The social domain showed more mixed results, as was the case in the data of Weber et al. (2002). In one study, they found that women reported greater propensity to- wards taking social risks but in a second study this dif- ference was not significant. In a German sample, John- son et al. (2004) also did not find a sex difference in so- cial risk taking, although women did perceive such ac- tivities as providing greater benefits. It is interesting that the genders do not show consistent differences with re- spect to social risks, as they do in the other domains. Looking over the individual items, it appeared that men tended more often to describe themselves as likely to en- gage in behaviors that could be perceived as ‘defending’ ideas (e.g., “Defending an unpopular issue that you be- lieve in at a social occasion”) whereas women appeared to respond more positively than men to behaviors that in- volved social risks, but which were not phrased in this way (e.g., “Admitting that your tastes are different from those of your friends”). Indeed, men scored significantly higher on the former while women scored significantly higher on the latter question in the social domain. This suggestion is obviously tentative, however; a more fine- grained analysis of the particular risks and benefits at is- sue in “risky” social decisions is plainly needed in order to better characterize genderdifferences. What is clear is that the social domain, as assessed here, did not show homogenous gender effects, which is quite different from the other domains of risky behavior.
Our findings that females live more years with all forms of morbidity and disability suggest that females’ longer lives are not necessarily healthy ones and confirms other Asian studies which have consistently shown that females spend a greater proportion of their life expectancy lived with chronic diseases [28,30] and disability in terms of usual activities , mobility , and ADL performance [13–15,28,30,31,36]. According to Oksuzyan et al. , this phenome- non is called the female-male health-survival paradox and reasons for it are still not fully un- derstood. Multiple causes have been proposed, including hormonal, autoimmune, and genetic differences between the genders, and genderdifferencesin lifestyle factors (such as risk-taking behaviour) and health behaviours (such as help-seeking behaviour, compliance with medical treatment) might also contribute [38,39]. In the Thai context, as in some other countries, worse health in females might be partly linked to education since traditionally boys were more often favoured for schooling than girls, which is more apparent in the old age cohorts . In addition, gender gaps in IADL disability might be influenced by genderdifferencesin role ex- pectation in some activities, e.g. housework. According to the model of disablement process and the more recent ICF, disability is not inherent in a person [9,10]. Instead, it denotes a rela- tionship between personal capability and the demand of environment. Further, gender differ- ences in morbidity may be due to biases in reporting health as gender stereotypes and social roles make it culturally more acceptable for females to have and report illness and health prob- lems [38,39]. However, in our study, there is likely to be less gender bias in reporting since some measures, specifically chronic diseases and cognitive impairment, were validated by physical examination, or laboratory or screening tests.
Despite the genderdifferences identified between men and women when it comes to the coping mechanisms used to cope with stress which have been reported in various studies, there are a series of characteristics that are predominantly cultural or belong to society and which limit the generalization of the results to cultural spaces or to the type of society involved. Therefore, the previous studies were made in different cultures which makes it possible that the differences observed could have been limited to the variables of that specific cultural space, in other words: norms and social values, the expectations of the society from gender roles, the relationship between collectivism and individualism, the distance people had to power, risk avoidance (see: Copeland & Hess, 1995; Dakhli & Matta, 2013; Ward & Kennedy, 2001), variables which have a huge impact on the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of the individuals, and, obviously, on the coping strategies. Intercultural differences can be in favor of some identity dimensions, but they can also determine or activate an unexpected consensus (Gavreliuc, 2006).
The cardiovascular risk factor analysis showed that a higher anxiety score was identified in male patients who smoked, whereas the HADS-A score did not differ between women who smoked and did not smoke. Similarly, a significantly higher HADS-D score was found in those patients who were hypodynamic. Also, an association between diabetes mellitus and the HADS-D score was evident and men who had diabetes mellitus also had a significantly higher depression score, whereas female patients did not show any significant association between diabetes mellitus and emotional disorders. Although our analysis did not demonstrate any association between hypertension and mental disorders, another study listed depression as being associated with several known prognostic factors, such as a history of treatment of hypertension, diabetes, advanced Killip Class and left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less. 28 We would also
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis was to apply a risk estimation model (REVEAL study by Chen, 2007) to predict HCC development in Brazilian CHB- infected subjects and to estimate the level of risk according to Viral Load distribution. METHODS: We evaluated: gender, age, family history of HCC, prevalence of alcohol consumption, ALT, HBeAg and HBV DNA levels. Patients were from different regions of Brazil, diagnosed with CHB at the DASA in 2007. Regression coefﬁcients derived from the Cox models of Chen’s study were converted into risk scores (RS) and the predicted risks of HCC over 5 and 10 years calculated by predicted 5/10 years HCC risk 1-(1-P0) exp (RS-RS0); being: P0: Predicted probability of HCC within 5/10 years for persons with the reference-level risk score RS0 and RS: Risk score of which HCC risk to be predicted. Costs for treatment was reported by Castelo (2007). RESULTS: Of the total population (564) 64.5% were males and 62.1% were HBeAg negative. The median HBV DNA level was 1,789 and 72,924 copies/mL for HBeAg negative and positive patients, respectively. Patients male, older with high HBV DNA levels had the greatest risk of developing HCC. The mean (SD) estimated risk for 5 and 10 years in 1000 patients are 7.87 (6.82) and 18.30 (15.77), respectively. In patients older than 40 years old this risk is 27.34 (13.82) and for patients with HBV DNA levels higher than 10,000, the risk is 26.54 (15.75). The costs for treating these patients can vary from US$34,861.50 to US$50,558.70, if these patients are trans- planted these costs can be from US$639,548.40 to US$927,519.92. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the risk of HCC in the Brazilian HBV population is consider- able and may signicantly impact the health care system.
Excessive working hours—even at night—are becoming increasingly common in our mod- ern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects’ risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university stu- dents (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep dep- rivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rest- ed condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and eco- nomic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep depriva- tion alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females’ reaction to sleep depri- vation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological genderdifferences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunc- tional substrate of their decision-making.
The aviation industry had a capital investiment of US$ 680 billion in 2004, from this amount airlines industry alone account for over 55%, with US$ 380 billion (IATA, 2006). Despite this past investment, the airline industry is composed by various submarkets with some of them facing structural problems like excess capacity and airport hubs. So, the airlines is a growth industry in a long run with a central role for the economic development, but the expectancy of loss are still to high. The increase of in airline share price in 2010 may be viewed a start point of recover. A point which should be taken into consideration is that the North American and European markets are in different moment of its structure. In a post financial crisis research (Macário and Voorde, 2009) suggests that the European market undergoes a consolidation as the North American market undergoes regeneration (Macário and Voorde, 2009). The differencesin the recovery is due in Europe most airlines are being valued by reference to mid-cycle multiple while in United States is the capacity discipline (IATA, 2011).
Sex differences exist fundamentally with regard to higher age, higher dependency at admission in women and risk factors distribution as well. No substantial differencesin symptoms- -to-imaging times, access to thrombolysis or thrombectomy, or outcomes have been reported. Age should not limit acute phase treatment of stroke because decisions should be indi- vidualized. Much remains to be learned about differencesin stroke between women and men. The reasons for gender disparity are multifactorial and additional tools are needed to help implement stroke quality improvement programs and in- terventions to reduce specific gender disparities in stroke care. Further research is needed to improve stroke risk profiles and treatments for both women and men, particularly on outcomes in elderly patients and on eligibility of women for endovascular procedures.
The findings presented here have clinical and practical implications which may guide future practice such as assisting national policy makers and health services in identifying vulnerable groups. In terms of assessment and intervention strategies, the use of a validated and re- liable instrument to the assess level of suicide intent is likely to be beneficial to use in assessments in clinical practice to help guide and manage treatment strategies, and may also serve as a valuable basis to assess the fu- ture risk of the patient. Further insight into this area is the first step to understanding the meaning that these suicidal patients ascribe to their suicidal behaviour. Finally, our findings also shed some light on the gender paradox that exists in the incidence of suicide attempts and completed suicides by identifying the complex dif- ferences in suicide intent between males and females who attempt suicide. Considering the genderdifferencesin suicidal intent highlighted by the study, targeted pre- ventive interventions are warranted.
Social support system created locally and operating in three Warsaw districts aims at enhancing both recovery process and accomplishment of life goals of chronically mentally ill persons. Home care services, that are part of the community support system, are the programme speciically designed for persons who require support, frequently experience crisis in different life areas and whose attitude towards challenges of the community is usually passive. Moreover, home care services users are at risk of fre- quent and long psychiatric hospitalizations which inhibit phenomenon of “revolving doors” from ending. Therefore the results of the current study are applicable only to this group of patients.
Both genders value more the Persistency, Capacity for Action, and Dedication and Commitment, recognizing that these characteristics are fundamental for both social work, by women, and ICT by men. However, women of social work value more the Social Interaction and Dealing with People, as expected from the professional profile of this degree. In Informatics Engineering, men value the Salary, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Stability, Freedom of Action, Risk, Autonomy and Social Status. This perception is related to the area of the profession and it is not clear if gender is an influencing factor. However, the reasons women choose more Social Work and men choose more Informatics Engineering may be related to the self-perception they have and the satisfaction they expect to get from the professional career.
The group-facilitation effects reliably observed among both South Korean males and females imply that collec- tivist cultural characteristics (e.g., group pressure, group cohesion and conformity) outweigh individualist cultural characteristics (e.g., expression of personal attributes and self-determination) in South Koreans’ group decisions in- volving risk. Nonetheless, we concede that the same pattern may not always persist in a collectivist culture (i.e., South Koreans). For some domains relevant to risk, including outright group rejections and victimization of peers, gender markers (i.e., masculinity and femininity) and collectivist cultural traits (i.e., group pressure and group conformity) may interact such that the gender char- acteristics can be differentially strengthened in group sit- uations; i.e., males tend to take a more risky position, but females tend to adopt a more cautious position when involved in a group. Consistent with this view, other research findings showed that, when in groups, South Korean middle and high school male students engaged more frequently than female students in peer group- victimization and ostracism of their peers (Korean Ed- ucation Development Institute [KEDI], 1998).
A case series to study factors related to family expectation regarding schizophrenic patients was conducted in an out-patient setting in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. Patients diagnosed as presenting schizophrenia by the ICD 9th Edition and having had the disease for more than four years were included in the study. Family Expectation was measured by the difference between the Katz Adjustment Scale (R2 and R3) scores based on the relative’s expectation and the socially expected activities of the patient (Discrepancy Score), and social adjustment was given by the DSM-III-R Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Outcome assessments were made independently, and 44 patients comprised the sample (25 males and 19 females). The Discrepancy mean score was twice as high for males as for females (p < 0.02), and there was an inverse relationship between the discrepancy score and social adjustment (r =-0.46, p < 0.001). Moreover, sex and social adjustment exerted independent effects on the discrepancy score when age, age at onset and number of psychiatric admissions were controlled by means of a multiple regression technique. There was an interaction between sex and social adjustment, the inverse relationship between social adjustment and discrepancy score being more pronounced for males. These findings are discussed in the light of the potential association between the family environment, gender and social adjustment of schizophrenic patients, and the need for further research, i.e. ethnographic accounts of interactions between patient and relatives sharing households particularly in less developed countries.
discharge into water is reduced by about 60% irrespective of the type of treatment . Pure urine is sterile but there is the likelihood of cross-contamination with the use of urine separating (Ecosan) toilets . According to Jönsson et al. (2000) separated urine contains a greater part of the total nutrients in normal sewage; 80% of N, 55% of P, and 60% of K in just 1.5% of the volume of the sewage. According to Rheiberger (1936), there are comparable levels of creatine, urea and ammonia nitrogens in urine among primates such as man, mangabeys, baboons and chimpanzees. However, he identified sex differencesin creatinine nitrogen coefficients of the male mangabeys, baboons and chimpanzees to be higher than those in the female counterparts. In small cases there was reversal of the magnitude seen in the macaques species precluding an assumption as to the validity of the observation. In analysing sex differencesin urine with respect to lysine and α - amino nitrogen, the mean excretion of α - amino nitrogen whether ―total,‖ ―free,‖ or ―bound,‖ was higher for females than for males . Thus, it is possible that the higher rate of amino acid excretion observed in females might be correlated with the sexual cycle, although no evidence of this was observed in the case of the four amino acids studied by Thompson and Kirby (1949) when samples from the same subjects were taken at various stages of the menstrual cycle. The influence of sex (gender) on the level of NPK in human urine has received no attention. Therefore, there is a need to study the effect from the Ecological Sanitation (ECOSAN) perspective, especially under local conditions. This is because gender ECOSAN urinals are going to spring up with the advent of industries and ECOSAN concepts, especially in the developing countries. The use of urine in agriculture has been studied in countries such as Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Nigeria. In all these studies, the fertilizing ability of human urine was established as being comparable to that of chemical fertilizers, such as 21% N ammonia. However, in Ghana little U
Background/Aim. To examine genderdifferencesin the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9%) and 87 women (73.1%) with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical fea- tures associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder – ques- tionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Ap- praisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety In- ventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory), and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale). After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gen- der. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disor- der, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depres- sion). The women, howerer, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were sig- nificantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about so- matic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
If replicated and extended with larger samples, the findings of the present study may help to further delineate the behavioral distinctions between males and females at risk for schizophrenia, and possibly provide additional clues to the understanding of neurodevelopmental processes related to this disorder. Moreover, as it is critical for human beings to preserve the ability to express aggression in adequate circumstances, our findings also stress the need for longitudinal studies addressing the potentially deleterious consequences of this deviance to the well-being of the large proportion of at-risk boys who will never develop schizophrenia.
Furthermore, brain damage would be more likely to affect the left hemisphere still undergoing rapid maturation in the ﬁrst years of life. According to Taylor’s hypothesis age of ﬁrst seizure varies in men and women and in left and right hemisphere due to different rates of maturation between sexes and laterality. There would be biological basis for the higher vulnerability of the male brain and of the left hemisphere. Cerebral maturation would be more rapid in girls, so that boys would be at a greater risk for a
Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3 rd and 4 th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co- occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No genderdifferences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Data were presented through relative frequencies for qualitative variables, and through measures of central ten- dency for quantitative variables. Continuous variables were compared through Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. For categorized variables, Chi-square association tests were conducted for univariate analysis and generalized linear models. Multivariate analysis was assessed with binomial distribution and logit binding functions (logistic regression), using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as a criterion for model selection. Initially, the complete model (all co- variates) was considered and, through stepwise algorithm, the model with lowest AIC was reached, indicating the vari- ables which contributed significantly to the likelihood, and, consequently those that possessed an explanation factor with response variable (PAD, DPN). In the final model, the variables that presented a p-value of p<0.05 (alpha) were considered significant, estimating their chance ratio. The analyses were performed in the R environment of statistical computing, version 3.1.2.
Carskadon et al. studied adolescent sleep patterns in relation to physiological development and found that sleep time varied with gender and, in some countries, with the switch from afternoon to morning schedules among older students. Educational policies encouraging the shift from an afternoon schedule to a morning schedule should be reexamined, as they might interfere with the changing sleep-wake cycles that have been described for this puberty-adolescence age group. 8