen were also weighed Cobb Management Guide [18]. The chicks received the separately. The entire GI tract was removed, soaked in phosphate buffered saline to remove the blood and designated treatment diets within 12 h of their hatching.
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O temperamento de bovinos confinados em diferentes disponibilidades de espaço e suas relações com o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne

O temperamento de bovinos confinados em diferentes disponibilidades de espaço e suas relações com o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne

ABSTRACT – The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bulls’ temperament kept at three different space allowances (6, 12, and 24 m 2 /animal) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality traits and animal welfare. The specific objectives were: 1) to evaluate the effects of space allowance on bulls’ temperament; 2) to evaluate the effects of temperament on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle kept in different space allowance; 3) to evaluate the effects of temperament on adrenal gland morphometric and its relationship to space allowance; 4) to determine the relationship between adrenal gland morphometric and bruise severity on the carcass, at different space allowance. The study was conducted using 1,350 bulls (450 Nellore and 900 cross-bred Angus or Caracu x Nellore) raised on pasture and finished in a commercial feedlot. Temperament was assessed by the flight speed (FS) test on day 0 (FS 0 ), 35 (FS 35 ) and 87 (or last day;
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Effects of calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio and different sources of vitamin D on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

Effects of calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio and different sources of vitamin D on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

D 3 ). Results showed that the Ca to NPP ratio, vitamin D source, and their interaction affected body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), and carcass and breast yields, as well as tibia weight and length and ash weight in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. Broilers fed 1α-OH-D 3 had higher BWG and FI as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, diameter, and ash weight than birds fed 25-OH-D 3 at 42 d of age. The Ca to NPP ratio had a quadratic effect on BWG, FI, mortality, as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, ash weight, and ash and P contents in 42-d-old broilers. Broiler chickens at 42 d of age obtain optimal growth performance and bone mineralization at the Ca to NPP ratio of 2.32 when 1α-OH-D 3 or 25-OH-D 3 are used as the vitamin D source.
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Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on the performance of broiler chickens

Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on the performance of broiler chickens

The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on growth performance, carcass yield, relative weight of internal organs and microbiology of digestive tract of broiler chickens were investigated. Five hundred and forty male broiler chicks at one day of age were arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six repetitions with 15 broiler chicks each. The treatments were: control (T1 – without growth promoter virginiamycin and CNSL); inclusion levels of 0.10mL (T2), 0.20mL (T3), 0.30mL (T4) and 0.40mL (T5) of CNSL/kg of feed; and commercial promoter virginiamycin (T6). At 21 and 40 days of age, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion and viability of birds were similar in all treatments. Carcass yield was higher in the treatment with the growth promoter when compared to the control treatment. There was a linear increase in carcass yield when the level of CNSL was increased in the diet. The relative weight of the intestine was lower in the treatment containing virginiamycin when compared to the treatment without the inclusion of additives. The relative weight of the intestines decreased when the levels of inclusion of CNSL were increased. There was a gradual reduction of Escherichia coli concentration reaching the lowest number on the CNSL level of 0.30mL/kg. It was concluded that CNSL showed similar performance and slaughter yield as the growth promoter and reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli in the intestinal contents.
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Productive Traits of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Growth Promoters

Productive Traits of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Growth Promoters

This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260) were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p<0.05) was seen when diet was supplemented with the phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide-based prebiotic (MOS) compared to diets without prebiotics. Feed conversion of birds fed diets with probiotics and prebiotics was better than feed conversion of birds not receiving such additives. Such better results were seen in the initial period (1 to 21 days), but not in the following period (1 to 35 days) or in the total period (1 to 42 days). Better rearing viability was seen when MOS was used together with organic acidifier when compared to the diets without prebiotic. Viability was worst when no prebiotics or probiotics were used. It was concluded that beneficial effects were seen in performance of birds at 21 days when the growth promoters were used, but not at 42 days of age. Nevertheless, there was better growth viability at 42 days of age when growth promoters were added.
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Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens with Different Growth Potential and Submitted to Heat Stress

Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens with Different Growth Potential and Submitted to Heat Stress

Harsh environmental conditions result in important economic losses for the poultry industry in tropical countries. Heat exposure impairs broilers performance, especially during growing and finishing periods, as their ability to dissipate heat decreases according to body growth. The primary consequence of heat exposure is reduction in feed intake (Geraert et al., 1996a), a physiological response in order to decrease metabolic heat production and to maintain body homeostasis (Koh & Macleod, 1999). However, heat exposure also impairs survival rate (Deaton et al., 1986), weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of broiler flocks (Geraert et al., 1993, Faria Filho, 2006), which have a direct impact on the profitability of this activity. Moreover, lower breast yield and higher fat deposition were described in broilers exposed to heat (Ain Baziz et al., 1996; Geraert et al., 1996a), which are undesirable, considering the economic value of breast meat and that excessive amount of fat in broiler carcasses is not well accepted by customers.
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Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers

Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers

et al. 2006, Wang and Gu 2010). Mountzouris et al. (2010) pointed out that no consistent conclusions can be drawn regarding the effect of increasing probiotic administration level on growth performance due to the contradictory results found in the literature and suggested the occurrence of an optimal strain-dependent concentration of each of the probiotics tested. On the other hand, it has been suggested that effi cacy for most probiotics in animals could be achieved with a daily intake of 1 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 9 microorganisms (Mountzouris et al. 2010, Shim et al. 2010). In the present work, according to the manufacturer´s specifi cations, the calculated average daily intake of microorganisms was 1 x 10 6 and 2 to 4 x 10 7 in the P1 treatment and the P2, P3 and P4 treatments, respectively, which could explain why the P1 treatment did not improve the performance traits compared with the control treatment. On the other hand, most of the above-mentioned works and the present one were carried out with chickens raised in cages or do not specify the rearing system. The rearing system (fl oor vs. cage) may affect the observed productive results (Santos et al. 2008). Furthermore, the effects of broiler feed supplementation with alternatives to growth-promoting antimicrobials, such as probiotics, may depend on the rearing system due to differences in the hygienic conditions (Pirgozliev et al. 2014). Thus, rearing conditions should be taken into account for a more complete interpretation of the experimental data from research on probiotic supplementation effects.
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Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. This interaction is very complex and, depending on the composition and activity of the gut microflora, it can have either positive or negative effects on the health and growth of birds (Yang et al., 2009). Chicks grown in a pathogen-free environment grow 15% faster than those grown under conventional conditions, where they are exposed to bacteria and viruses. The focus of alternative strategies has been to prevent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and modulation of indigenous bacteria, so that the health, immune status and performance are improved (Yang et al., 2009). The pharmacological action of active plant substances or herbal extracts in humans is well known, but in animal nutrition the number of precise experiments is relatively low (Mohamed et al., 2011). Basil known as sweet and garden basil, a member of the Lamiaceae family, is commonly cultivated throughout Mediterranean region (Abbas, 2010). The leaves and flowering tops of sweet basil are used as carminative, galactogogue, stomachic and antispasmodic medicinal plant in the folk medicine (Sajjadi, 2006). However, recently the potential uses of O. basilicum essential oils, particularly as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, have also been investigated. The chemical composition of basil oil has been the subject of considerable studies. There is extensive diversity in the constituents of the basil oils and several chemotypes have been established from various phytochemical investigations. However, methyl chavicol, linalool, methyl cinnamate, methyleugenol, eugenol and geraniol are reported as major components of the oils of different chemotypes of O. basilicum. (Sajjadi, 2006). We have no information about the relationship between in vitro antimicrobial potential and efficiency of essential oils in broiler chickens. Perhaps essential oils, which inhibit pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, are more efficient in broiler chickens. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of basil essential oil against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and their effects on broiler chickens.
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Effect of Different Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Levels and Feeding Methods on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Blood Parameters of Male Japanese Quails During Two Weeks of the Finishing Period

Effect of Different Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Levels and Feeding Methods on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Blood Parameters of Male Japanese Quails During Two Weeks of the Finishing Period

Zilpaterol supplementation improved weight gain (p=0.0003) and feed conversion ratio (p=0.005) in all treatments compared with the control group, but it did not affect feed intake on days 34-40 (p=0.09). However, on days 41-47 days, zilpaterol did not significantly affect growth performance. There are some reports about different effects of β-agonists on the growth performance of animals. Ansari-Pirsaraei et al. (2007) demonstrated that terbutaline did not affect daily weight gain, but reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) of male broilers when5 and 10 mg/kg were fed, respectively. On the other hand, in some studies, ZH supplementation increased average daily gain and gain efficiency in feedlot lambs (Estrada-Angulo et al., 2008), steers (Avendano-Reyes et al., 2006) and cattle (Vasconcelos et al., 2008). However, Felix et al. (2005) did not observe any effect of ZH supplementation on
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Effects of dietary addition of synbiotic on the performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters of Japanese quails

Effects of dietary addition of synbiotic on the performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters of Japanese quails

The use of Syn in poultry production encourages a healthy gut via certain possible mechanisms, such as enhancing the immune system (Hamasalim, 2016), lowering pH, and increasing protective gut mucus (Nikpiran et al., 2014), creating an antimicrobial effect (Likotrafiti et al., 2016), increasing the digestibility of nutrients (Awad et al., 2008), and enhancing nutrition performance (Elfaki and Mukhtar, 2015; Pelícia et al., 2004). In previous studies conducted on poultry, it was reported that the use of Syn enhances growth performance (Vahdatpour et al., 2011; Min et al., 2016) and carcass yield (Pelícia et al., 2004). Sahin et al. (2008) reported that the addition of Syn to broiler rations did not have any effect on total serum protein, albumin, and total cholesterol levels.
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