Migration may become the most important branch of demography in the early decades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costs and benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of common concern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume, direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate of population growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training, employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportation facilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the South through remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly women) of South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy. However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as brain drain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development of natural resources, improved employment prospects, social developmentand through exposure to immigrants’ new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrant integration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and social problems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact on private investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North and South face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South’s labour or its products and exporting capital and technology from the North.
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Abstract: Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of the international migration, an age old common phenomenon is an emerging economic development issue and remittances growth. Approach: Each year Bangladesh exports huge number of labours abroad for foreign currency, called remittance. In the last four decades remittances played a major role to eradicate the poverty level in Bangladesh and it has experienced positive economic changes in Bangladesh. Now a day’s migration has been a common livelihood strategy of Bangladeshi people. Results: It contributed for the development of both sending and receiving countries as well as contributed at family level and community level. At family level, migration may improve household earnings, food, health, housing and educational standards. At the community level, improvement could be noticed in health, education, sanitation and infrastructure benefiting both migrants and non-migrant households. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to highlight and clarify the impacts on international migrationand remittances growth in Bangladesh.
Abstract Melanoblasts originating from neural crest cells can migrate through the mesenchyme of the developed embryo and give rise to melanocytes. Unlike the melanocytes that are conﬁned to the integument in other vertebrates, melanocytes in Silky Fowl can reach the ventral regions of the embryos owing to differences in gene expression in the process of melanoblasts migration. In this study, we used microarray proﬁling to identify differences in gene expression between White Leghorn and Silky Fowl. Differential expression of 2517 microarray probes (P < 0.01, Fold Change > 2) was observed in Silky Fowl compared to White Leghorn. After ﬁltration by cluster analysis, functional annotation and pathway analysis, eight differentially expressed genes were identiﬁed to be closely related to the development of melanocytes. Moreover, differences in expression of immune genes were also detected between Silky Fowl and White Leghorn. The differentially expressed genes associated with melanocyte development were veriﬁed by q-PCR, and results were highly consistent with the microarray data. The genes with signiﬁcantly altered expression involved in melanoblast migrationanddevelopment suggested that different microenvironments resulted in the abnormal melanoblast migration in Silky Fowl, although there were no big differences in melanoblast development between these two breeds. The candidate genes discovered in this study are beneﬁcial to understand the molecular mechanism of hyperpigmentation in Silky Fowl.
Another turning point, relevant for understanding migration history and dynamic, is the Portuguese entrance into the European Union (European Economic Community – CEE –, at that time) in 1986, changing the national fate with regards to economic growth, development of the service sector, infrastructure and public works for the future to come. The lack of sufficient labour force to face the expected growth and the low level of effec- tive boarders’ control turned Portugal into an attractive country for immigrants (Baganha & Góis, 1998; Padilla, 2006b; Peixoto, 2007). During the 1990s, the country experienced an ongoing arrival of immigrants from the former Portuguese African colonies (Cape Verde, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea Bissau, Santo Tome and Principe) as well as new arrivals, represented by Brazilians, Eastern Europeans (Rumanians, Ukrainians, Bulgar- ians, Russians). Later on, at the turn of the XXI Century, flows from the Asian continent (Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Nepalese) increased, intensifying even more during the last decade. At present, authors talked about the diversification of diver- sity (Hollinger, 1995) as a process taking place in Portugal (Padilla, Azevedo, & Olmos- Alcaraz, 2015).
China is far in front of the Japanese in terms of the scope of its African involvement, as well as its people-to-people exchanges, which are punctuated by a large- scale migration of over a million of its citizens to the African continent. This is unlikely to be challenged by the Japanese who are dealing with domestic economic challenges and have a demographic problem to address. China has made oil deals, invested heavily in infrastructure, offered preferential loans and strengthened cultural ties. Japan, while not necessarily reacting to China, has also emphasized investments in infrastructure, human resource development, natural resources and agriculture, just to mention a few. At a time when there is diminished interest in large-scale diplomatic gathering on development cooperation since the days of the Brandt Commission report in 1980 and the North-South dialogue, the FOCAC and TICAD conference diplomacy and organizational frameworks have become the best games in town for African leaders as they manage their relationship with two Asian powers that are important players on the global economic scene and are, in turn, embroiled in their own diplomatic rivalries. FOCAC and TICAD are concrete expressions of the shift of the development cooperation pendulum from traditional western aid donors to the rising power of China and the post reactive state foreign policy of Abe in Japan. Both states are keen to work closely with the AU and its NEPAD blueprint, while enhancing opportunities for trade and investment along a wide range of economic spheres. The fact that Africa has eager development cooperation partners who are moving the needle in new directions, particularly committing new financial resources to the continent when traditional aid flows are going through a period marked by deline augurs well for helping Africa attain its economic potential. FOCAC and TICAD need to be reformed and given more institutional structure and greater transparency in terms of the level of African input so that ownership and partnership take on more practical shape rather than as mere rhetorical or normative expressions. As well, with the adoption of Agenda 2063, subsequent FOCAC and TICAD sessions should incorporate key priorities, objectives and timelines established by African states to underscore the importance of African agency in development cooperation.
determine institutional form” as Rodrik points out, offering the example of the Chinese and Russian experiences of the mid-1990s (Rodrik, 2006: 979). The institutional form of Western-style property rights prevailing in Russia should have made, on a prima facie basis, investment inflows therein much more sizeable than in China, where its public ownership system was based on townships and villages. However, what happened was the reverse, most likely on account of investors’ preferring to deal with perhaps less profitable but more secure realities in China than with the uncertainties deriving from poorly protected property rights in Russia, at the complete discretion of untrustworthy local courts (Rodrik, 2006: 979). One should also remember that China started its rapid growth rates in the late 1970s without any changes in property rights or in the trading system and that India’s “transition to high growth in the early 1980s was preceded (or accompanied) by no identifiable institutional changes”; this, together with other national experiences, would seem to point to the limitations of an approach that requires that institutional reforms come temporally before everything else (Rodrik, 2006: 980). This is clearly part of the even broader issue of getting right the “sequencing” of policies, a challenge found in all growth anddevelopment strategies, meeting which is leading to an emerging consensus toward the need to experiment and be ready to change course rapidly (Spence, 2011) 55 .
evant to vascular development (fibronectin (FN), collagens, laminins, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, thrombospondin, osteo- pontin, fibrinogen, entactin/nidogen), inte- grins also mediate intracellular signalling events involving various protein kinases, small GTPases, etc. (24-28) and these in turn control aspects of cytoskeletal organization and cell motility (29-31), and also regulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis and gene expression (32,33). Therefore, integrins oc- cupy a central position in any consideration of vascular development; they are regulated by growth factors known to control the pro- cess, they mediate exactly those cell biologi- cal processes (adhesion, migration, prolif- eration, survival and differentiation) needed to organize a vasculature and they are ex- pressed by the cells involved (endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells). There is, in fact, a large and growing body of evidence implicating various integrins and integrin ligands in vascular development (23,34-36). However, it is not clear exactly which integrins are the most important nor exactly what each of them does. In this brief article, we will review the relevant results (Table 1) and discuss the many unresolved questions.
ceiving households have a higher propensity to invest than non-migrant house- holds (Rapoport & Docquier, 2005, pp. 70-74; Massey et al., 1998, pp. 260-261). It is also generally not easy to distinguish between the different sources of house- hold income for specific expenditures (De Haas, 2007, p. 14). Remittances which are used for consumption may have the side effect to free other income sources for investment. The usage of remittances also seems to change over time. While in the beginning remittances are mostly used for the payment of basic needs, investments occur in most cases later. It often takes time until remittances begin to flow, since migrants need time to establish themselves in the new environ- ment and find relatively secure employment (De Haas, 2007, p. 15; Lindley, 2006, p. 16). Investments also depend on more general investment conditions. Often the same conditions which promote migration generally discourage investment. Migrationand remittances alone cannot remove these structural constraints to economic growth (Massey et al., 1998, p. 255; Faist, 2011, p. 11). The lack of in- frastructure, access to markets and agricultural resources, may lead migrants to invest in other places, mainly in urban or semi-urban centres (De Haas, 2006, pp. 574-576).
A different level of heterogeneity is reflected in the subjects of globalization. The case in point is multiculturalism and the problem of territories in many Western countries. Multi-culturalism in coun- tries like Australia, Canada, the U.S., and others has replaced the ethno-national assimilation policy with the «melting pot» policy. The melting pot was oriented to the formation of a homogeneous so- ciety out of different ethnic communities. Therefore, multi- culturalism can be considered an alternative to integration processes. The intentions of some Western and other countries’ regions to func- tion more independently and even autonomously only confirm this. Scotland may serve as an example, being a part of Great Britain and looking for ways to enter European Union structures independ- ently 10 . In this context, R. Robertson is absolutely correct in saying
With regards to the tendency to return to the villages, a greater difference can be observed after 10 years. This situation suggests that the age factor may have an effect on the tendency of individuals to return to their village. In fact, the tendency of the middle age group to return to the village is significantly higher than for both the younger and older groups. While the tendency to return to the villages by the younger group shows an increase after 10 years, this tendency gains greater importance for the middle and older age than within 10 years. At the same time, another factor that has significant effect on the tendency of city people to move back to the villages is the education level. From this point of view, the tendency of elementary school graduates is greater than that of middle and high school graduates. On the other hand, no significant relationship could be found between the tendency of returning back to the village and the income level.
performed a double labelling experiment for Calbindin and CNPase (Fig. S1A,B). We found a substantial amount of Calbindin staining colocalized with CNPase in both WT and KO cerebellum (Fig. S1C,D). These results suggest that the ectopically located Purkinje cells in KO mice still send myelinated axons to their targets in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Next, we studied granule cell migration using GFAP-labeled radial glia cells. In WT mice, Pax6 positive granule cells migrate along the radial glia fibers which extend to the apical surface. In KO mice, the radial glia scaffolds were not well aligned resulting in disrupted granule cell migration (Fig. 2K,L). Meanwhile, it has been demonstrated that the decrease in the number of granule cells may affect the location of Purkinje cells and the development of their dendritic trees . To better understand whether there are difference in the number of granule cells and Purkinje cells in this CXCR4 KO model, we used thinner section (20 m m) for cell counting. The result show there is a significant lower density of granule cells in the KO cerebella (p = 0.001, n = 6) (Fig. 3A,B,E). However there is no significant difference in the number of Purkinje cells between KO and WT (p = 0.35, n = 6) (Fig. 3C,D,F).
Living condition means are very close for first three groups, while lower and middle income anddevelopment countries incidence in the last cluster puts its expectancy life at birth mean down as a consequence of starvation, illness, lack of freshwater and generalized poor standards of living. Social indicators may be considered good markers since they catch the variances among groups with the exception of workers’ remittances that show very close means. Cluster 2 presents the highest level of CO2 emissions and is a good performer on the environment dimension. The two groups of leaders devote similar attention to environment preservation, and fall behind the marginalized group on percentage of land covered by forest. The interest in the protection of threatened marine and national areas seems not to be useful in distinguishing the clusters.
Caldero´n and Poggio  examined the structural factors that may have impact on growth effect of trade openness. The growth benefits of rising trade openness are conditional on the level of progress in structural areas including education, innovation, infrastructure, institutions, the regulatory framework, and financial development. Indeed, they found that the lack of progress in these areas could restrict the potential benefits of trade openness. Chang et al.  found that the growth effects of openness may be significantly improved when the investment in human capital is stronger, financial markets are deeper, price inflation is lower, and public infrastructure is more readily available. Gu and Dong  emphasized that the harmful or useful growth effect of financial globalization heavily depends on the level of financial development of economies. In fact, if financial openness happens without any improvement in the financial system of countries, growth will replace by volatility.
Our panel sample includes 10 countries and 36 years. There are more time (years) than cross-sample units (countries). In this framework the use of an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is more appropriate. The ARDL model has several advantages, namely: (i) it allows dealing with both stationary and non-stationary series, provided that its integration order is not higher than one; (ii) when compared to the Johansen and Juselius cointegration technique, the ARDL approach ensures more consistent estimates in the case of small samples; (iii) the asymptotic theory developed in the ARDL bounds test approach is not affected by the inclusion of “one-zero” dummy variables; and (iv) given that it is free of residual correlation, the ARDL method can handle the eventual phenomenon of endogeneity among variables (e.g. Marques et al., 2016; Fuinhas & Marques, 2012; Pesaran et al., 2001). Moreover, this estimator is constructed under the assumption of heterogeneity of the short-run coefficients and homogeneity of the long-run slope coefficients (Pesaran et al., 1999).
These qualifications do not mean that emigration and remittances do not have an important role to play in emigrant sending countries, including many of Central and Eastern Europe. International migration will keep a strong pace in the European continent in the future, as a net receiver from other world countries and through internal European exchanges, either within the framework of EU or not. This is still more important when it is projected that, in 2050, Europe will register a pronounced ageing of its population, continuing to decrease its relative demographic weight in global terms. Therefore, sending and receiving countries are beginning to realize that the volume of resources currently being channelled through immigrant communities will continue to grow, and that public policies must be jointly developed to increase the development impact of remittances generated by migratory movements.
In examining the implications of globalization for education, how can progressive scholars take advantage of transformative social justice learning as a methodology and theory of social transformation? Let me be bold: one may argue that this model of transformative social justice learning is a social construct, which becomes marginal in the context of contemporary social politics. Indeed, those who practice this approach are, by definition, marginal to the overall dynamics of political struggle, and to the processes of institutional development, in academia and elsewhere. Politically, one may need to understand that marginality is not being an outsider, but it constitutes a form of insertion in the context of the global debate and struggle for social justice. The notion of marginality became; thus, a central notion to pursue transformative social justice learning. Progressive scholars pursue this approach even if we know that we are marginal to the central concepts and practices of the liberal and conservative establishments, which seem to be, in education at least, poised to emphasize the need to improve cognitive learning through the movement of testing, or accountability in schools.
Unlike TD, which can be seen as a development strat- egy imposed by external actors on local people, the recent importance scholars have given to territory is linked to its use by the local protagonists of social change (or indeed de- velopment) themselves. Land titling has long been a major strategy in the struggle and resistance against external on- slaught exercised by either the state, the public sector or de- velopment agencies. Escobar (2008) and Offen (2003) were two of the first scholars to point out the switch to a territo- rial strategy in Latin America during the 1990s. The emerg- ing territorial discourse of indigenous movements includes not only the idea of land re-appropriation, but also those of the control of land (terra), boundary fixing and the constitu- tion of new forms of governance. It went along with evinc- ing “the development of spatial consciousness among move- ment activists” (Escobar, 2008:62) and the (re)construction of a “place-based identity, linking history, culture, environ- ment and social life”. Social movements’ territories can thus be considered the “embodiment of the life project of a com- munity” (Escobar, 2008:59). It is in this sense that territory should be essential to emancipation from Western modernity and the process of alternative identity (re)construction, inter- rupting the One-World project of Occidental modernity (Es- cobar, lecture in Grenoble, France, 11 June 2013). The fact that territory is mobilized here as a political strategy for the defense of the right to another vision of the world can only be understood in relation to the external “context that rewards such modes of political articulation” (Offen, 2003:66). Such territories might then be conceived as “emerging extra-state identity communities” (Murphy, 2010:771) or as part of the “specialized assemblages of territory, authority and rights” that are discussed by Sassen (2006). According to the au- thor, such assemblages appear and multiply at sub-national and supranational scales due to the “privatization of the ca- pacity to produce norms” in times of globalization (Sassen, 2006:372).