Top PDF The optimization approach to regional environmental security

The optimization approach to regional environmental security

The optimization approach to regional environmental security

Conclusions and directions of further researches. Environmental safety of a territory may have different levels, which are characterized, in particular, by the balance of expenditures and economic results of ecological activity. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the level of environmental safety using the criterion of maximum economic effect of ecological measures, provided that the basic standards of the protection of population are met. The system of ecological management in each region should be based on a specific strategy taking into account regional features and aimed at achievement of the optimal level of environmental safety.
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Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil´s Soft Approach to Regional Governance

Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil´s Soft Approach to Regional Governance

However, the regional scenario was far from idyllic. Until 1979, Argentina was seen as a major security threat, and the possibility of a military confrontation shaped the mission of the Brazilian armed forces. This perception only began to change when the military government of the two countries signed an agreement regarding the shared Paraná river basin (Resende-Santos 2002). Under the new democratic regimes of the 1980s, this cooperative path was deepened with the signing of several agreements covering nuclear energy and trade. In 1991, the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) was established, and the historic rivalry between Argentina and Brazil was turned into full-fledged regional cooperation. As Argentina no longer represented a threat, the Amazonian region became the new main security concern. The 1996 publication of the National Defense Policy (Battaglino 2013) signaled this shift. The new mission assigned to the Brazilian military was based on a scenario of asymmetric resistance against the intervention of an extra-regional power in the Amazon, as expressed in the 2005 update of the National Defense Policy and in the National Defense Strategy issued in 2008. Extra-regional powers are never named, but off-the-record statements point to the United States as the greatest source of concern. The national strategy focuses on the Amazon as well as on the so-called Blue Amazon, Brazil’s immense sea shelf and its oil reserves, the recent discovery of which has influenced the country’s strategic orientation. The national strategy involves not only the army but also the navy and air force, that should have conventional capabilities to deny hostile forces the use of the sea and to secure local air superiority (Brasil 2008). Two goals appear throughout all official documents: maintaining the balance between the three branches of the armed forces, and fostering the modernization of the military arsenal, often with an eye towards developing original homegrown technology.
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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.22 número2

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.22 número2

Abstract This qualitative approach study seeks to understand the meanings of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) and environmental contamination by shellfish gatherers in the municipality of Santo Amaro, Bahia. Solid and industrial waste (mainly lead) and biological waste are released in the Sub- aé river and in the mangrove, compromising food resources, life and health of the population. Shell- fish gatherers selling their mangrove-derived prod- ucts are stigmatized by people of this municipality, as well as other cities in the Recôncavo Baiano, and, as a result, do not reveal the origin of shellfish sold in the market. Silence and contamination de- nial are understood as ways to ensure the FNS, the naturalization of social inequality and in favor of survival. These observations portray the daily life of this poor population living amid heavy metals’ and sewage contamination.
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Web security analysis : an approach to HTML5 risks and pitfalls

Web security analysis : an approach to HTML5 risks and pitfalls

But, the very best strategy is to use specific API’s. There are a few good API’s which can, and should, be used to defend against injection. The most commons API’s take advantage of a parameterized interface, to separate instructions from user data. A well-known and very effective approach against SQL Injection is Prepared State- ments. Prepared statements are a very simple way to create SQL queries and are supported by all the main databases providers. When using prepared statements the database is able to distinguish between instructions and user data without jeopar- dizing performance. In fact, prepared statements were introduced as a performance optimization. However, this approach does not work so well when the queries are dynamically constructed (e.g. a page with different options that user can choose).
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Models for the optimization of regional wastewater treatment systems

Models for the optimization of regional wastewater treatment systems

Abstract: The problem of the optimization of regional wastewater systems may be generally formulated as follows: to define the transport and treatment system, in a region or water basin, which assure compliance with given pollution control criteria, with minimum cost. In addition, one may try to satisfy other objectives, such as minimum environmental impact, better effluent reuse or adequate phasing. From the optimization point of view, the two main problems that render the solution difficult are the dimensionality and the concavity of cost functions. The matter has been dealt with by many authors, who have produced varied techniques to try to solve this problem. This paper begins with a brief review of the work of those authors who have produced models specifically designed to study the problem. Then, solution strategies are discussed concerning three major items: definition of the objective function and constraints, optimization method and practical aplicability of the models. The paper concludes with the discussion of topics for future research.
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National security. A new approach to maritime terrorism in Africa

National security. A new approach to maritime terrorism in Africa

At a time when the new threats, within the framework of the International Security Studies, do not fit the conventional parameters of "who" threatens, "how," "when," and "where," the effectiveness of military security has been questioned because the arms race is no longer sufficient to contain transnational terrorism, the notion that 'security cooperation' emerges as the best way to contain it; not only because of the greater scope of the actors it presupposes, but also because of the deeper ties of friendship and cooperation, which weigh heavily on international relations (Singh, 2019; Ginga, 2014). Surely, “maritime boundary management is always a collaborative process between a country and its neighbors, thus cannot be done unilaterally, and is always better to be done jointly at the regional level…” (Okonkwo, 2017: 66), there is therefore a need to rediscover and develop more partnerships in the field of regional security, particularly in the fight against maritime terrorism, leading to a rescaling of national infrastructures and national borders, and aiming to provide adequate responses to the nature of these new challenges and risks to the integrity and sovereignty of the State.
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Security Optimization for Distributed Applications Oriented on Very Large Data Sets

Security Optimization for Distributed Applications Oriented on Very Large Data Sets

For this reason KBA method is relying on in- formation known only by the authenticated user, being similar to biometric schemas, but as a process executed on the server side. This paper approach is emerging from the necessity of using the power provided by the uniqueness of user’s characteristics, like passphrases which only he can compute, based on its own mind process, things that no one can simulate, not even computers with their almost infinite computing power, and also by using different patterns that could re- veal an impersonating attempt like:
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Optimization of the regions' financial flows as a factor in improving their security

Optimization of the regions' financial flows as a factor in improving their security

his paper considers an essential element of economic security in today's terms — inancial security, the essence of which lies in the formation of stable cash lows, providing the ability to develop regional systems, mainly due to their own economic and inancial resources. he place and importance of regional governance arrangements of inancial resources, the formation of their sources is shown. he structure of the consolidated iscal balance area as the main tool of analysis of all traic of inancial resources generated and distributed in the region is revealed. Expediency of reproduction approach to the evaluation of inancial lows of the territories is substantiated. Internal inancial and economic resources of the region are disclosed. he main methods of classiication of regions on the structure of inancial sources for development are shown. he proposals to strengthen the inancial capacity of the territories are formulated.
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Optimization of environmental monitoring as a strategic component of economic security of Ukraine

Optimization of environmental monitoring as a strategic component of economic security of Ukraine

The structure of environmental monitoring system is inefficient. The soviet system of parameters has not been harmonized with European standards. Eight departments which provide data decide themselves what and where they will measure using the available equipment, and do not follow the provisions of normative documents. The system of bilateral agreements is inefficient instrument. The Ministry of Nature is not the owner of information, it is only the user. The laws, or a draft of laws concerning the system of environmental monitoring, which will include the real conditions of budget, international requirements to environmental information and equipment do not prepared.
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THE ENERGY COMPONENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY: UKRAINE IN THE MIRROR

THE ENERGY COMPONENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY: UKRAINE IN THE MIRROR

Energetic component of ecological security of Ukraine showed that the main energy resources are the nuclear (47%) and coal (37%), which is a bad thing for the coun- try's energy security through outdated production technolo- gies and a significant negative impact on the environment. Another problem in this respect is not only environmental but also economic: 35% of state import is import of energy consumption. Using the methodology for calculating the integral index of energy security we showed that the situa- tion is unstable. Comparison of energy indicators of Ukraine with the same world levels had proved quite weak position of Ukraine. While the analyses of 34 projects for implementation of energy efficiency in Ukraine we pro- posed rank function for the evaluation of projects' attrac- tiveness in the aspect of industries and regions of Ukraine. The rank analyses depicted that the most popular among economic sectors for energy efficiency investments are en- terprises of agriculture and consumer goods industry, and the most attractive regions of Ukraine for implementation of investments in energy efficient technologies are Ivano- Frankivsk, Luhansk and Kherson oblasts. The analysis of modern ecological situation in Ukraine found that it remains consistently high air pollution in large cities and industrial centres. To solve priority problems of modern ecological situation in Ukraine the state should ensure full funding of measures provided by national, regional and local programs to develop effective mechanisms of economic enterprises and improve production technology. The movement to the better energy future for Ukraine is impossible without renew- able strategies and mathematically ground calculation of energy portfolio for very particular future year.
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Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil's Soft Approach to Regional Governance

Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil's Soft Approach to Regional Governance

The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), established in May 2008, can be seen as the skeleton of an autonomous South American governance structure, with defense and security issues grouped under the supervision of its South American Defense Council (SDC). The SDC project was launched by then Brazilian president Lula da Silva and his minister of defense, Nelson Jobim, during a state visit to Argentina in February 2008. The proposal gained impetus after the Colombian attack on a FARC guerrilla camp in Ecuador in March. Minister Jobim visited several South American countries to garner support, and the SDC was finally established in December 2008 (Weiffen, Wehner and Nolte 2013). Its founding treaty subordinates the organization to the principles and objectives established by the UN charter, the OAS charter and UNASUR’s decisions. Its main goals are to consolidate South America as a zone of peace, to create a common identity on defense matters and to strengthen regional defense cooperation. It should be emphasized that, ideological rhetoric notwithstanding, this does not entail a common defense policy, even less a military alliance (Amorim 2013). UNASUR was also part of Brazil’s strategy to use regional integration as a springboard for increasing its global influence. However, the Brazilian notion of the region have gradually changed from asset to burden in the last decade, as potential synergies lose steam and negative externalities raise. Currently, the major threat is the escalation of neighbors’ domestic conflicts that could result in the intervention of external actors – that is, the US. Thus, by institutionalizing security relations, Brazil intends to forestall ad hoc regional responses to crisis and extra-regional interventions (Spektor 2010).
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Pesqui. Oper.  vol.21 número1

Pesqui. Oper. vol.21 número1

If a factor of strong influence over the response, is not controlled, it won’t be possible to obtain reliable results due to the large fluctuations that are to be observed in the response, and what is even worse, the noted behavior can be wrongly attributed to some of the controlled factors. It can also be the case that it is not possible to introduce changes in a known important factor. In such cases, the wisest thing to do is to control it at a definite favorable level. Thus, the obtained results are said to be conditioned or restricted by the factor.
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HYBRID SYSTEM BASED FUZZY-PID CONTROL SCHEMES FOR UNPREDICTABLE PROCESS

HYBRID SYSTEM BASED FUZZY-PID CONTROL SCHEMES FOR UNPREDICTABLE PROCESS

From the results can be noticed that the malfunction of input coolant valve at the time 1000s are not affecting the three different controllers because the duration of the malfunction is too short. However, when the duration of the malfunction is long, e.g. 120s, the conventional fuzzy-PID control system needs more time to maintain the process temperature to the desired trajectory. Once again, the proposed optimization scheme shows the best performance in controlling the process temperature because it is able to control the process temperature to the desired trajectory in a short period of time and also has the minimum absolute error throughout the whole process.
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Security Metrics and Software Development Progression

Security Metrics and Software Development Progression

E FFECTIVENESS F ACTOR In this section, we propose security metrics that focus on security issues of the software development stages. Based on the security metrics, we also attempt to develop Effectiveness Factor (EF) for the software development phases. EF can help judge the security efforts during development. On the basis of security metrics, we collected data for fifteen live software projects using self designed questionnaire. These projects have been developed using platforms such as Java, PHP, .NET, MySQL, C#, AJAX, Jquery, Microsoft SSRS, Unix shell script etc. The implementation relate to various network designs such as client/ server system, web technology, web sites, mobile and desktop based systems. The size of projects may vary from small to very large.
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An approach to assess the potential of agroecosystems in providing environmental services

An approach to assess the potential of agroecosystems in providing environmental services

The multifunctional capacity of agroecosystems is directly linked to the provision of ES, defined as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2011) stresses that healthy ecosystems provide a variety of vital goods and services that contribute directly or indirectly to human well-being, in economic, social and environmental spheres. These services include: provisioning services, such as food, wood, fiber, and fuel production, as well as fresh water; regulating services, like flood, disease, and water quality control, besides carbon storage, waste treatment (nutrients and pesticides), and climate regulation through greenhouse gas emissions; cultural services, comprising spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits, associated to scenic beauty, education, recreation and tourism; and supporting services, such as nutrient cycling and primary production, which maintain the conditions for life on Earth (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; Power, 2010).
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The Methodological Approach to Determining the Level of Formation and Provision of Enterprise Personnel Security

The Methodological Approach to Determining the Level of Formation and Provision of Enterprise Personnel Security

The aim of the article is to substantiate the methodical approach to determining the level of formation and provision of enterprise personnel security. By analyzing, systematizing and generalizing scientific achievements of many scientists, approaches to the evaluation of personnel security at the enterprise were considered, a set of indices for evaluation of personnel security was defined. There justified the urgency of creating a comprehensive approach to evaluation of personnel security that includes implementation of the following stages: defining a list of indices corresponding to the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the help of the expert evaluation method; calculating integral indices of personnel security for each component and the corresponding level by means of the taxonomic analysis; grouping enterprises by the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the use of the cluster and discriminant analysis. It is found that the implementation of this approach will allow not only determining the level of formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, but also developing appropriate recommendations on improving its state. Prospects for further research in this direction are evaluation of conditions for formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, which will enable revealing negative destabilizing factors that influence personnel security.
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Optimal Network Design for Consensus Formation: Wisdom of Networked Agents

Optimal Network Design for Consensus Formation: Wisdom of Networked Agents

Abstract —The wisdom of crowds refers to the phenomenon in which the collective knowledge of a community is greater than the knowledge of any individual. This paper proposes a network design for the fastest and slowest consensus formation under average node degree restrictions, which is one aspect of the wisdom of crowds concept. Consensus and synchronization problems are closely related to variety of issues such as collective behavior in nature, the interaction among agents as a matter of the robot control, and building efficient wireless sensor networks. However, designing networks with desirable properties is complex and it may pose a multi-constraint and multi-criterion optimization problem. For the purpose of realizing such efficient network topology, this paper presents an optimization approach to design networks for better consensus formation by focusing on the eigenvalue spectral of Laplacian matrix. In both the fastest and slowest networks presented, consensus is formed among local structures first, then on a global scale. This suggests that both local and global topology influence the networks dynamics. These findings are useful for those who seek to manage efficient consensus and synchronization in a setting that can be modeled as a multi-agent system.
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An institutional approach to the environmental management systems of golf courses in Andalusia

An institutional approach to the environmental management systems of golf courses in Andalusia

A bstrAct : In many tourist destinations, such as Andalusia in Spain, the number of golf courses has increased exponentially, which has generated a public debate about how to recon- cile economic development and respect for the natural environment. This paper analyzes its highly institutionalized context - and the main practices that derive from it - and test empiri- cally, in a sample of golf courses located in Andalusia, the relationships between these practices with its corresponding coercive, normative and mimetic mechanisms. Finally, its relationship with the performance of these organizations is established, testing if a direct or indirect re- lationship, through the search for legitimacy, exists, as suggested by the Institutional Theory. Keywords: Institutional Theory, golf, tourism, environmental management.
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J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng.  vol.34 número3

J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. vol.34 número3

In the present study, four process parameters, namely, cutting speed (v), feed (f), point angle (θ) and lip clearance angle (ψ) were identified. The drilling of AISI 316L stainless steel work material is usually performed in the industries with cutting speed in the range 8-24 m/min using HSS twist drills. The feed in the range 0.04-0.12 mm/rev is normally preferred with higher drill diameters in order to avoid excessive temperature rise during drilling operation. The range of point angle for drilling of stainless steel was selected based on the investigations carried out by Stein (1997). The range of lip clearance angle was fixed as 8-12 ° based on preliminary experiments. Accordingly, the ranges of the process parameters were selected in the present investigation. Each parameter was investigated at three levels to study the non- linearity effect of process parameters. The identified process parameters and their levels are given in Table 1.
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Federalismo e gastos em saúde: competição e cooperação nos municípios da região metropolitana de São Paulo

Federalismo e gastos em saúde: competição e cooperação nos municípios da região metropolitana de São Paulo

The objective of this investigation was to examine the implications of the Brazilian federative structure in the comparative evaluation of public-spending performance in the health sector. Its further aim was to discuss the accountability of municipal public administrators and evaluate the technical efficiency of the municipalities of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region in terms of primary health-care. Primary health-care is the only sub-function that is the exclusive responsibility of local managers. Other health responsibilities are shared by the municipalities and the other federation entities, union and states. To explore the characteristics of cooperative and competitive federa- lism, data collected from the municipalities and aggregated for the different health regions that comprise the metropolitan region were analyzed. The study’s focus was the technical efficiency, which is theability of an entity to obtain maximum outputs with fewer inputs. The analysis was performed using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The results showed a wide dispersion of municipality data in terms of both expenditure and the number of procedures performed, including coverage of the main primary health-care programs: the Family Health Program (Programa de Saúde da Família – PSF) and the Community Health Agents Program (Programa de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde – PACS). The results show that less than 20% of the municipalities are efficient. The analysis of the municipalities within their respective regions suggests the prevalence of competitive over cooperative practices. Such information may help improve the integration of services in health-care networks and encourage the reconsideration of the agreements existing between municipalities in a given health-care region. Furthermore, this article can contribute to the current debate on controllership in the public sector by outlining the potentialities and limitations of the methods used to generate information for decision making.
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