Abstract— This paper describes the results of efficient measuring methods whereby the encryption capability of four algorithms are evaluated. Specifically this work focuses on measuring the encryption quality, the memory requirement and the execution time of the encryption as an indicator to the usage of the software and the hardware. Also, the security analysis of these schemes is investigated from cryptographic viewpoint; statistical and differential attacks. A number of requirements are therefore identified upon which the algorithms are evaluated. The results of the efficient measuring methods show that each algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses and no single encryption mechanism is able to get the maximum security with minimum execution time. The paper proposes that it may be possible to develop new algorithms providing adequate means ofefficiency with acceptable security.
Owing to their large size, video encryptionalgorithms can be broadly classified into two parts. One method is the selective encryption technique. In selective encryption technique only parts of the video are encrypted, thereby reducing the computational requirement. Selective encryptionalgorithms typically use heavy weight encryptionalgorithms (DES and AES). Consequently, time taken for encryption is high and makes them unsuitable for real-time applications. This method is suitable, where the full content of the video stream is not critical. Another category ofalgorithms is the scramble only methods, wherein the pixel values of each frame of the video stream are scrambled randomly using a specific algorithm. In both these methods, there exists a trade off between computational efficiencyandsecurity.
x Visual Degradation: This criterion measures the perceptual distortion of the image data with respect to the plain image. In some applications, it could be desirable to achieve enough visual degradation, so that an attacker would still understand the content but prefer to pay to access the unencrypted content. However, for sensitive data, high visual degradation could be desirable to completely disguise the visual content. Compression
Fingerprint-which have been used for about 100 years are the oldest biometric signs of identity. Humans have used fingerprints for personal identification for centuries and the validity of fingerprint identification has been well established. In fact, fingerprint technology is so common in Human Identification that it has almost become the synonym of biometrics. Fingerprints are believed to be unique across individuals and across fingers of same individual. Even identical twins having similar DNA, are believed to have different fingerprints. The analysis of fingerprints for matching purposes generally requires the comparison of several features of the print pattern. These include patterns, which are aggregate characteristics of ridges, and minutia points, which are unique features found within the patterns. is also necessary to know the structure and properties of human skin in order to successfully employ someof the imaging technologies. A major approach for fingerprint recognition today is to extract minutiae from fingerprint images and to perform fingerprint matching based on the number of corresponding minutiae pairings. One of the most difficult problems in fingerprint recognition has been that the recognition performance is significantly influenced by fingertip surface condition, which may vary depending on environmental or personal causes. Addressing this problem this paper propose some extra features that can be used to strengthen the present approaches followed in developing Fingerprint recognition system. To increase securityand accuracy we can use Infrared technique and technique to assign a score value to each of extracted minutiae.
Radio Frequency Identification security protocols often rely on hash function methods. Someof the applications need protected from collision andsomeof them do not needing pre- imagesecurity. An interesting case is established by keyed Message Authentication Codes (MAC) frequently used in this context. Here, a lightweight hashing method can require less area and then a lightweight block cipher in a Message Authentication Codes mode at a permanent level of offline and online protection. Message Authentication Codes can be also designed using sponge primitives .
Abstract —This paper presents a new hyper chaos system based on Hénon and Logistic maps which provides characteristics of high capacity, securityandefficiency. The Proposed hyper chaos system is employed to generate the key for diffusion in an imageencryption algorithm. The simulation experiments to the imageencryption algorithm which based on the proposed hyper chaos system show that the algorithm security analysis it has large key space (10 84 that ensures a strong resistance against attack of exhaustion as the key space will be greater), strong sensitivity ofencryption key and good statistical characteristics. Encryptionand decryption time is suitable for different applications.
In selective encryptionsome content of the image is encrypted. It reduces the execution time because it encrypts only a part of the image. Consequently, selective encryption is sometimes called partial encryption. This algorithm provides security to the imageand in the same time, some part of the image is visible. One of the use of this algorithm is in medical field, now a days the doctors are consulting the other doctors abroad, this algorithm can really help those. The medical image data is different from other visual data for multimedia applications. Since the lossy data cause some negative misdiagnosis.
Umaparvathi and Varughese in  presented a comparison of the most commonly used symmetric encryptionalgorithms AES (Rijndael), DES, 3DES and Blowfish in terms of power consumption. A comparison had been conducted for those encryptionalgorithms using different data types like text, image, audio and video. The various encryptionalgorithms had been implemented in Java. In the experiments, the software encrypts different file formats with file sizes (4MB - 11MB). The performance metrics like encryption time, decryption time and throughput had been collected. The presented simulation results showed that AES has a better performance than other common encryptionalgorithms used. Since AES had not showed any known security weak points in the presented study, this makes it an excellent candidate. 3DES showed poor performance results since it requires more processing power. Since the battery power is one of the major limitations in MANET nodes, the AES encryption algorithm is the best choice.
Securityof images has become very important for many applications like video conferencing, secure facsimile, medical, military applications etc. It is hard to prevent unauthorized user from eavesdropping in any communication system including internet. To protect information from unauthorized user, mainly two different technologies are used. These are - digital watermarking and cryptography. These two technologies could be used complementary to each other. In secured communications using cryptography, which is the main focus of the present work, the information under consideration is converted from the intelligible form to an unintelligible form at sender end. Encryption process scrambles the content of data such as text, image, audio, and video to make the data unreadable or incomprehensible during transmission. The encrypted form of the information is then transmitted through the insecure channel to the desired recipient. At the recipient end, the information is again converted back to an understandable form using decryption process. When same key is used in encryptionand decryption process, such algorithms are grouped under symmetric key cryptography. Numerous symmetric imageencryption schemes based on different approaches are available in literature. Among them, chaotic dynamical systems have been exploited extensively to develop the secure cryptographic schemes both for text andimage data. A few chaos based imageencryption schemes suggested recently are [1-6]. Most of the chaotic encryption scheme have been cryptanalysed successfully [7-10] due to the finite computing precision used to represent the floating point output of chaotic systems as it introduces cycles in the behaviour of chaotic systems and hence become vulnerable to attacks.
Since rapid growth ofimage transmission on computer networks and Internet, digital imagesecurity has been very critical. In order to image transmission, secure and fast algorithms are required for imageencryption. Novel encryption schemes has been presented by researchers in recent years. Chaos system like logistic mapping  and Lorenz mapping designed for imageencryptionand researchers presented different encryption schemes based on chaos system [1- 4]. Chaos system process has various features like high sensitivity to initial state, certainty, ergodic and etc. chaos sequence which are random sequences are generated by chaos mapping. These structures are very complex and their analysis and prediction is too difficult [5- 7]. Wang et al.  presented a chaos based encryption algorithm. Teng et al.  proposed an encryption algorithm based on parity bit, chaos and self-adaptively. Chaos mapping
Recently, with the greater demand for digital world, the securityof digital images has become more and more important since the communications of digital products over open network occur more and more frequently [2, 3, 6]. Surveys of the existing work on imageencryption were also gave general guideline about cryptography and concluded that all techniques were useful for real-time imageencryption. Techniques described in those studies can provide security functions and an overall visual check, which might be suitable in some applications. So no one can access the image which transferring on open network.
algorithm. For the latter, usually the key length is invariant, which is not flexible and may have some restrictions in the encryption. To meet these challenges, we propose a novel imageencryption algorithm. The algorithm uses several parameters to generate the keys with the same size as the plain images and has a good efficiency in the encryption. Firstly, we generate a Julia set and scramble it with the Hilbert curve in bit-level, and then make the scrambled Julia set modulo with the plain image. Finally, the cipher image is obtained by diffusion process. The Julia set is a classical set in fractal theory and can be calculated by several parameters iteratively. For this property, the key is much easier to store and transmit. What’s more, the Julia set has the infiniteness and the chaotic features, so tiny changes of the parameters will lead to dramatic changes of the cipher image. In addition, the diffusion process guarantees that if one pixel value changes, then all the pixels will change, which makes the algorithm resist the chosen plaintext attack effectively.
In this paper, we investigated the efficiencyof the TTIE algorithm. The TTIE algorithm is good for text encryption for a network system (TTIE is good for a Virtual Private Network, VPN, where encrypted data are sent and received across shared or public networks), individual offline machines, and e-mail security. We investigated the efficiencyof the TTIE algorithm when various memory sizes and various data sizes are used. The results from our experiments showed that the most dominant time is the time required to save the encrypted data (images) on the hard disk (this time is called SI). In addition, the results from our experiments showed that the SI time, SM time, FT time, SS time, RH time, and the TT time are very slightly changed when the memory size is increased. In addition, the results from this work showed that the SI time, TT time, and the RH time are greatly increased when the size of the data collection is increased. The SS time, FT time, and the SM time are slightly changed when the size of the data collection is increased. In future, we propose to reduce the time required for saving the encrypted data (images) on the hard disk using distributed computing.
Unlike the standard aspect of the computed tomography (CT) for medical application, industrial tomography systems applications should be adapted to the different size and geometry objects, usually placed in an ag- gressive environment, which contains flammable superheated or corrosive materials, and, eventually, subject to high internal pressure, all these factors bring in many difficulties for setting CT devices [1, 2]. In addition, the industrial systems involve multiphase dynamic processes containing solids, liquids and gases mixtures [3-7]. In other words, it is necessary to develop a tomographic system suitable for each industrial purpose [2, 6].
Taking this for granted, it is possible to say that the application is secure. For instance, an Android developer can in a very simple manner create an application that appears to be working normally and in the background be sending spam messages either by email or SMS, if such is allowed in the application manifest. In Windows Phone, such a situation could never happen because an application cannot send an SMS or email without the knowledge of the user. Sending an email or a SMS in the Windows Phone OS, is done by calling the Compose Task in which the message is composed. The fields, such as the phone number, message content can be prepopulated by the application but the user must always press the send button for the message to be sent. Although this was initially viewed as a constraint in the development of ECCrypto, the security reasons behind it are solid and end up enhancing the securityof the application itself. Another issue that arose throughout the development was the inability to copy text to the system clipboard. Although it can be somewhat of a nuisance to force the user to select and copy the text if it is to be sent through some channel other than email or SMS, it guarantees that applications cannot intercept the text that is being copied and pasted by the user. This is particularly important considering that the user will likely copy the passwords that are stored in the application thus increasing the securityof the application.
Cryptography plays an integral role in secure communication and is usually the strongest link in the chain ofsecurity. Multilanguage cryptography, an advancement of classical cryptography, may evolve as a choice of classical cryptography lovers seeking a better security. We proposed an algorithm in Multilanguage approach, which generates different ciphertexts at different time for the same plaintext over a range of languages supported by Unicode. It has a better frequency distribution of characters in the cipher text than previous work on this approach.
Subhasri P. et al.  proposed a Multi-level Encryption algorithm to secure the data in the cloud. The proposed algorithm uses rail fence and ceaser cipher algorithm. Initially, plaintext is encrypted using rail fence technique. Assign the position value i to each letter in the encrypted text. Generate the ASCII values of each character. Assign a key and apply it on the text using the formula: E = (p + k + i) % 256, where p denotes Plaintext, k denotes key and i denotes Position. Algorithm produces the ASCII character of the equivalent decimal value. Key used for encryption is not generated. Maintain the position of each character in the text requiring additional storage. Here, Author has not mentioned where the characters position details are maintained.
788 infection can harm your computer in different ways like it may restrict some functions, delete files, format your disk and automatically shutdown your system. It is required to be little conscious of spyware and adware when you surf in the Internet and download files. Malware might be hidden in the files which looks interesting. A computer virus is a program that replicates itself and its motive is to spread out. Therefore by following above four guidelines which are based upon human immune system can be used to make more secure system from viruses. Not all viruses are harmful but some viruses might cause random damage to data files. There are many viruses which behave differently from general concepts regarding viruses e.g. Trojan horse virus and Macros. A Trojan horse is not a virus because it doesn't reproduce. The Trojan horses are usually masked so that they look interesting. These viruses that steal passwords and format hard disks. Macro viruses spread from applications which use macros. These viruses spreads fast through internet because people share so much data, email documents and use the Internet to get documents. Macros are also very easy to write. Some people want to experiment how to write viruses and test their programming talent. But they do not understand about the results for other people or they simply do not bother. The mission of viruses is to move from one program to other and this can happen via floppy disks, Internet FTP sites, newsgroups and via email attachments. Viruses are mostly written for PC-computers and DOS environments. Today every user has to deal with viruses.
However in papers [12÷14] show that influence of forced by use of electromagnetic field liquid metal movement on changes in structure of pure metals, which solidify with flat crystallization front is insufficient. Effective influence of this forced convection calls for suitable, minimal concentration of admixture i.e. alloy addition or impurities in casting. In result of this influence of electromagnetic field can only strengthen refinement of pure metals structure, which is mainly created by introduction of small amount of inoculants to liquid metal.
Itskovich et al. (2004) proposed an approach to segment the coronary plaque components in ex-vivo MR images based on a clustering algorithm. The Spa- tially Enhance Cluster Analysis (SECA) was used to identify loose fibrous, fibro- cellular, lipid-rich necrotic core, thrombus and dense fibrous components. Com- bined intensities from the T1W, T2W and PWD images were used to initialize the clusters. In order to refine the clusters, the SECA performed the minimiza- tion of the chromatic variance and the discontiguity. The first aspect represents the compactness of the cluster and the second one is the rate of the pixels that are not in the same cluster as their neighboring pixels. After the clustering step, the AHA classification of the plaques was performed by experts and com- pared with those performed by histopathologists in the histological specimens. Regarding the results, the classification based on cluster-analyzed MR images shown good overall agreement with AHA lesion type classification (k=0.89) and it was better when compared to the color composite (k=0.78), T1W (k=0.29), T2W (k=0.42) and PDW images (k=0.31). In addition, the quantification of the components was performed by calculating its area as the percentage of the total plaque area. When compared to color-spacing, the clustering-analyzed