The first example of this distinction comes from the beginning of this century. There were discussions about the potential of Binet's 'metric scale' for giving a more objective estimation of pupils' intellectual facility than teachers' and parents' evaluations, which were seen as subjective and 'too academic'. Another example is from the 1950s, when some prominent Finnish psychologists prepared guide books to help teachers to distinguish naturally gifted – 'though sometimes lazy' – pupils from those who were able to bluff their teachers by working hard and doing well in examinations.
1. The figurative aspects ofintelligence are once more confirmed (masculinity, high education, and social success) when the targets are both pupil and a generic intelligent person; what one could see as a trivial result meets the same requirements introduced some years ago by an eminent scholar like Neisser (1979) when he suggested of studying intelligence no more as a concept but as a prototype. Since the beginnings, the issues ofsocial power and social positions are well established; intelligent cannot be anyone: adult professor, scientist, executive are the more favourite candidates for being assessed as intelligent people by children before they are capable of conceptualising reality. As illustrated by social psychology of development, social norms are well established and constitutive tools ofthe everyday routines in and through peer culture (Corsaro 1992; Carugati & Gilly 1993; Carugati & Selleri 1995a).
Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products made in socially and environmentally responsible ways. Consumers claim that they are willing to pay a higher price for products of socially responsible firms, but are not willing to spend time on figuring out which firm is socially responsible. At the same time, a segment of consumers continue to buy products from firms with well acknowledged bad ethical conducts. Consumers do not act as what they claim. A small number of highly ethical consumers do exist. They care much about producers‘ CSR in their buying and consumption choices (Carrigan & Attalla, 2001). Carrigan and Attalla (2001) categorized consumers into four types based on their ethical awareness and ethical purchase intention. Consumers with low ethical awareness and low ethical purchase intention are called oblivious consumers. Confused and uncertain consumers are those with low ethical awareness but show high ethical purchase intention. Consumers with high ethical awareness who do not make purchase intention accordingly are cynical and disinterested consumers. The last type is caring and ethical consumers who obtain sufficient CSR information and are highly ethical in their purchase activities. Carrigan and Attalla (2001) also pointed out that consumers are not the only stakeholders of a business. Other stakeholders such as employees, environmental organizations may care much about a firm‘s CSR. Each stakeholder group has a focus on firms‘ CSR. The focus is usually what influences their interest most. When addressing CSR, firms need always engage the target stakeholders and their focus of concerns. Philanthropy seen everywhere without any consumer engagement has little contribution to consumer choice. Consumers‘ awareness of firms‘ CSR is limited in general, so opportunities exist in the communication of corporate social performance and social responsibility initiatives with consumers. Even though consumers‘ choices are not significantly influenced by a firm‘s CSR, it is still important to be socially responsible in business operations. Consumers may have more CSR information and become more ethical in their purchasing behavior in the future. In addition, the new generation may behave differently to socially responsible companies‘ products.
the creep and interfacial behavior of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy filament wound laminates at five different winding sequences. The authors used two different analytical models for it (Findley and Burger's models). The author verified that viscoelastic behavior is dependent ofthe fiber orientation as well the creep performance. Both Burger and Findley's analytical models were suitable to predict creep behavior, showing good fitting ofthe experimental data. But, at higher temperatures, a larger difference in fitting is observed and as the ply angle increases, Findley's seems to adjust to the experimental data better than Burger's at higher temperatures. In general, Findley's power law is simpler and can be satisfactory to express long-term creep properties, whereas Burger's provides a more constitutive model, and allows a more detailed structure-to-property relationship analysis, with a poorer fitting at higher temperatures, in this case. In other study, Goertzen and Kessler 12 evaluated
Social identities can be considered as steering the socio-cognitive management ofthe conception ofintelligence in terms of natural gift. The main assumption of this identity principle is that specific ways of interconnecting various content areas are produced by parents and teachers for whom intelligence is a salient part of everyday experiences and for whom it constitutes a significant part of their identity. It is primarily for parents (and for similar reasons for teachers) that the explanation of interindividual differences in terms of gifted intelligence is an answer to their daily experience. Moreover, parents, who do in fact make intellectual differences salient, show more marked divergence between their judgments of bright and mediocre children (particularly in school subjects, as mathematics versus drawing, for instance!) in terms of gifted intelligence. Reciprocally, non parents consider bright pupils in mathematics as successful members of bright families of high socio-economic and cultural status. Again, the refusal by parents of 'blaming the family', do confirm the role social identities play in organizing ideas and judgments (Mugny & Carugati, 1985, ch.5).
The research model is designed to examine the impact of customers’ perception of e- commerce security, and national environmental factors on their acceptance of Internet banking in Malaysia and Singapore. Several models have been used to explain factors determining consumer acceptance of Internet banking (Straub et. al., 1997; Liao et. al., 1999; Sathye, 1999; Tan & Teo, 2000; Pavlou, 2003; Suh & Han, 2003; Brown et. al., 2003; Venkatesh et. al., 2003). For example: technology acceptance model (TAM) devices by Davis (1986) was used by Suh and Han (2003). According to Suh and Han (2003), one ofthe most widely used models for explaining the factors that affects user acceptance of information systems or information technology is TAM. Another model is Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1989) theory of reasoned action (TRA), which is based on Davis’s (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM). TRA model asserts that attitude towards a behavior is determined by relevant beliefs (Davis et. al., 1989). Other theories are the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) by Taylor and Todd (1995) and the diffusion of innovation theory, Rogers (1983). The decomposed TPB model, according to Tan and Teo (2000), uses constructs from the innovation literature such as relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control by decomposing them into more specific dimensions. While, Venkatesh et. al.’s (2003) unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) onthe other hand posits four core determinants (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition) and four moderators (gender, age, experience and voluntariness of use) ofthe key relationships of intention and usage of information technology.
In addition, it was observed that educational factors especially the family structure and connections of family members particularly between parents and their children play a significant role in psychological and social adjustment of individuals. The clinical studies attest the significant role of lack of father in generation of adjustment complications in children (Simons, 1999). Daniel Golman (1998) in his Working With Emotional Intelligence defined emotional intelligence as is the ability to understand emotions and excitements. It could be generalized as a concept contributing to thinking, perceiving excitement and emotional knowledge so as generate a general order and provide proper conditions for intellectual and emotional progress. The terrific events such as losing a good job, financial failure, or loss of family members could be dealt with if emotional
We think that Anderson’s (1990) distinction between commodity values, gift values and shared values provides a very good systematisation of Hirsch’s concern with capturing essential differences between goods provided through market and non-market institutions. Gift values find their worth in the fact that they are given for reasons other than self-interest, having an expressive dimension that is associated with the fact that they convey a message about the intrinsic value of certain specific relationships or of a more general and abstract social bond 6 . Therefore, certain goods can only be conceived as the expression of a gift relationship if non- market institutions are created, allowing room for the acknowledgement of individual motivations that cannot be reduced to self-interest. Shared values, whose importance was also very much emphasized by Hirsch, presuppose that the goods can be valued by the fact that they are held in common by the members of a certain group, signalling the existence of a group to which its members are jointly committed (Anderson 1990). This also presupposes non-market institutions because the good that is shared must be held in common by the members ofthe group, meaning that its fruition expresses the participation in a collective endeavour. Furthermore, goods to which public access is guaranteed tend to favour the participation of people in shaping their attributes (Anderson 1990).
Third, it was interesting to realize that very few commercials mentioned the fact that e-commerce could be a substitute for commercial functions and could lead to the extinction of some jobs. Most ofthe respondents’ discourse was directed at the importance that data analysis tools have in their daily lives. Fourth, the participants do not believe that a machine can produce the same work they do, with the same effectiveness and efficiency, especially with regard to negotiation techniques or customer relation- ship. However, there is a small group of respondents who believe that the AI tools could lead to a total or partial replacement of professionals in this area. This, according to the respondents, in less qualified and more automated functions, and depending onthe company and the business area in which they are, as also defended by Sarfati (2016) who argues that AI can assert itself as a substitute in less skilled jobs by creating cheaper and more efficient automated solutions.
migration in search of employment. In West Africa, Ghana in particular, this has historically been manifested in the migration flow of farmers from the poor regions in the north to the more vibrant urban south (Anarfi et al.2003; Awumbila et al. 2008). Given the significant disparities between Ghana’s rural and urban sectors, it is not surprising that urban life by and large represents the dream of formal employment, less social restrictions and diversified opportunities, while the rural areas provide limited employment outside agriculture, insecure income and inadequate infrastructure (Bookaye-Yiadom, 2008). In Kenya, migration of people from the rural to urban areas is not a recent phenomenon; it has been an issue and a problem over decades. People move to urban areas for various reasons, which are well patterned and lined up from one direction-poverty. The causes of migration of people from the rural areas to urban areas results to various effects that affect both rural and urban areas. However, during rural-urban migration decision making process is greatly affected in the rural areas, particularly by women. Rural women have been known to play a critical role in the rural economies of both developed and developing countries. They participate in crop production and livestock care, provide food, water and fuel for their families, and engage in off-farm activities to diversify their families’ livelihoods. In addition, they carry out vital reproductive functions of caring for children, older persons and the sick (Women, 2000). Although, in patriarchal societies, gender-based stereotypes and discrimination deny rural women equitable access to and control over land and other productive resources, opportunities for income-generating activities, access to education and
After bleaching with FBs, WI ofthe cotton fabric samples significantly increased, for both two and single bath exhaustion methods. The highest WI, the lowest K/S values and the smallest reddish tints are generally obtained for the cotton fabric bleached with FB after bleaching with the two bath exhaustion method (Tables 3 and 4). K/S, WI and T values depend onthe concen- tration ofthe FB. For the samples bleached with FB after bleaching with two bath exhaustion method, WI slightly increased with the increase of FB concentration from 0.1 to 0.5% and there reached its maximum, while the K/S value was the lowest at 0.5% concentration. Further increase of concentration, from 0.5 to 1.0% re- sulted in a slight decrease of WI. The reason for this de- crease could be the effect of fluorescence concentration quenching, which occurred after the optimal FB concen- tration was reached.
The estimation ofthe value and direction of post-liquefaction defor- mations is one ofthe most challenging issues in the modelling of liquefaction soil, due to the inherent and induced anisotropy. It is very important in the science of soil-constitutive models to present a simple and comprehensive model for the prediction offabric anisot- ropy effects in pre- and post-liquefaction behaviour in granular soil. In the framework ofthe multilaminate method, 17 planes with pre- determined directions are defined, instead of defining all occurrences depending onthe direction in three planes perpendicular to each other in a Cartesian coordinate system. As a result, calculation ac- curacy is increased in the point due to the effectiveness ofthe behav- iours in different directions. In the present study, after modifying an advanced model by removing constants related to thefabric effect and using lower constants, the precision of model performance after the removal of constants was studied and compared with experi- mental results in different monotonic, cyclic, drained, and undrained loading conditions. After this, the formation of stress and strain in 17 planes was evaluated in terms of pre- and post-liquefaction, with monotonic and cyclic loadings. The study ofthe curves shows in- duced anisotropy in different directions of sandy soil and thus proves the capability ofthe model in this regard.
association of individuals at an archaic level of society, which repeat previous structures and are incapable of structural innovation, as „uniform beliefs and norms imposed by oppressive laws are the rule” (Doise, 1996:123); the latter is characteristic ofthe maturing stage of interpersonal relations, marked by the transition from individual to personality, social organisation being comprised of various parts in close interdependence. „In order to become orderly and normal, societies were compelled to integrated their goals, interests, sub-systems and areas of activity” (Teodorescu, 2003:205). Whereas mechanical solidarity is viewed as a consensus on norms, values and beliefs, derived from socialisation and coexistence, relying on a community of culture and way of life, organic solidarity, in contrast, is based on a complex division of labour.
Schwartz et al., (2004) point out that it is difficult to estimate the number of wikis used by universities, or the wide range of its applications. Research on wiki use in 24 universities located in USA, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland and United Kingdom concluded that they were used as an e-learning tool, enabling teachers to create interactive activities for their students, to present information on resources, pointers, tasks to be performed and to answer Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). In turn, teachers can also monitor the debates taking place within the wiki, in order to identify problematic areas. Very often wikis, in higher education institutions, are used as Knowledge Repositories.
Based onthe current research of domestic and foreign experts in the i eld of business intelligence, it has been shown that this area has vast potential but is still relatively unrevealed in some segments of applica- tion. h erefore, it is the challenge for the researchers and the area where signii cant scientii c and profes- sional benei ts can be provided. Innovative research approach to business intelligence is characterized by knowledge and creativity, as well as the use of mod- ern data mining sot ware. Modern scientii c methods analyze the results and oﬀ er recommendations and guidelines for further research.
)n the context ofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal onthe capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective ofthe European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities ofsocial economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing thesocial dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
As the multinomial model is non-linear, the marginal effect ofthe treatment in a DID model is not the marginal impact ofthe interaction between time and treatment, but the difference ofthe cross-differences, as described by Puhani (2012). The results of Table 7 (in terms of marginal effects) show that the BVJ has a significant effect onthe probability studying and working at the same time, but not onthe other outcome variables. The estimated marginal effects mean that the probability of a youngster studying and working increases by 4.2 percentage points with the BVJ, compared with a baseline of 30% in the control group in 2006. The estimated coefficients for the categories ‘studying only’ and ‘working only’ were negative but not statistically significant. It seems, therefore, that treated adolescents do not quit their jobs to study because ofthe program, but do both activities at the same time. This raises questions about the long run impacts ofthe program, since the quality ofthe night classes is notoriously low in Brazil.
After 60 min of isothermal annealing the β phase formed grains with boundaries which are the most developed. With the general trend of size reduction grain β phase, with increasing time τ_ia, increase the length ofthe grain boundaries indicates a greater heterogeneity in size grains in the in bronze microstructure, heat treated under these conditions (Fig. 7 c). For very small grains, grains also were identified about a larger surface area and greatly developed interphase boundary. Extending the annealing time of 1β0 min possible to obtain grains of β phase with the shortest grain boundaries (Fig. 15, Tab. 7).
synthetic system sand with bentonite. This is so when the sand mix is made from fresh components. In roller mixers the rebonding agent is distributed during the repeated cycles of compaction and loosening, while the acting forces must be greater than cohesion. For that reason kneading and spreading operations are performed by the roller systems, involving rolling and slipping .
I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).