the needs for being aware of organization's strengths and weaknesses and continuous improvement of productivity. Therefore, today one ofthe major concerns of organizations is achieving a comprehensive, flexible and trustworthy performance management method relying on that they can get adequate information about their current position and having a look at the future, they can learn a great deal from the past mistakes. Reaching the goals depend onthe ability of staff in doing their duty. Hence, improving performance and the staff is an undeniable need for organizations and performance management is a tool to reach this goal. Performance management is an approach trying to create empathy between the staff and the supervisors by making a fair system of evaluating the staff's performance, establishing systems of benefits and rewards based onperformance, through which it can align the staff's goals with the organization's and enhance productivity.If performance management with its requirements implemented in an organization, it can identify some ofthe problems and provide practical solutions for them. It has holistic view of people's and organization's performance and creates synergy between theperformanceof individuals and organizations using certain mechanisms. Performance management is a traditional and classic approach in the theory of organizations. Despite importance and necessity ofperformance management in productivity of an organization, the results of many studies reveal that performance management failed to reach this goal. What disabled it in enhancing productivity is lack of emphasis on improving the staff.Strategic performance management is a comprehensive and long-term approach that tries to guarantee profitability and long-term survival by
In order to improve theorganizationalperformance, strategies in the human resources are among the elements taken into consideration. On this basis, the present research is aimed at studying the role of human resources strategies in theorganizationalperformanceof Barij Essence Kashan Pharmaceutical Company. In terms of goal, the present research is descriptive- correlative and in terms of data collection, the survey method has been used. The main means of research data collection has been questionnaires and the validity and consistency tests have been carried out onthe questionnaires. The statistical population is consisted of managers, directors, and experts ofthe Barij Essence Kashan Pharmaceutical Company during the winter of 2013-2014. Simple random sampling method has been used in the research and the number of people in the statistical population is 48. In research data collection, both library and field (questionnaire) methods have been used. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the multivariate regression have been employed in analysis ofthe data. By verifying the examined hypothesis, the findings ofthe research reveal that the human resources strategies generally influence ontheorganizationalperformance in five groups of absorption and employment strategy, human resources development strategy, performance management strategy, service compensation strategy, and employees’ relations strategy.
During the past few years, there have been tremendous changes on banking services and many bank customers are able to do their daily banking activities using recent advances of technology such as internet banking, telephone banking, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation ontheeffectsofstrategic positioning for development of modern banking services. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some 385 randomly selected people who live in Tehran in 2013. The questionnaire consists of seven factors including property positioning, advantage positioning, consumer positioning, user positioning, competitive advantage positioning, quality positioning and merchandise category positioning. Using Spearman correlation as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between different components of strategy positioning development of modern banking services.
In contrast, Hall (2004) advocates that theorganizational structure is what deines the strategy. The author contradicts the concept ofthe classical approach proposed by Whittington (2002) based onthe understanding that, in most cases, individuals involved in thestrategicplanning process comprise the high organization’s senior management. Thus, individuals who are in power from the coniguration ofthe structure are who formulate the strategies. In this case, it is important to emphasize the possible ways to compose the team ofstrategic formulation according to the methodology by Pereira (2010), namely: top-down, botton-up and mixed. Especially in the irst way to compose the team, the conception by Hall (2004) makes perfect sense. Based onthe principle that the structure determines the hierarchical levels, the decision-making level and where and which strategic activities are exercised, the structure has a direct impact onorganizational strategies.
customer and attention to his perception of beauty, and thereby attempting to manufacture versatile products according to his/her taste, are mandatory for the survival ofthe company. Considering the fact that the quality perceived from the brand for products which are merely practical or merely luxurious is different from those enjoying both aspects at the same time, we should pay more profound attention in applying the above-mentioned strategy. Generally, we suggest that manufacturers pay special attention to the taste and social position of customers and customize their products in accordance with their demands. It is also suggested that target markets be divided into different categories and customers be studied at different levels and in different groups; thus, the various methods applied for attracting customers’ attention should be adjusted and each group should be treated according to their specific common features. Using market concentration strategies, and at the same time introducing various and versatile designs to specific markets, would be more beneficial and economical to this industry. We suggest other researchers to study brand value creation approaches and branding factors in other manufacturing and service industries and present a localized model conforming to the cultural needs of each society, since culture is considered as one ofthe most influential factors in customers and consumers’ criteria for choosing a specific product or service. 6. Acknowledgement
Over the last several decades, research regarding IT/IS value creation for businesses has been intensifying (MARABELLI; GALLIERS, 2017; MELVILLE; KRAEMER; GURBAXANI, 2004; MERALI; PAPADOPOULOS; NADKARNI, 2012). An effective use of IT/IS in the business strategy was highlighted as one ofthe most important factors for CIOs and CEOs (JOHNSON; LEDERER, 2013; PHILIP, 2007). Studies have shown that SIS supports business strategy process and content, improving competitive advantage and organizationalperformance, even in highly competitive environments (CHEN, Y. et al., 2014; MERALI; PAPADOPOULOS; NADKARNI, 2012; TEUBNER, 2013). SIS is defined as a portfolio of IT/IS applications that collect, process, analyze and make data/ information available for decision making (O’BRIEN; MARAKAS, 2007; SABHERWAL; CHAN, 2001), and it exists within business strategy process and content in order to achieve business objectives.
Organizational, personnel and financial management as well as quality management do not exist adequately, if at all. Decision- making procedures follow person-oriented objectives. Very often, weal and woe oftheperformance depends on individual persons, who try to keep and strengthen their individual position. A phenomenon, which occurs on all levels, but shows extremely negative consequences at the local level, is the hesitation of many persons at responsible positions to really take on their responsibilities. Measures are not implemented, because the respective person in charge is not willing to cut the necessary decision and this means to take also the responsibility for failures. This hesitation is caused by little competence to prepare a decision properly and by a decade- long behavior that an official position serves first of all personal interests, what usually excludes the responsibilities for difficult decisions.
where N is the population size, p 1 q represents the yes/no categories, z / 2 is CDF of normal distribution and finally is the error term. Since we have p 0 . 5 , z / 2 1 . 96 and N=460, the number of sample size is calculated as n=210. We have applied Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and the results have indicated that the data were normally distributed. Therefore, we use parametric test to verify the hypotheses ofthe survey.
We have less of an understanding of how a lack of valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable resources (VRIN) can leave companies at a disadvantage in terms of competition, leading to a declining performance. A set of studies extending the RBV (a view based on knowledge and capacity) could aid future research. These studies may provide implications for studies of decline. For example, they could consider the TMT as a strategic resource (Hoskisson, Hitt, Wan, & Yiu, 1999), whose impact is manifested in the allocation of resources (Hambrick & Mason, 1984), which could prevent decline and lead companies down the path to restructuring (Pandit, 2000). Some studies onorganizational success highlight the role ofthe leaders and cognitive behavior ofthe management in relation to performance (e.g., Hambrick & D’Aveni, 1988; Hambrick & Mason, 1984). There are a growing body of studies considering the influence ofthe board during crises (e.g., Dowell, Schakell, & Stuart, 2011).
explain the organization in negative terms to outsiders thereby inhibiting the organization’s ability to recruit high-quality employees (Mowday et al., 1982). In the recent years, theeffectsoforganizational psychological and employees’ behavioral issues such as organizational commitment and the influence oforganizational commitment onthe employee job performance have been considered. Many organizations try to provide appropriate solutions to create the desirable optimal environments to increase job satisfaction, commitment to the profession and employee's job performance. The study of employee’s job performance and organizational commitment plays essential role for top-level management ofthe organizations. Somers and Birnbaum (1998) studied the relationship of career commitment to performance effectiveness and reported a positive relationship between these two factors. Jackofsky (1984) reported that low commitment was leading to high rate of turnover, whereas higher the level of job satisfaction through job security may entail high level oforganizational commitment which further leads to improved employees job performance. Job performance has been defined as work performance in terms of quantity and quality expected from each employee (business dictionary).
Jones (2004) says that companies must constantly change or develop a way to use existing resources and capabilities to enhance the ability to create value and to develop its effectiveness. The amendment is intended to find improved performance. Performance is meant here is not theperformance in the narrow sense that only limited to financial gain. Indeed, the advantage of course have to be hunted, because without profit companies will not be able to survive, but the goal ofthe company from a strategic management perspective is intended to Obtain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage and Achieve superior performance. At first it only financial criteria used to assess whether or not the superior performanceof a company. Performance serves as an instrument to determine whether the company has the ability to going concern, as well as a basis for formulating operational planning company in the future and for the information of shareholders, stakeholders, customers, regarding the achievements and success ofthe company. There are many approaches, in defining theperformance, according to Mulyadi (2007: 337). Performance is the success of personnel, team, or organizational unit in achieving thestrategic objectives that have been set previously with the expected behavior. Mulyadi, also explained that the successful achievement ofstrategic objectives needs to be measured. That is why thestrategic objectives that form the basis ofperformance measurement is necessary to determine its size, and determined initiative to realize thestrategic objectives of an organization tersebut.Tercapainya purposes only possible because ofthe efforts ofthe actors that exist in the organization. Prawirosentono (2000), defines performance as: "The work that is accomplished by a person or group in an organization within a certain time, in accordance with the authority and responsibilities of each, in an effort to achieve the goals ofthe organization in question legally, do not violate the law and in accordance with moral and ethical. In the related literature, there are two approaches to measuring the company's performance advantage (Supratikno et.al, 2005).
Another way, the concept ofperformance has been expressed by Brumbrach (1988) as follows: performance means both behaviors and results. Behaviors emanate from the performer and transform performance from abstraction to action. Not just the instruments for results, behaviors are also outcomes in their own right – the product of mental and physical effort applied to tasks – and can be judged apart from results. This definition ofperformance leads to the conclusion that when managing performance both inputs (behavior) and outputs (results) need to be considered. It is not a question of simply considering the achievement of targets, as used to happen in ‘management by objectives’ schemes. Competency factors need to be included in the process (Armstrong, 2006). In short, a theory ofperformance is necessary to determine: relevant dimensions ofperformance, performance standards or expectations related to performance levels, restrictions on how the situation should be measured when assessing performance, the number ofperformance levels or gradient and the extent to which performance should be based upon absolute vs. relative comparison standards (Boxall, Purcell and Wright, 2007).
In the current competitive environment, managers do their best to convert organizations under their supervision into competitive and responsive through creating capability of timely delivery of quality products and services. In the other word, they try to create value for their customers, which yield more profitability for stakeholders. In line with this, determining of inter- organizational factors and the relationships among these variables and supply chain performance plays an important role in achieving these objectives. The relationship modeling is a type of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, which requires applying experts to determine the relationships. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is an MCDM tool, which not only can convert the relationships among cause and effect criteria into a visual structural framework, but also it can be used as a technique to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. This paper proposes an effective solution based on DEMATEL approach to help managers evaluate the relationships between inter- organizational factors and supply chain performance.
Delphi method requires the existence of an expert group (around 10-20 people), who through systematic consultation, express their views onthe future of an organization and implicitly onthe staffing needs based on structured anonymous questionnaires. The expert group very well knows the activity of an organization, and it also has extensive knowledge in the field of human resources. Usually, after a session of 3-5 inquiries, they reach a consensus, a single trend is crystallized, a time when the process of activity forecasting and staffing can be completed.
According to Yates et al. (1998), runaway street youth are at bigger risk for several medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide and depression, prostitution, and drug use. Feitel et al. (1992) performed an empirical investigation on psychosocial background and behavioral and emotional disorders of homeless and runaway youth. Kennedy (1991) identified different indicators associated with behavioral and environmental variables, which could help in the development of intervention and prevention strategies for this population.
Taking the above into consideration, for investigations the following alloys were selected: a hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin which was “enriched” with additions of ~3%Cu, ~1,5%Ni and ~1,5%Mg (added separately or jointly). A compilation ofthe examined silumins is given in Table 1.
Surface of C120 steel after arc plasma treatment showed tracks have multizone microstructure composed ofthe remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate, which can have diversified microhardness. Structure (particularly precipitation of martensite, bainite retained austenite and secondary cementite) in the remelted zone is dependent onthe arc plasma treatment parameters. The cooling rate obtained during the treatment by arc plasma ofthe steels is compared to the cooling rate ofthe steels during conventional heat treatment. This cooling rate can be estimated onthe basis ofthe standard CCT diagram for C120 steel. Increased ofthe current intensity of arc plasma lead to of grater areas of materials remelting and it decreases ofthe cooling
The presented results from a series of analyses indicate lack of dependence of certain sensitivity analysis parameters. In case of increasing the parameter r (the number the matrix B* is generated) obtaining identical results despite increasing r, may be explained as converging ofthe results to a certain fixed value. It should be noticed that increase ofthe number r causes increase ofthe number of required computer simulations. Therefore it is significant to obtain credible results for the smallest r number possible.
The paper analyses the as-cast state structure of chromium cast iron designed for operation under harsh impact-abrasive conditions. In the process of chromium iron castings manufacture, very strong influence onthe structure of this material have the parameters ofthe technological process. Among others, adding to the Fe-Cr-C alloy the alloying elements like tungsten and titanium leads to the formation of additional carbides in the structure of this cast iron, which may favourably affect the casting properties, including the resistance to abrasive wear.
The results of calculations ofthe areas of non-planar grain surfaces and the grain areas onthe projection plane for correct and incorrect macrostructures are presented as distributions with a logarithmic width of classes in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. 7. Parameters ofthe grain size distributions in 3D and 2D spaces are presented in Table 1. A supplementary evaluation ofthe grain size consists of a calculation ofthe shape and elongation coefficients. The results ofthe calculations are presented as distributions these values in Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, while statistical parameters are shown in Tables 2 and 3.