For an activity appropriately and effectively, company managers Artego are required to develop measures that may reduce therisk, analyze the budgetary impact arose from the implementation of measures related to the acceptance ofrisk, avoid it or transfer it, they are obliged to establish the main priorities for budget allocation available. Thus, considering the unpredictable nature ofthe economic process or if there is sufficient knowledge of it, then it can meet a state of uncertainty but some difficulties arising from the decision-making processwithinthe company Artego. In conclusion there is the need to develop and implement a riskmanagement tool is subject to the joint stock company Artego objectives.
Impacts which are not stressors by themselves and do not directly exert any influence on the bio- logical status ofthe organism but result in the for- mation of primary risk factors, namely the stressors, and in this way enhance their intensity and strength , are considered indirect risk factors (socioeco- nomic factors). Their effects cumulate in the pri- mary risk factors, the stressors. Generally speaking, a poorer socioeconomic status, involving the co-oc- currence of several indirect risk factors, is usually associated with a larger number of primary risk fac- tors of a greater strength and is more likely to cause damages in the biological status (Fig. 1). The rela- tionship between socioeconomic status and health damages is indirect, but it is clear and empirically supported . Socioeconomic status is not unequiv- ocally associated with certain primary risk factors , but considering its effect, the whole life history is relevant, as certain impacts ofthe childhood so- cioeconomic status tend to become visible only later in life .
This study in terms of purpose was applied, in terms ofthe extent and the control degree of variables was a ield-work and in terms ofthe collecting data method was a descriptive-correlation research which was designed and conducted in Iran (Razavieh region in Khorasan-E-Razavi province). Statistical population ofthe study was 1520 persons that included all wheat farmers of Razavieh region that they had water cultivation. By using of stratiied proportional random sampling and Cochran formula, 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages and for data collection, used of interview method. Razavieh region of Mashhad city consisted of 75 villages that this irst, eight index villages were selected by dividing the Razavieh region into four parts: south, north, west and east parts. In the next stage, the respondents were chosen and studied randomly from each village in proportion to the wheat farmers’ population. The research tool was a questionnaire includes 63 items that 12 questions are about individual features; 19 questions are about factors that determine therisk- aversion and 24 questions were about the wheat farmers’ opinion ofthe relationship with the extent ofthe variant methods use in theriskmanagementofthe wheat production in the region. Deliberate items and independent variables ofthe study were compiled in a series of regular expressions, with a speciic order and equal rhythm on a Likert scale of none to very high range (score 0 to 5). Other items (8 items) because of other purposes were presented open and two-dimensional in the questionnaire. Considering that some parts ofthe questionnaire, according to the research topic, included some new questions that required explanation to the wheat farmers. So in order to complete each questionnaire, the interview method were used to be sure that there was no ambiguity for the wheat farmers. To determine the validity ofthe questionnaire irst 30 questionnaires were handed out among the wheat farmers who were out ofthe sample study
Performance management strategy aims to provide the means through which better results can be obtained from the organization, teams and individuals by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards and competence requirements. It involves the development of processes for establishing shared understanding about what is to be achieved, and an approach to managing and developing people in a way that increase the probability that it will be achieved in the short and longer term. Evaluating periodically the human resource inside the organization can increase the motivation and commitment of employees and enable individuals to develop their abilities, increase their job satisfaction and achieve their full potential to their own benefit and that ofthe organization as a whole. Unfortunately not all organizations provide opportunities for personnel evaluation. An example: Personnel evaluation in Latin America and Spain. 114
Besides the crawler and tools for the mapping of routes, the on-board computer is a valuable ally, as it complements the activities or functions ofthe crawler. With the help of equipment important to plan can be developed with more security. Every detail or action should be carefully planned. Subsequent development of strategic planning ofriskmanagement, there will be a transfer of technology obtained, so that the company will have total control ofthe situation (university-enterprise). In other circumstances, technology transfer can occur in other stages oftheprocess and in different ways, as shown in Figure 03:
Discussion about the relation between Management Control Systems (MCS) and strategy is fairly new. The variable strategy is only openly used in Management Control (MC) investigation papers in the last three decades (Langfield-Smith, 1997). Until then, MC was viewed as a set of mechanisms created for the purpose of producing information to support planning and control, favoring financial control and accounting related information. During the decade of 80, investigation starts to relate MC and strategy based on the contingency theory. However, these studies have been widely criticized on because they do not facilitate the interpretation of results within an integrated model, the identified relationships are weak and the results are fragmented (Chenhall, 2003; Chenhall & Chapman, 2006; Covaleski, Dirsmith & Samuel, 1996; Dent, 1990; Hopper, Otley & Scapens, 2001; Langfield-Smith, 1997; Otley, 1999; Wickramasinghe & Alawattage, 2007). Starting in the mid-decade of 90, research highlighted the active role assumed by MC on theprocessof strategy formulation and strategy change. Conducted research assumes that strategy influences MCS and these can influence strategy. The studies of Simons (1987, 1990, 1991, 1994, 1995, 2000) have provided important contribution for this new vision of MC. The conceptual framework of Simons highlights the way managers can use MCS to define and implement strategy and also promote strategic change (Langfield-Smith, 1997).
The article is devoted to theanalysisofprocessmanagement approach. The main understanding ofprocessmanagement approach has been researched in the article. The definition ofprocess and processmanagement has been given. Also the methods of business process improvement has been analyzed, among them are fast-analysis solution technology (FAST), benchmarking, reprojecting and reengineering. The main results of using business process improvement have been described in figures of reducing cycle time, costs and errors. Also the tasks of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main stages of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main efficiency results of business process reengineering and its success factors have been determined.
The author highlighted that the first stage usually is taken by decision-makers (top manage- ment, entrepreneurs, shareholders or others). With respect to the second and third stages, to increase flexibly in theprocessthe company could reduce the decision time through delegation. Notwithstanding, there are two main obstacles of delegation in entrepreneurial companies: lack of communication and organisational structure (Casson, 2003). In fact, considering the autocratic leadership, centralised and poorly structured organisation, and the lack of communication (details in Table 3) ofthe entrepreneurial working environment, probably more problems will arise during the generation of data and the execution ofthe decision.
• By knowing that ofthe 248 articles found in five databases, that 95% are in Scopus or Web of Science, those interested in the subject can concentrate their research in these bases. Besides these results, we observed that: (i) 75% ofthe publications about SCRM are concentrated in the last five years ofthe period analyzed (2011-2015); (ii) the authors most often cited are not those who have published the most articles on the subject; (iii) the three most-cited periodicals are together responsible for nearly a third of all the citations (ofthe 20 most cited); and (iv) the countries with the most publications are the United States, with 69 publications, and China, with 37 (these two countries together account for more than 40% ofthe publications on SCRM).
In the new Internet economy, riskmanagement plays a critical role to protect the organiza- tion and its ability to perform their business mission, not just its IT assets. Riskmanagement is theprocessof identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an accept- able level. Theriskmanagement is an important component of a IT security program. Infor- mation and communications technology management and IT security are responsible for en- suring that technology risks are managed appropriately. These risks originate from the de- ployment and use of IT assets in various ways, such as configuring systems incorrectly or gaining access to restricted software.
The basic principle of evolutionary development models is to develop a system in various stages and each stage helps in increasing the knowledge about system requirements and functionality. This model reduces theriskof detecting critical problems in later phases ofthe development. Iterative approach, Incremental model and Prototyping model are based on the principles of evolutionary development approach (Pfleeger and Kitchenham, 2001; Wallnau, 2002). Boehm has combined all these approaches in a model, in which, activities are performed several times in an iterative manner, beginning with a base functionality and addressing issues like objective setting, risk assessment and reduction, development, validation and planning for the next loop Boehm and Basili (2000). The iteration process can be concluded when a complete working software system has been developed.
Theriskanalysis and management techniques have been described in detail by many authors (Ahmed et al. 2007; Chapman 2001; Chapman and Ward 2003; Mbachu and Nkado 2007; Smith et al. 2006). A typical risk man- agement process includes the following key steps: risk identification, risk assessment, risk mitigation, and risk monitoring (Wysocki 2009). Risk identification is an important step in theriskmanagementprocess, as it at- tempts to identify the source and type of risks. It includes the recognition of potential risk event conditions in the construction project and the clarification ofrisk responsi- bilities (Wang and Chou 2003). Carbone and Tippett (2004) stated that the identification and mitigation of project risks are crucial steps in managing successful projects.
Although risk has conventionally been approached in the natural sciences as an object to be technically mastered by mathematical probability, since the early 1980s, social scientists have focused on the subjective and social dimensions ofrisk (Mythen, 2008). Risk is no longer the exclusive preserve of scientists and technocrats, but is fast becoming the “lingua franca” of business management and even public policy. Regarding this dissemination, Luhmann (1998) says that the particular success ofrisk in extending its realm over more areas of life is explained by the tendency of modern societies to experience their future in terms of decisional uncertainties. Corroborating this idea, Coles, Smith, and Tombs (2000), and Hutter and Power (2005) argue that the concept ofrisk has assumed a prominent position withinthe social sciences and business practice. According to Power (2004), we are not only living in a Risk Society, but there is also concern about theriskmanagementof everything. As confirmed by Rothstein, Huber, and Gaskell (2006), the focus of this argument is not whether there has been a change in the actual risks faced by society but whether there has been a change in how events are framed and managed as risks.
The main characteristics that differentiate our model from PMI methodology for riskmanagement lies in the way severity is addressed and detection criterion. In our model, we assign values on a numerical scale rather than in terms of monetary values. Naturally, financial issues can continue to drive theanalysis, however, using a scale makes it easier to carry out a riskanalysis as it enables the construction of a numerical risk index (or according to FMEA concept theRisk Priority Number - RPN). The inclusion ofthe detection dimension adds value to PMI’s riskmanagementanalysis as it provides a structured way of predicting failures and avoiding them before they occur.
Furthermore, the recent economic volatility has given riskmanagement a new focus and eminence. Successful fi s are able and willing to effectively integrate riskmanagement at all levels ofmanagementprocess from strategy to success. Riskmanagement is an invaluable tool for managing uncertainty associated with business. Business enterprises have always practice some forms ofriskmanagement, implicitly or explicitly (Meulbroek, 2002). The concept ofriskmanagement is, therefore, not so new because riskmanagement techniques like: risk reduction through safety; quality control and hazard education; alternative risk financing; and insurance, including self-insurance and captive insurance, have been in existence for a long time (Doherty, 2000). Regrettably, organisations in Nigeria have been hampered by pitfalls in traditional approaches to riskmanagement, as riskmanagement is rarely undertaken in a systematic and integrated manner across firms. Traditional riskmanagement views risk as a series of single and unrelated elements where individual risk are categorised and managed separately (Wolf, 2008; Hoyt and Liebenberg, 2011). The major deficiency of traditional approach to riskmanagement is the narrow focus on threats, rather than focusing on both opportunities and threats. The holistic approach to managing a fi s risks differs substantially from historical practice, as t pi al fi s te ds to agg egate isk effe ti e isk a age e t , athe tha isolati g the (traditional riskmanagement) (Wolf, 2008; Hoyt and Liebenberg, 2011). ERM engages risks across a variety of levels in the organisation; thus focusing on both opportunity and threat. However, in the literature, ERM has similar meaning with Enterprise RiskManagement (ERM), Corporate RiskManagement (CRM), Holistic RiskManagement (HRM), Integrated RiskManagement (IRM), Strategic RiskManagement (SRM), Enterprise-Wide RiskManagement EW‘M a d Busi ess ‘isk Ma age e t B‘M D A , ; Lie e e g a d Ho t, ; Kleffner et al., 2003; Gupta, 2004; Hoyt and Liebenberg, 2006; Manab et al., 2007; and Yazid et al., 2009).
Risk avoidance reduces risk damage in the way of changing plans, voluntarily giving up or refusing to take risks. Although the damage can be avoided, risk avoidance means losing the benefit which therisk brings. It is mainly applied to the two situations, one situation is risk can’t be prevented and controlled. When there is insurmountable risk that some step of software supply chain encounter, we should remove risk from small risk areas to avoid theriskof a head-on collision, and then enter into the area of larger risks until the ability ofrisk-resisting enhanced. Another situation is designing supply chain structure to avoid software supply chain risks. The second one is more powerful than the former.
The results ofthe executing will be supplied to the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group that will make sure the project is on the track in terms of scope, time, cost, risk and quality. The reasons to start the monitoring and controlling process group are presented into the Fig- ure 5:
success of NPD. According to them, almost 50% ofthe tools that reported a better project management performance belongs to a group named “Background group”. This group includes Simulation and processes, Subcontractor Management, Quality Management, Training, Customer Satisfaction Surveys, and an effective and efficient environment for managing projects. This finding suggests that the project success is achieved throughout many distinct organizational departments’ tools. Their research told us that creating and developing new products requires a multidisciplinary and a cross-functional process, involving all the departments ofthe organization. This was emphasized by McDonough (2000), through a questionnaire of 112 new product development professionals with the aim to determine which were the primary reasons to implement cross-functional teams. They found that cross-functional teams improve theprocessof developing new products and allows the flux of information between the respective functional areas. These were the main reasons according to McDonough´s work, why companies wanted to adopt Cross-Functional approach. The most frequently performance outcome indicated by the interviewed for implementing cross-functional teams, was the need to improve time-to-market. Applying a multiple regression, McDonough (2000) found that cross-functional teams really have a positive impact on project performance. Therefore the hopes of top managers to achieve cross-functional outcomes within implementing cross-functional teams are granted.
Riskmanagement has to take into consideration two aspects: the trade-off between risk and return, and the link between risk and innovation, as new products and services have been developed to both hedge against and exploit risk [Damodaran, 2007]. The link between risk and return is most perceptible when an investment opportunity is concerned. Financial theory, as well as common sense, shows that investments that are riskier need to generate higher return to compensate for risk exposure. In the innovation process, it is important to strike a balance between inventiveness, on the one hand, and prudence on the other. Every time a new product is launched, a new production process is implemented, new markets or sources of supply are
The possibility of increasing the hardness ofthe copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc . But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements .