In Russia, the Triple Helix is still being at a very early stage of formation — not yet a system, but mostly pairwise relationships, such as: science — busi- ness, the state — science and the state — business. The specificity of the Russian Triple Helix model consists, inthe first place, inthe supremacy of the state over science and business. Secondly, unlike most countries of the world, Russia does not trust most of the fundamental research to universities, but delegates it to the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences . The intensity of research and development (R & D), is measured by the ratio of R & D expenditure to GDP. In Europe, there is a direct dependence between economic growth and the size of national and regional resources allocated to research and development . In 2010, total R & D expenditure inthe EU-27 states was an average of 2 % of GDP, below the target of 3 % set by the 2010 recommendations of the Lisbon Strategy for the EU . Among the EU countries only Finland (3.87 %), Sweden (3.42 %) and Denmark (3.06 %) exceed the 3 % of GDP . In per capita terms, these states fall behind Lux- embourg. It is important to note that Finland and Denmark still are still showing growth, while Sweden has been in decline for 5 years now. Ger- many spends 2.82 % of GDP on research and development, which is lower than that of the Nordic countries, but higher than the average inthe EU and the U. S.
Following the propositions put forward by the VASAB programme, the European Union is creating a research-based transportation system that would go through most of the territories of the EU with the access to theBalticSea. Norway also coordinates its transport development policy with the EU. Taking into account the geographical location of the Russian and Belorussian Baltic territories and with the understanding that efficient functioning of the transport system of those regions is only possible in close cooperation with the transport systems of other countries, it is only logical to include those areas into the united Baltic TTS. However, Russian and Belorussian federal subjects that are linked to the BTTS do not fully coordinate their transport policies with the development strategy of the EU. The lack of common rules and norms in transportation, and the lack of a coordinated policy of strategic spatial planning, as well as underdeveloped measures of overseeing and control of the regional transportation do not allow us to confirm the full integration of Russian and Belorussian regions into the BTTS.
Closer cooperation of Russian scholars with international colleagues intheBalticregion studies requires stronger ties between research institutions and editorial boards of international journals, the improvement of existing Russian journals on regional problems and the establishment of new ones, their further inclusion in international abstract and citation databases, active participation of Russian scholars in international conferences and package measures aimed at improving the command of the English language. EU cross-border cooperation programmes can serve an efficient tool for activat- ing joint research on theBalticSearegion among scholars from the Scandi- navian countries, Germany, Poland and theBaltic states. Other tools can in- clude the development of research cooperation with the Council of theBalticSea States, participation in research and education projects, and preparation of new ones.
External political factors. After the steep economic recession of 1998— 1999 (which severely affected the industry of theregion; a decrease in pro- duction was much more significant than the national average), an economic upturn commenced in 1999 (fig). The 1996 federal law "On the special eco- nomic zone inthe Kaliningrad region" had a boosting effect, which became particularly apparent during the first stage of the economic upturn (1999— 2005) . The law provided an opportunity for duty free import of raw ma- terials and semi-finished goods into the Kaliningrad region, as well as duty free export of finished goods manufactured from these raw materials if the VAT generated in regional enterprises was not less than 30 % (or 15 % for
ship speed. The study focuses on a test regioninthe north- ern Bothnian Sea (62.8–63.6 ◦ N and 19.8–21.0 ◦ E, Fig. 1), which is regularly passed by ships and known for its severe ice conditions. Theregion is located south of the so-called Kvark Strait (Green et al., 2006), a narrow passage with lit- tle space to circumnavigate problematic areas. The mean ice drift inthe test region is generally directed towards the north- east (Fig. 2), but, inthe presence of high ice concentrations inthe Bothnian Bay, the northward flow is limited (or even blocked). As the ice concentrations inthe Bothnian Bay de- crease, e.g. in March and April, the transport through Kvark Strait accelerates. Still, the narrowness of the passage leads to an accumulation of sea ice inthe test region. This accumu- lation of sea ice makes it impossible for ships to fully avoid severe ice conditions and makes theregion particularly in- teresting as a test region. The corresponding ship speed ob- servations are obtained by the automatic identification sys- tem (AIS). While the AIS comprises an unavoidable random component (e.g., ship captains might reduce speed due to reasons not related to sea ice), this large-scale comprehen- sive data set is available for research purposes without any extra costs. Due to the large amount of ships which have a tight schedule and aim to keep a relatively constant high speed, we anticipate that the noise might well be on a rel- atively low level and test the applicability of AIS-derived ship speeds for the evaluation of sea ice fore- and nowcasts. We explore to what extent observed ship speeds can be re- constructed based on the forecasted ice properties by fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical model resembles a mul-
Information about climatological changes in wave param- eters in this area is controversial. A popular opinion inthe 1980s–1990s was that the wave climate was becoming grad- ually more severe following the seemingly increasing stormi- ness (Alexandersson et al., 1998). This view was qualita- tively supported by the National Centres for Environmen- tal Prediction and for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis that revealed a significant increase inthe annual mean wind speed at 850 hPa over theBalticin 1953–1999 (Pryor and Barthelmie, 2003). The increase was most pro- nounced inthe upper quartile of wind speeds and inthe SW of theregion. A clear increase was also noticed inthe higher percentiles of wind speeds at the 10 m level (Pryor et al., 2005). Such an increase generally leads to a larger propor- tion of high waves. Somewhat surprisingly, it did not be- come evident inthe wave fields intheBalticSea and was also not recognized inthe adjacent North Sea (WASA Group, 1995, 1998). At some places even a long-term decrease inthe frequency of severe wave conditions was found (Weisse and G¨unther, 2007).
International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organization of economyinthe process of globalisation, which has be- come a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of theBaltic re- gion. This phenomenon requires a compre- hensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. The aim of this article is to identify structured international clusters intheBalticregion and to map out corre- sponding regions. The obtained results will enable us to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters, which already exist and are emerging intheregion. It will also make it possible to put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article showcases the processes of trans- boundary and transnational regionalisation intheBalticregion countries, which are aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps out organised interna- tional clusters and cluster initiatives intheBalticSearegion countries. International clusters of theBalticregion are characterised in compliance with the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the or- ganisational type of formation, and speciali- sation areas. The author speculates about the degree of involvement of Russian regions inthe processes of international cluster coop- eration inthe macroregion.
Ukraine, and Belarus leading to the interruption in energy supply exacer- bated and politicized the problem of energy security for the EU. Today the voices claiming that the dependence of the EU on Russian energy is too heavy and, therefore, it is necessary to diversify supply and ensure its stabil- ity and security, are growing louder. These concerns were reflected inthe EU strategy for theBalticSearegion approved at the meeting of the EU leaders in Brussels on October 30, 2009. It says that the energy markets of theregion lack proper infrastructure and are too concentrated on national needs instead of establishing connections within theregion. It generates seri- ous risks in terms of energy supply and leads to high energy prices. Further- more, an efficient functioning of internal energy markets requires a certain connection between the countries. However, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are still isolated from the more extensive EU energy network (an exception is the EstLink cable between Estonia and Finland) . Unofficially, it is openly discussed that the Baltics are too heavily dependent on Russia in terms of power and energy, which can be used by Russia as a tool to exert political pressure on these countries.
The analysis is carried out by constructing a meso-scale model framework based on an atmospheric transport model covering the study region with high resolutions in both space and time. The model includes a new spatial pCO 2 climatology developed espe- cially for the investigated marine area, as existing climatologies do not cover this area. The advantages of the present study are that the same and consistent method is ap-
This article considers theBaltic-Pon- tic Searegion not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc.) but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian) civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of theBaltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Inter- marium, the authors advance an alterna- tive structure-focused model of theBaltic- Pontic system (BPS) as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interac- tions, which include cooperation. The au- thors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical de- velopments inthe area from the late 14 th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geo- chronopolitical characteristics of the re- gion, as well as the models of intercivilisa- tional interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of theregion and its ability to play an independent role inthe world politics.
Russia-EU energy relations is often re- duced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. This cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, and Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instable legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia- EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it of- fers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the Russia-EU legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of reg- ulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation intheBalticSearegion can become a locomotive of the Russia-EU en- ergy efficiency cooperation, and, as a re- sult, strengthen relations between the part- ners.
This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emer- gencies. Nevertheless, many countries — in- cluding the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong in- terest in development, generation, and appli- cation of nuclear power. IntheBaltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Rus- sia — the principal supplier of energy carri- ers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of con- structing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP.
5. Borisov, K. G. 1988, Mehanizm pravovogo regulirovanija processa interna- cionalizacii mnogostoronnih nauchno-tehnicheskih svjazej v sovremennoj vseob- shhej sisteme gosudarstv [The mechanism of legal regulation of the internationaliza- tion process of multilateral scientific and technical relations inthe modern system of universal], Moscow.
TheBaltic macroregion is characterised by the constructive dialectics of unity and diversity. On the one hand, theBalticSea forms natural prerequi- sites for communicative unity. On the other hand, two geographical super- structures divide the macroregion into the northern and southern parts (theBaltic Shield and theBaltic Ridge), determining the differences in terrain, climate and soil conditions, which, in its turn, apparently affects the features of communication inthe north and inthe south of theBaltic area and ac- counts for the differences inthe economic and social parameters of devel- opment of the northern and southern territories. In this relation, it is of inter- est to analyse the indices of development of theBaltic maritime territories not on the basis of the economic (market, transitional) model, i. e. from the perspective of the west-east gradient, but in terms of the geographical mac- rostructure criterion (north — south).
This article presents the findings of the study on the role of innovative entrepreneurship inthe regional economy. The analysis is based on the methodology developed by Hermann Simon, a German scientist who has coined the term ”hidden champions” describing the phenomenon of little-known successful companies that act as innovative growth engines inthe German economy. Today, the economies in different countries are develop- ing amid the ”new normal,” in which no expected recovery followed the global crisis of 2008. This makes it nec- essary to rethink the role of entrepreneurship during a prolonged recession. The authors proposed and tested the hypothesis that, in this environment, the economic growth inthe country and theregion is increasingly de- termined not so much by large businesses, but by many small innovative companies. To identify Russian ”hid- den champions,” we studied more than 1247 companies listed inthe Innovation and Investment Market, a spe- cialized section of the Moscow Exchange, and included inthe specialized Register of Business Entities that use nanotechnology. We identified specifically Russian features of innovative entrepreneurship related to national cultural and historical characteristics and the current policy of import substitution. The authors proposed their own method for assessing theinnovative entrepreneurship as a source of economic growth inthe Russian re- gions that defines five groups of innovative entrepreneurs (global market leader, one of the global market lead- ers, Russian market leader, one of the Russian market leaders, not the leader inthe Russian market) and com- pares them with large companies in terms of turnover and profit dynamics. Based on such criteria as ”number of ”hidden champions” and ”number of large enterprises per 100 thousand organizations,” we built a model for the ratio of ”hidden champions” to major companies inthe Russian regions that identifies, for each criterion, three subgroups, including leaders, medium-tier and outsiders, which allowed to identify nine types of Russian regions and substantiate different development strategies for main types of regions. The study confirms that the most justified strategy for the development of innovative entrepreneurship intheregion is the strategy of coop- eration between different types of companies in order to overcome their weaknesses, enhance existing opportu- nities and activate the innovation and entrepreneurial capacity.
Having a considerable and fast growing innovation potential, theBalticSearegion is of great interest for Russia and the EU, developing cooperation inthe fields of manufacturing and the introduction of innovations. In connection with this,particular scientific research works, aimed at determining possibilities and areas of cooperation, are gaining importance. The setting up of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University at the beginning of 2011 on the basis of the Immanuel Kant State University of Russia (before 2005 — Kaliningrad State University) provides additional possibilities for doing research and putting its results to practice.
Nowadays, almost the entire Balticregion is involved inthe European inte- gration process. Only Russia’s territories remain an exception. However, this re- gion did not form the original core of European integration: Denmark joined the European Communities only in 1973; the Federal Republic of Germany, which had a restricted access to theBalticSea, expanded its territory inthe result of the 1990 German reunification; Sweden and Finland became members of the Euro- pean Union in 1995; Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia joined the EU in 2004. In this respect, it is of special interest to observe how the top-down formal inte- gration inthe EU is backed up by the bot- tom-up integration intheBalticregion, with corporate integration being a vivid example. Global experience shows that foreign direct investments of Trans-Na- tional Corporations (TNC) can create a basis for long-term stability of formal in- tegration projects.
Anxiety increased with the increasing number of articles and statements made by Russian politicians and journalists holding no official positions inthe government. In April 2015, R. Ishchenko, a former Ukrainian official and journalist working at the time in Russian mass media, called for Russia to deliver the first strike against the Baltics. “A preventive strike to eliminate theBaltic foothold, Ishchenko wrote, can be necessary from the military point of view not because someone is expecting an assault from that direc- tion, but to reduce the length of front-line (be it a virtual one), secure a land corridor to the blocked Kaliningrad grouping and liberate the troops that can be engaged on other, more important territories”. He also predicted the re- sults of such actions: “Given technical preservation of status quo, in effect, the Baltics will be ruled by pro-Russian forces, the Baltics foreign policy will be formulated in Smolenskaya square, and Russian position in negotia- tions with the West will be strengthened”.  Then there were speeches given by the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vladimir Zhi- rinovsky, who demanded that, after Crimea, Russia has to reclaim all territo- ries that were part of the Russian Empire in 1917 or, at least, those that were part of the country as of January 1, 1991. He also declared the independence of Poland and Finland illegitimate. 
TheBalticregion is published both in Russian and in English. In 2010, it was included inthe list of Russian journals recommended by the Higher At- testation Commission, a national advanced degree awarding organization. Inthe beginning of 2015, the journal became part of the Core Collection (Emerging sources citation index) of the Web of Science system.
Norway takes part in several international cluster formations. The country pays special attention to the development of theinnovative compo- nent of theeconomy. Among the organisations working in this field, one can mention the Research Council of Norway, Innovation Norway, and thein- dustrial development corporation of Norway — SIVA. A programme for the creation of a network of centres for research-based innovation (CRI) has been implemented since 2006 with the purpose of increasing the efficiency of innovation commercialisation. Another national programme is aimed at creating Norwegian centres of expertise (NCE). A number of seed funds — both private and state-financed — have been established inthe country .