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STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRITOURISM SECTOR IN ROMANIA

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRITOURISM SECTOR IN ROMANIA

The paper presents the results of a survey conducted bz the authors in agritourism sector in Romania in November 2011 – January 2012. The research was conducted by questionnaire method. The aim of the research team, composed by the three authors and coordinated by Prof. Maurizio Lanfranchi University of Messina, is to highlight the performance of agritourism pensions in Romania.

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A Review on the Use of Performance Indicators in the Public Sector

A Review on the Use of Performance Indicators in the Public Sector

Since performance-relevant data is stored in various databases and documents of numerous institutions, research centers and international organizations and each of these entities uses its own system to determine the quality of stored data, standard methodology for data quality control would ease the task of sharing data(bases) between these institutions and increase the reliability of the available data sets. The process of reaching an international agreement on standardization is quite long and complex. Consequently, one of the most important issues refers to the establishment of more systematic procedures for data collection and validation. Here standardized data and metadata exchange models can be of great help.
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STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF CASH ACCOUNTING SYSTEM  FOR VAT IN ROMANIA

STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF CASH ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR VAT IN ROMANIA

the trade companies were seriously disadvantaged, particularly those selling to natural persons, as they were forced to postpone the deduction of VAT on invoices unpaid until their payment and VAT was collected at the time of sale (the value of deliveries was immediately collected from natural persons). All these companies have experienced serious cash flow problems and bottlenecks, ending in more than 70% of cases to reschedule the tax liabilities arising from increased, sometimes doubled VAT (based on debt repayment schedule file filed with NAFA);  the production companies were also affected as they usually work on trade credit (supplier credit), a
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.

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INVESTMENTS AND SERVICES ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  IN ROMANIA

INVESTMENTS AND SERVICES ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

This aspect regards the tertiary sector, being subject to a separate analyzes. The most important trend is that the tertiary sector is reconsidered through the diversification of component activities and their functions. Based on the classification given by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (NIS) - a service activity is characterized by the provision of a technical or intellectual capacity. Of course, this activity can be considered productive or unproductive, but often the two functions are combined, which makes it more difficult to affiliate with one of the three sectors.
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Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Low crop productivity is one of the major problems that are facing agricultural production in the Sudan. Low crop productivity in addition to high production costs, low prices and high taxes had all resulted in a general deterioration of the agricultural sector. This has contributed in converting agriculture from an attractive business to a repellent activity and caused many farmers to abandon agriculture and migrate to cities. The agricultural sector in the Sudan contributes to about 48% of the Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and to about 93% of the foreign currency earnings (Ministry of Finance and National Economy, 1996). It also employs about 65% of the labor force. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is the major staple food crop in the Sudan. It is estimated that the annual consumption amounts to about 3.9 Million tons (Elsayed, 1999). It is cultivated in large areas that include both irrigated and rainfed. Farah, et al. (1997) reported that the area which is annually cultivated by sorghum is about 2.1 million ha, of which 80% is completely rain-fed, whereas the remainder is given supplementary irrigation throughout the growing season. The Gezira scheme contributes by 60% to the total irrigated production (Elsayed, 1999). Irrigated sorghum production is characterized by the use of disc harrows and ridgers for land preparation, improved varieties and fertilizers. However, yield per unit area in this sector is still very low 1400 kg ha -1 (Ibrahim, 1992). Great efforts had been put in the Gezira scheme to increase sorghum productivity which led to increase the average yield during the pervious seasons, this could be due to the high adoption rate of the recommended technical packages released by the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC). Maize (Zea mays L.) is traditionally cultivated along the banks of the River Nile in the northern states and it is also cultivated in southern states. The area cultivated by maize in the Sudan during the period 1989- 1995 is estimated to be about 21,840 hectares (FAO, 1995). However, maize is classified today as a new promising crop in the irrigated projects of central and eastern Sudan. The average yield per unit area of sorghum and maize of the Sudan are very low compared to other areas in the world have the same weather conditions. Vertisols of the Gezira scheme
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THE REGIONAL DIMENSION OF THE SME SECTOR IN ROMANIA

THE REGIONAL DIMENSION OF THE SME SECTOR IN ROMANIA

Source: Estimations according to The Romanian Statistical Book 2003., INS., Bucureşti 2004 Abstract: Situated in a permanent process of adaptation and transformation, the SME sector recorded a significant national quantitative and qualitative leap. At the regional level, development of the SME sector is determined by a number of local factors, which distinguish and emphasize the importance of this sector, providing clues that lead to some courses of action that can be considered when developing strategies or development programs. Overall, regional disparities in the development of SME sector are relatively small, except for the region of the capital Bucharest-Ilfov, which is distanced from the other regions in particular with respect to the performance achieved.
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THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEER SECTOR IN ROMANIA

THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEER SECTOR IN ROMANIA

placed third in the ranking of markets where consumers find the cheapest beer in both retail as well as restaurants and bars, being surpassed only by the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Thus, a liter of beer purchased from stores in Romania costs 0.8 euros, almost as in Bulgaria (0.79) and Czech Republic (0.75%), and half against the European average of 1.7 euro / liter, as shown by the survey data quoted. The strong presence in the local beer industry of PET makes that more than 70% of beer consumption to take place at home, unlike the Czech Republic, where the restaurants and the pubs covers half of the consumption. Thus the Romanians give nearly a billion euros annually on beer purchased in retail, while in Czech Republic this segment value is 575 million euros, according to the Ernst & Young report.
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A REGIONAL STUDY OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES INVOLVED IN RDI SECTOR IN ROMANIA IN THE LAST DECADE

A REGIONAL STUDY OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES INVOLVED IN RDI SECTOR IN ROMANIA IN THE LAST DECADE

(2) free-trade areas (FTA), such as the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), which consist of a reduction in internal limitations to the movements of products among participating countries; (3) customs unions (CU), such as the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), which demarcate a free-trade area with a common external tariff against products of third countries; (4) common markets (CM), such as the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR), which are customs unions with the free movement of factors of production among participating countries; and (5) economic unions (EU), such as the European Union, which are common markets also involving the harmonization of economic policies.
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AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

Methodology – This paper represents the beginning of a broader study that will be part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Organization and exercise of public audit in Romania”, started in 2009 at University Babes Bolyai from Cluj Napoca, coordinated by PhD Professor Matis Dumitru. The aim of this paper is to explore the findings of an empirical study, made on 352 students, were the primary data used were obtained through a questionnaire technique regarding the audit expectation gap in the public sector in Romania, looking into future to obtain responses using a larger respondent group.
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Table 2 gives the results of mechanical tests carried out on the low-alloy cast steel with additions of vanadium and compares them with the results of previous studies made on this cast steel (designated as P1 in Tables 1 and 2) subjected to heat treatment recommended by the respective standard [9].

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The Implication Of Mens Rural-Urban Migration On Household Decision Making In Soy Sub-County Kenya

The Implication Of Mens Rural-Urban Migration On Household Decision Making In Soy Sub-County Kenya

of households are expected to continue to perform their traditional roles and at the same time take on men’s responsibilities. However, culture dictates that they consult men even when they are away. The daunting extra burden on rural women left behind can have far-reaching consequences, including on girls. Girls are stopped from going to school and take up the roles of their mother when their fathers have migrated to town, hence, denying them education. This study is in concurrence, with a study done in China, which found out that the shortage of male farm workers due to migration has resulted in girls being pulled out of school in order to take care of younger siblings and to help with farm work (IOM, 2009). Further analysis of the literature review indicates that in African societies, decisions about rural development projects are usually hampered by absenteeism of men in the household and they are the determinants on women’s involvement in community projects. This paper observes that women’s needs frequently differ from those of men, but are often overlooked when such kind of projects are being formulated and implemented. Therefore, improved access to decision making would provide women a chance to articulate their peculiar needs in the household and the community. Implications on Education
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The era of globalization is impact on the necessity for each country to be able to compete with the world competition that tends indefinitely. It is synonymous with the concept of state sovereignty reduction, technological sophistication, and world space narrowing and trade transactions development as a thinking the implementation of free trade. Globalization has had an impact on the escalation of the nation‘s defense and security threats in border region. As awareness for the perception of border region between countries to encourage policy makers to develop an assessment about the arrangement of border region equipped with the formulation of security system. As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has more than 17.504. islands with a coastline of more than 80.290 km, and borders with 10 neighboring countries. On land areas, Indonesia borders with 3 (three) countries, i.e Malaysia, Papua Nugini and Timor Leste, while on sea areas, border with 10 (ten) countries, i.e India, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines, Palau, Papua Nugini, Australia and Timor Leste. The area of this border has strategic value, in both aspects of defense and security; the border region is the territorial limits of the Republic of Indonesia are very influential on national‘s defense and security.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism of the created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage of the non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because of the chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

technique was employed in sample selection. In the first stage, the three agricultural zones in the state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. In the second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each of the agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While In the third stage two communities was randomly selected from each of the local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result of the objective of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves the use of Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) of the responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) of the product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Presented paper contains evaluation of influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification. The investigated model is based on the heat conduction equation with a heat source and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The model is built with the use of enthalpy formulation for solidification and using an intermediate solid fraction growth model. The model sensitivity is studied with the use of Morris method, which is one of global sensitivity methods. Characteristic feature of the global methods is necessity to conduct a series of simulations applying the investigated model with appropriately chosen model parameters. The advantage of Morris method is possibility to reduce the number of necessary simulations. Results of the presented work allow to answer the question how generic sensitivity analysis results are, particularly if sensitivity analysis results depend only on model characteristics and not on things such as density of the finite element mesh or shape of the region. Results of this research allow to conclude that sensitivity analysis with use of Morris method depends only on characteristic of the investigated model.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Nickel based superalloys castings are produced by investment casting methods which are constantly improved [1]. Nickel superalloys are used for critical elements of the aircraft engines (so called „Flight safety parts” - FSP). They are subject of exceptional requirements in the production and control respects. These elements have to fulfil a lot of requirements of the consumer standards dealing with the chemical composition and microstructure – and first of all the grain size, the microstructure of matrix, the type and relative volume of carbides, porosity and the surface roughness [2-5]. Properties of casted blades made of
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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Abstract: The demographic structure of the population of the European conger eel (Conger conger; Linnaeus, 1758) from the Western coast of Algeria is made up of young individuals who enlarge more quickly than they grow. The estimated parameters of growth using the equation of Von Bertalanffy are: For females: L∞ = 134 mm ; K= 0,13 ; to = -0,69. For males: L∞ = 108 mm ; K= 0,23 ; to = -0,67 The specimens with most advanced stage of maturation appeared from February to April 2012 for both, female and male. The size at the first sexual maturity was 78 mm in males and 88 mm in females. The sex-ratio was in favor of the females lasting almost all the year excepting during September, December (2011), and January 2012 for males.
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