Tanımlandığı 1981 yılından itibaren HIV/AIDS,üzerinde en çok çalışılan infeksiyon hastalıklarından biri haline gelmiştir. Retrovirus grubunun lentivirus genusuna mensup,tek sarmallı RNA içeren zarflı bir virus olan HIV,reverse transkriptaz enzimi aracılığı ile viral RNA’yı çift sarmallı DNA’ya çevirip konakçı ge- netik materyaline integre etme özelliği taşır. HIV, hücre yüzeyin- deki reseptörlere bağlanıp direk füzyon ile hücre içine girer. İmmun sistemi zayıflamasına neden olarak, fırsatçı hastalıklara,çeşitli infeksiyonlara ya da malignitelere neden ola- bilen HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infeksiyonu bağışık- lık sisteminin ana hücreleri olan CD4+T lenfositler başta olmak üzere birçok hücreyi etkilemekte ve bağışık yanıtta bozukluğa neden olmaktadır.
Objective: to know the beliefs of older adults about their vulnerability to HIV/Aids, and to identify nursing diagnoses. Method: a fi eld research implemented in Family Health Units, in João Pessoa, Brazil. The sample included 250 older adults of both genders with data collected from April to July of 2011. A Test of Free Word Association was applied using the term HIV/Aids. A content analysis and cross-mapping of the most frequent terms with the International Classifi cation for Nursing Practice, 2011 were performed. Results: 202 terms were identifi ed in terms, with an overall frequency of 1156. Of the 202 terms, 16 were more frequent and were used to construct the nursing diagnoses. The diagnoses identifi ed were knowledgeabout appropriate sexual behavior, ability for partial protection, fear of death and hopelessness. Conclusion: understanding these beliefs drew from knowledgeabout factors related to, vulnerability to HIV/Aids aimed at planning healthcare actions for this population segment. Key words: Elderly Health; HIV; Acquired Immunodefi ciency Syndrome; Nursing Diagnosis.
Aim: This study was carried out with 108 healty careworkers who were work- ing at Artvin State Hospital to determine their knowledgelevelabout hepa- titis B. Material and Method: Data on knowledgeandattitudeofhealthcareworkersabout hepatitis B was collected with a questionnaire. Results:The mean age of participants were 30.7±5.4. It was determined that 98(%90.8) healthcare workers vaccined against to HBV.All of the participants thought that hepatitis B might be transmitted by blood. Discussion: Educatiton about hepatits B is necessary for HealthCareWorkers
The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, practice andattitude towards jaundice among hospital healthworkers in Ayder Referral Hospital. Jaundice is a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased levelof bilirubin in blood it is associated with many myth and Misconception. A study, using self administered questionnaire, was conducted from March 2009 to early May 2009.The result of the study showed that 79% respondents were selected, from which only 4(4%) of the respondents select all of the correct options namely Dark colour of the urine, Yellowish colour of skin and eye, Aching and convulsion. 10% knew two manifestation of jaundice, 84% of respondent knew only one manifestation of jaundice. 83%of the respondents knew jaundice is due to high blood concentration of billirubin. 5% answered wrong that is jaundice is due to high blood concentration of urea. 76% of the workers prefers modern medicine for the treatment of jaundice and 8% the traditional medicine. The healthworkers are fairly clear in some aspects of jaundice and inadequate knowledge in other aspects of jaundice. Most of the healthworkers have positive perception towards jaundice and prefer modern medicine for treating jaundice. They have totally poor knowledgeabout traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice. The healthworkers need an education and training about jaundice to update their knowledgeand other study at community level should be conducted to know more about traditional method of treating jaundice.
Background: It is important that the community healthworkers (CHW) have enough knowledge to conduct educational practices and adequate referral of users, thus collaborating to address the health problems of the population. Objective: In this context, the objective of this study was to analyze the factors associated with knowledgeof CHW about oral health. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 255 CHW in the municipality of Jequié, Bahia state, Brazil. Two questionnaires were applied to CHW for sociodemographic and occupational characterization and evaluation ofknowledgeabout oral health. Magnitude of association was assessed by prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results: Low levelofknowledgeabout oral health proved to be directly associated with male gender, lower education, longer service life as CHW, and absence of a dentist in the staff of the healthcare unit. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide new knowledge to be considered by managers and professionals responsible for the education in oral healthof CHW, especially by highlighting the positive impact that the presence of a dentist in the health team may have on the expansion of this knowledge.
RECOMMENDATION: Educational interventions to target community, colleges and schools are urgently needed. Raising the knowledge levels of nursing students, who may become future care provider at various levelofhealth system, is important. Health education and Behaviors change communication can play a major role in informing and encouraging citizens to be responsible, and to participate in preventing and controlling DF. School & college based education is vital and compliment community outreach education. This education will help transfer ofknowledge from classrooms to homes & in establishing sound DF preventive and control practices for society as a whole.
Abstract: The transmission of inluenza in healthcare settings is a major threat to patients, especially those with severe diseases. The attitudeofhealthcareworkers (HCWs) may inluence the transmission of countless infections. The current study aimed to quantify knowledgeand identify attitudes of HCWs involved in intensive care units (ICUs) regarding the risk of nosocomial inluenza transmission. A questionnaire was applied through interviews to HCWs who worked in one of the ive ICUs from a teaching hospital. Questions about inluenza were deliberately dispersed among others that assessed several infectious agents. Forty- two HCWs were interviewed: nine physicians, ten nurses and 23 nursing technicians or auxiliaries. Among the 42 HCWs, 98% were aware of the potential transmission of inluenza virus in the ICUs, but only 31% would indicate droplet precautions for patients with suspected infection. Moreover, only 31% of them had been vaccinated against inluenza in the last campaign (2008). Nursing technicians or auxiliaries were more likely to have been vaccinated, both by univariate and multivariable analysis. When asked about absenteeism, only 10% of the study subjects stated that they would not go to work if they had an inluenza- like illness. Those indings suggest that, in non-pandemic periods, inluenza control in hospitals requires strategies that combine continuous education with changes in organizational culture.
factors. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative and analytical study with 353 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Family Health Strategy units. The Knowledgeand Psychological Attitudes Questionnaires were used for data collection, as well as a script with sociodemographic, economic and clinical data. Results: The majority of the population was female (73.1%), aged more than 50 years (81.5%), diagnosed for more than ive years (54.9%) and with a per capita income of up to half a minimum wage (59.3%). The scores ofknowledgeandattitude were low. Age (p = 0.001) andlevelof education (p = 0.002) were variables associated with knowledgeabout diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Users had a low levelofknowledgeabout diabetes, indicating an unsatisfactory result in self-careand mainly a negative attitude towards coping with this disease.
It can be afirmed that the results encountered point to representations not only of the order of scientiic knowledge, but psychosocially constructed and integrated by the workersof the two primary healthcare services, the scenarios of the study. This allows the identiication of the fragility of the current belief that the professional lives ofhealthworkers are anchored only in science, as many would like to believe. These results cannot be generalized, but add knowledgeabout ways of dealing with HIV/ AIDS infection, speciically those used by health professionals in their quotidian work. The indings show the importance of frequent in-service training and the creation, for example, of conversation groups among the professionals, so that there is exchange and clariication of doubts that provide fractures of stereotypes translated into prejudices and even incorrect attitudes that undermine the work process in primary care.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 13.0 was used for statistical analyses. Questions aboutknowledge on HIV/AIDS contain 16 items and each correct item is awarded one mark; the maximum score is16. Individuals who answered 80% or more of the questions correctly were placed into a category of “high score”, while those who answered less than 80% of the test questions correctly were placed into the “low score” group. Differences between groups were tested using a nonparametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test for continuous var- iables and a chi-squared statistic for categorical variables. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze factors influencing knowledgeandattitude. Statistical significance was assessed using a two-sided test at the α = 0.05 level for all studies.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is known as an infectious and the most fatal disease of twentieth century, is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV suppresses body immune system via contaminating T lymphocytes (1, 2). AIDS was first reported in 1981 in California. But soon after, it spread worldwide (3). AIDS is a disease that in terms of its social problems, incidence and prevalence in active ages of society, high fatality rate and the cost of intensive care is considered among the main problems of the healthcare system; and control, prevention andcareof patients are among the main activities that the healthcare institutions provide worldwide for this disease (4). AIDS in many countries stem from intravenous drug abuse, unemployment, poverty and prostitution, and it has been raised as the second most important infection leading to death globally (5). According to World Health Organization (WHO), 7 thousand in a day, in other words 5 young people aging 10-24 years in a minute are infected with the virus (6). Recent reports of WHO/ UNAIDS (United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) suggest 40 million men, women and children are infected with HIV (7). Despite the initial impression that the disease is assumed to be limited to homosexuals, IV drug abusers and special countries, it has been proved that AIDS has no boundaries, sex and age (8).
Este estudo descritivo e exploratório obje- tivou descrever e analisar a vulnerabilida- de de casais sorodiscordantes ao HIV, e foi realizado em um Serviço Ambulatorial Es- pecializado em aids de um município do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram cole- tados através de entrevistas individuais com 11 portadores do HIV/AIDS, que convivem com parceria sabidamente sorodiscordan- te. Para organização e análise dos dados, empregamos o método de análise de Pro- sa e o conceito de vulnerabilidade como referencial teórico. A naturalização da in- fecção do HIV/aids como doença controlá- vel por medicamentos, crença na impossi- bilidade de transmissão do HIV relaciona- das com carga viral indetectável, sentimen- to de invencibilidade que surge com o tem- po de convívio entre o casal, e sua influên- cia na manutenção do sexo seguro são fa- tores de vulnerabilidade para a parceria sexual soronegativa. Serviços especializa- dos no atendimento a indivíduos com HIV/ aids necessitam incluir a parceria sexual nas ações educativas/preventivas promovidas pelos profissionais de saúde.
308 health professionals participated in this study distributed among: nurses (25/8.1%), techni- cians and nursing assistants (174/56.5%), doctors (90/29.2%) and physiotherapists (19/6.2%). With respect to education, 250 (83.9%) graduated more than three years ago, with a professional experience in the institution of more than three years (220/72.4%) with experience in both 12 or 24 hours shifts (86/28.0%); in nocturnal periods (84/27.5%;) in the morning (70/22.9%) and afternoon (66/21.6%). Analyzing the doctors’ work, 79 (91.9%) reported working on shift rotation schedule. With respect to monthly income, 77 (25.0%) received one to two mi- nimum salaries, 95 (30.9%) from three to four wages, 44 (14.3%) from five to six salaries and 86 (27.9%) had income exceeding six minimum wages. There was a predominance of the female gender (23/72.4%). The average age of participants was of 37.64 years old, ranging from 22 to 63 years.
Abstract: Background: Role of optimum infant feeding practices on growth and survival of children is well established. Promoting it through routine public healthcare system is the challenge. Objectives: To assess the change in knowledgeand practices of caregivers about infant feeding and physical growth of infants through training of frontline healthworkers. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 130 infant mother pairs (65 in each group), recruited at birth, in a rural community in Bankura, West Bengal. Frontline healthworkersof the intervention area received modular training on infant feeding and supported the caregivers in adopting optimum feeding practices. Change in knowledgeand practice of caregivers on infant feeding and physical growth of infants were assessed at monthly interval. Results: Knowledge regarding early initiation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and timely introduction of semi-solid food was increased significantly at 6th month in intervention area with almost no improvement in control area. At 6th month, exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 76.9% infants in intervention area and 63.1% in control area, although in both cases, it was reduced from the proportion at birth. Proportion of infants having bottle feeding and intake of other liquid food also increased with time and more so in control area. In 6 months, infants of intervention area gained on average 600 gms more weight than those of control area, but gain in length was almost similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Promotion of infant feeding through frontline workers is a feasible intervention in the present context.
The pre and post-test is one such measure, which consists of a set of interventions that seek to interfere in the conduct of everyday life of the subject through a dialogue based on trust between users and service professionals that aims to provide conditions for a person to assess their own risks, make decisions and find realistic ways to face their problems related to STI / HIV / Aids. 7
Most of the women had doubts about the etiology of dental caries disease and only 20% of the sample identified changes in eating habits during pregnancy as a risk factor. In addition, 30% of sample recognized the importance of deciduous teeth and transitional dentition for oral health. Concerning the prevention of gum disease, only 41.5% reported using toothbrush and floss to prevent gingivitis. Regarding dental care during pregnancy, 60.5% think it should be regular and preventive.
Objetivo: compreender as potencialidades e fragilidades da rede de cuidado da pessoa com HIV/Aids em um serviço de referência do Estado de Santa Catarina-SC. Método: participaram oito sujeitos e sua rede de cuidado, totalizando 18 participantes. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas e examinados por análise de conteúdo, sustentados teoricamente pelo interacionismo simbólico. Resultado: a análise resultou nas categorias: A rede ofertando o cuidado à pessoa com síndrome da imunodefi ciência adquirida e Enfrentando Barreiras no cuidar, que refl etem as potencialidades e fragilidades, na rede de cuidado. A primeira retrata a oferta de cuidado afetivo e humanizado e a segunda, uma rede pouco ampliada, constituída por profi ssionais de saúde e algum membro familiar. Conclusão: a rede de cuidado profi ssional é importante, mesmo diante do aumento dos atendimentos numa estrutura física e número de profi ssionais que já não comportam a crescente demanda. Descritores: Enfermagem; HIV; Síndrome de Imunodefi ciência Adquirida; Assistência ao Paciente.
A 55-year-old female patient of afro-descendant was diagnosed with AIDS in 1999, when she developed chronic diarrhea and weight loss. This patient was a homemaker born in Bahia and residing in Serra-ES (Brazil) with an HIV- positive and nonexclusive sexual partner and three children. She had been in menopause for six years at the time of VZV diagnosis. Antiretroviral treatment was initiated with zidovudine (AZT) + didanosine in 2001 because her CD4+ count fell below 350 cells/mm3. Because of noncompliance, she remained without anti-retroviral medication for 31 months, which, in 2008, allowed her to be susceptible to a very aggressive clinical episode of herpes zoster with severe neuralgia, which led to a seven-day hospitalization. Initially, she presented with maculopapular lesions that progressed into vesicles and then pustules and crusts on the right thoracic region following the nerve path (Figure 1 and Figure 2) that lasted for 12 days. Laboratory tests showed a normal complete blood count (CBC), a viral load (VL) of 27,500 copies/mL and a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 328 cells/mm3.
total of 16 studies, one of which was about the African context. However, a further two studies carried out in the USA were identiied, along with two undertaken in Australia and three in Germany. The compilation of information relative to the characterization of young carers, perception of types ofcare given and to whom, the needs which these children feel in providing care, the consequences arising from this careand the role of the nurse resulted from the analysis of these studies. Adding to all this, the studies undertaken in the USA clearly describe the advantages and disadvantages of caring, studying which tasks the children like and do not like carrying out. From Australia, the contributions added the study of the pathologies of the persons being cared for, and inally, the studies undertaken in Germany try to perceive which factors lead the children not to ask for help from outside, instead taking on this responsibility.
In the face of such representational content about the rela- tionship with the healthcare workers, some began to question even the determinants of the care they believed to receive. This occurred, also, in relation to previous experiences. So it was observed in the context of the representation an evaluation of the chances of empathy to interfere with the relational process of these professionals with the service users. It was perceived that it would inluence the health team attitude at the SSC to- wards a greater awareness as for the sufering, and above all the prejudice that PLWHA experience due to the stigma of the disease. They have considered also the possible inluences of any speciic training for this activity.