Top PDF Rights of the child in Salesian code

Rights of the child in Salesian code

Rights of the child in Salesian code

Resulta evidente que una persona de dieciséis años o de diecisiete años no es propiamente un niño, pero sí es un menor y, como tal, es titular de todos los derechos que corresponden a[r]

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Property Rights Implications for the Brazilian Forest Code

Property Rights Implications for the Brazilian Forest Code

The result of this state of affairs was that the government was compelled by the commotion raised by conflicts and violence to put in ever more effort and resources into land reform. This had the effect of strengthening the de jure rights but was not enough to make the de facto rights match the official rules. Thus the more effort the government made, the higher was the uncertainty of property rights and the greater the incentives for even more invasions and violence. This style of invasion-led land reform has resulted in a massive redistribution of land and resources to over one million needy families. It did not manage, however, to create a thriving substrate of productive family farms, as was the intention. The settlement projects that emerged from land reform at great expense in resources, environmental damage, violence and human suffering have rarely become independent and productive, with high levels of sales of plots and abandonment. Today Brazilian agriculture is still predominantly based on large mechanized farms and agribusinesses (MUELLER and MUELLER, 2012). By now this process has run most of its course and land reform has receded to the background, with few actual invasion of land, but rather other manifestations by the MST and other groups to expedite the release of credit and subsidies they are promised by the government. Thus, property rights to land in Brazil today may entail less uncertainty as regards conflicts and violence than they did in the past. But that is only after very huge rent dissipation has already taken place. 8,9
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The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungaryand Romania

The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungaryand Romania

However, when this is not available, alternative care services such as family-type services, small scale residential, and day care services replace institutions (Rus et al., 2011). The state’s duty of care post residential living, which in the 1990s was almost entirely abandoned, is now acknowledged and extended. Although not expressed as such, the state appears to adopt the role of corporate parent enhancing the young person’s life chances through extended care (up to two years on request), provisions for developing independent living skills, and generous financial resources and employment opportunities at exit from care. Reviewing the reform documents Anghel (2010) observed that these changes appeared to indicate an emerging shift in the vision of children and young people in care from ’problem’ to ’resource’, a distinction made by Walther, Hejl, and Jensen (2002). Children were seen as both: dependent, irresponsible and ungrateful, but also capable, more mature than their peers, whilst needing substantial support to become more resourceful. The practice, which operates largely on deserving-undeserving criteria, reflects this dichotomy. Formally, the care leavers are rarely prioritised for access to local resources as required by the legislation, and encounter barriers such as lack of information about their rights, and the practitioners’ discriminatory attitudes. Informally, the practitioners develop selective relationships with some young people who they provide with learning opportunities and access to community resources (Anghel & Dima, 2008; Dima, 2012).
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Child rights and child poverty: can the international framework of children's rights be used to improve child survival rates?

Child rights and child poverty: can the international framework of children's rights be used to improve child survival rates?

forces residents to occupy unused or undesirable land. For example, between 1991 and 1997, 1.5 million and 1 million people were evicted from central areas of Shanghai and Beijing, respectively [13]. Such dislocations out of the city center force large numbers to commute longer distance to their original place of work, where they brave the road, by foot or in overcrowded and dangerous vehicles, putting themselves at risk for road- traffic injuries [14]. Slum locations may be unused or undesirable because of their hazardous geography, such as landslide- or flood-prone areas, or unsafe or polluted environments. Moreover, their residential status limits their ability to fight for the right to a safe environment. In 1984, the accidental release of methyl isocyanate from a pesticide factory in Bhopal, India killed more than 20,000 slum residents; the factory was built after the settlement had already been in existence [15]. Even in the United States, Hurricane Katrina unmasked the vulnerability of residents of poor neighborhoods in flood-prone areas and also the neglect of this population by political institutions [16,17].
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Quality Education through Child-Friendly Schools: Resource Allocation for the Protection of Children’s Rights

Quality Education through Child-Friendly Schools: Resource Allocation for the Protection of Children’s Rights

4. Promotes quality learning outcomes -- encourages children to think critically, ask questions, express their opinions -- and learn how to learn; helps children master the essential enabling skills of writing, reading, speaking, listening, and mathematics and the general knowledge and skills required for living in the new century -- including useful traditional knowledge and the values of peace, democracy, and the acceptance of diversity.

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en 1678 4464 csp 32 05 e00066016

en 1678 4464 csp 32 05 e00066016

The relationship between pregnancy and Zi- ka virus calls for urgent revision of Brazil’s legis- lation on reproductive rights, so that all women, and particularly those now experiencing the fear of carrying a fetus with microcephaly, may have, in the name of their right to health, reproductive autonomy and safeguards for their physical and emotional integrity, choosing whether to pro- ceed with or interrupt the pregnancy. This choice should be made outside the parameters of moral condemnation and criminalization and within the framework of respect for their human dignity. For women that choose to carry the pregnancy forward and who give birth to a child with Zika virus congenital syndrome, the State is respon- sible for providing the mother and infant with all the appropriate care.
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Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.  vol.23 número2 en v23n2a26

Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. vol.23 número2 en v23n2a26

On the behalf of the patients right’s protection to moral and physical integrity, as a constitutional rule, it is understandable the increasing inflexibility to meet with the informed consent requirements. The Law and The Code of Medical Ethics define the theme by ratifying the need of both previous information and Consent. However, the express consent form is not required. However, in view of the Consumers’ Code of Rights, mainly in the application of the burden of proof inversion, one must not leave off this express consent under pain of not being able to prove the patient has been informed and consented.
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Convention on the Rights of the Child: children and teenagers’ labor in debate (1978-1989)

Convention on the Rights of the Child: children and teenagers’ labor in debate (1978-1989)

poorest social strata and those in precarious conditions. In this period, this population segment is no longer perceived only as a social problem, it has gradually become integrated by subjects of rights. This movement, whose exponent was the legislation enacted in 1990, named as the Brazilian Child and Teenager Statute (Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente – ECA), had as its leading figures a set of social players, namely: poor families, law practitioners in Brazil, the technical and bureaucratic body that formulated social policies and the other body working in institutions for shelter and/or imprisonment, social movement activists (Minor’s Pastoral Catholic Church, Children’s Pastoral Catholic Church, Homeless Boys and Girls Movement, etc.), and representatives of international organizations 2 .
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.15 número6

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.15 número6

The guarantee to access, quality care, integral health care, preventive care and treatment schemes, postulated in health programs, exerts a positive effect of public health action on human rights. Children have rights that mainly concern public autonomy, i.e., social rights, such as the right to adequate growth and development, breastfeeding, nutrition, vaccination, hygiene, environmental sanitation, protection measures, accident prevention, access to education, health care, in other words, the right to life. Another important aspect is the guarantee that parents learn the basic health principles and receive support to apply that knowledge in child care, according to the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (19) .
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Interface (Botucatu)  vol.12 número27 en a08v1227

Interface (Botucatu) vol.12 número27 en a08v1227

Right is and the different aspects of the Right. Following this, understanding was sought concerning the context of the Right, how it caused an impact on the service and, finally, problematization concerning the workers’ attitudes and the conditions the hospital should offer to make this Right a reality. Each article of the Code referred to six thematic orders: one technical, legal, psychological and anthropological; another relational, concerning the interfaces of the articles and of one right in relation to another; and, lastly, a third, political, emphasizing the effects on the practice of the worker. Some of these problematizations are rooted in working and living conditions, others in personal attitudes, which are the responsibility that the worker is required to develop. Information itself is not enough to change someone’s way of acting; transforming attitudes is a more delicate process. The code consists of 35 rights and 10 obligations, among which the discussion of articles 5 and 13 are highlighted as examples in this essay.
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Is there a latin american child migration law? An analysis of the ‘Advisory Opinion n. 21 on the rights of child migrants’ rendered by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Is there a latin american child migration law? An analysis of the ‘Advisory Opinion n. 21 on the rights of child migrants’ rendered by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

By exercising its advisory jurisdiction, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights has the full authority of sett ing important legal parameters based on the American Convention and other instruments within the region (IACHR, 2014, Para. 19). Such interpretations may lead OAS Member-States into the right path of action, pointing to the ultimate protection of human rights of those under its jurisdiction. Moreover, considering the crescent dialogue between international courts28, particularly those concerning human rights, the establishment of legal parameters is increasingly impor- tant as one region may face recurrent situations that outnumber those happening in other locations, creating leading interpretations that may help solve similar problems.
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Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “pornography”

Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “pornography”

The off ense of pornography can be shown by several forms such as production, distribution, advertising, import, selling and publication of pornographic materials in the premises of minors. If we refer to the concept of pornography, there is no defi nition in the Criminal Code. However, in these cases, practitioners of law may refer to Article 2, le$ er c, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, regarding the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Exactly, it qualifi es as pornography use whatever means, where one child is involved in activities involving real or simulated sexual, or any demonstration of child sexual parts, primarily for sexual purposes.
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon [1]. High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating of the alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
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The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

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The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

When comparing the definition of harassment in the Act with the definition of bullying provided above 23 it becomes evident that there are similarities and differences between the two concepts. The similarities are the following: in both contexts the negative behaviour of the perpetrator is aimed at causing harm, or at least instilling fear of harm; the definition of harm is very similar in both contexts, ranging from physical and psychological harm to economic harm; and the negative behaviour is aimed at exercising control over the victim. The differences are that bullying often takes place in the educational context, for the spectator(s) to see, and involves the show of force. Furthermore, bullying is seen as threatening conduct over a period of time, but the Protection from Harassment Act makes no mention of continuous torment as a qualification or prerequisite for harassment. However, the fact that it is not mentioned as a prerequisite in the Act does not mean that the harassing behaviour cannot include threatening conduct over a period of time. It can be inferred from the above that the meanings of the terms "harassment" and "bullying" are similar though not identical. In those instances where harassment includes bullying, the victims can benefit from this Act, as it provides complainants with a civil remedy.
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The Concept of Early Vascular Ageing – An Update in 2015

The Concept of Early Vascular Ageing – An Update in 2015

Arterial ageing is a process that can be quantiied, at least to some degree, by measurement of pulse wave velocity along the aorta, the largest elastic artery, as a marker of arterial stifness. In recent years the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA) has been developed by a group of mostly European researchers and some reviews have been published. Based on a lecture given at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Meeting in Vienna 2014, this review was written to describe recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. This brings new perspectives related to genetics, telomere biology, and the role of gut microbiota. Even if EVA has been described in general terms there is still no unifying deinition available and no direct treatment, only recommendations for conventional CV risk factor control. However, a new intervention study (SPARTE) is ongoing in France with a randomised design to treat arterial stifness in patients with hypertension versus conventional treatment strategies. Results are expected in a few years and will be of importance in deining the role of arterial stifness, a core feature of EVA, as a target for treatment.
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Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages of the system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible of the available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
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A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

The two points considered at the alternate sides, of the tangents through the diameter of the circle, and then the line joining these points divides the circle in the ratio of the distances between the considered points to the points of contacts.

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