Micro-regional MD Planning Documents are based on the analyses presenting the social- economic-environmental conditions of the respective micro-region in every case. A condition for success in case of subsidy programmes is that the micro-region in question should regard it as its own and consider it applicable, therefore, it is very important for any intervention to be built on the micro- regions’ own evaluations and programmes. During programming, local decision makers acknowledged the frameworks given by directed planning, but in most cases they disagreed with them; the concepts of the local management was different from the focus given by the NDA. Since indicators mark the results of development processes not in the whole range and in temporal delay, it may be reasonable to deviate from the indicative e allocations defined above; actually micro-regions have taken advantage of this opportunity. Micro-regions defined their directions of development this way.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most serious health issues and the leading cause of death worldwide, causing 30% of deaths in Brazil alone in recent years. However, CVD mortality rates are not uniformly distributed across the country. Brazil is marked by important regional differences resulting from socioeconomic inequality and limited access to health services. Given the spatial distribution of causes and heterogeneity of deaths from cardiovascular disease in Brazil, both at macro and micro levels, the goal of this paper is to investigate how age composition effects and age-specific mortality rates are related to the observed difference in deaths from cardiovascular disease in the adult population (over 30 years of age), by sex, in Brazilian micro-regions from 1996 to 2015. The results suggest there has been a decrease in mortality rates resulting from cardiovascular disease, and that both the effects of age structure and level may have influenced the variation of these deaths in Brazil over the period analyzed. These findings indicate that the Brazilian epidemiological transition is not uniform across and within regions of the country.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROCELL FOR STUDIES OF MICROREGIONS. The construction and optimization of a device that can be applied to electrochemical studies in flat microregions are described. This was developed as an attempt to study small regions of metallic samples, whose properties may differ completely from its macroscopic behavior and for studies in highly resistive medium. Some results were obtained for individual grains of polycrystalline samples, welded regions, pure copper, platinum, glassy carbon, single crystals of Cu-Zn-Al alloy, and steel in biodiesel without electrolyte intentionally added. The device showed to be useful for the proposed purpose, allowing to be automated and has potential possibilities of other applications.
This work was performed in 60 goat farms located in 15 counties of the microregions of Western and Eastern Cariri, in Paraiba, to describe and analyze the sanitary profile of the flocks. Visits were done and the answers, obtained from questionnaires that were applied to the farmers, were used. It was observed a mortality of 20% in young animals in 80% of the farms. The presence of technical assistance in 93.3% in the studied farms, adoption of prophylactic calendar in 85% and parasitic control in 83.3% of the flocks were also observed.
distribution shows that it poses the worst-case scenario of time-to-seeding of other micro-regions (see Figs. 1a-b and Fig. 2a for reference), we focused on that source for analysing the relation between effective distance and percentage of population above 60 years old (Fig. 2b), number of overall hospital beds and complementary beds (ICU and intermediary care) per 10,000 individuals
better health care service, i.e., those centers of referral for pregnant women at risk from other micro-regions, from showing an overestimation of neonatal mortality rates. In the northern region, which showed low rates, these are possibly due to the existence of large referral health centers, such as Ribeirão Preto, Barretos, and São José do Rio Preto, with better care to the sick newborn, as well as better socioeconomic conditions, which allow prenatal care with an earlier onset and a better quality of care for pregnant women in this period.
The assessment and diagnosis, selection and adaptation of hearing aids, monitoring, and speech therapy/audiology pro- cedures offered by Hearing Health Network were performed in all regions of the state, with speech/audiological ther- apy and follow-up procedures representing the most and the least often performed, respectively. There was a lack of sys- tematic spatial distribution pattern between the procedures in the health care micro-regions at the four moments of care offered to individuals with hearing impairment. Although hearing health services are available, according to the orga- nizational policy of regionalization, the use of this network still shows very heterogeneous patterns when comparing the health micro-regions in the state.
First, for the exploratory analysis and estab- lishment of the historical series, we estimated the crude incidence and mortality rates for Brazil’s five major geographic regions (North, Northeast, Southeast, South, and Central-West) and for the country as a whole. We then estimated the three-year moving averages for AIDS cases and deaths, municipalities and micro-regions, and subsequently estimated the mean incidence and mortality rates using the local empirical Bayes- ian method by year from 1999 to 2007. Cases and deaths from the years 1998 and 2008 were used in calculating moving averages. Populations were obtained by geometric projections of the census data from 2000 (IBGE. http://www.ibge.gov.br) and 2010. Calculation of the rates used the pop- ulations from the midpoint in each three-year period.
Figure 3 also indicates a great disparity in the developing of regions. Even if there is not a structural shortage of engineers, as pointed out by Lins et al. (2014), the micro-regional scenario presents an uneven distribution of HEI´s. The only macro regions with above 50% coverage are Southeast and South, the best two regions in GDP participation. All other regions fall greatly behind with the Northeast with as low as 16% of micro-regions with HEI´s. From the 16 micro-regions that do have HEI´s 9 of them are state capitals leaving only 7 others for the entire macro region. This scenario indicates a great challenge to implement the advantages of university products and their benefits as described by Lendel (2010) and properly developing regions as proposed by Oliveira (2011) and Quandt (1997). Even if the micro-region import engineers from other areas it will not see the long-term benefits of having a HEI and the spillovers as described by Drucker (2016).
Purpose: To analyze the correlation between the satisfaction of professionals from the Hearing Health Care network in two micro-regions of Minas Gerais state and the sociodemographic proile, work process, and work performance in the health service. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational, analytic study with a non-probabilistic sample including 34 professionals from the Hearing Health Care services. Data collection occurred through individual interviews in the municipality of professional practice. Associations between the Professional Satisfaction variable and the explanatory variables Sociodemographic Data, Work Routine, and Developed Actions were conducted. Results: Professionals with graduate studies were more satisied with the human resources policy and the activities developed, whereas health civil servants showed more satisfaction with the wage policy and the work schedule. The correlation analysis between work process and satisfaction revealed a moderate positive correlation between items such as Health Promotion Actions, Satisfaction with Diagnostic Equipment, and Satisfaction with Maintenance Equipment. Conclusion: The present study revealed a higher level of satisfaction among professionals with graduate studies (human resources policy and activities developed) and civil servants (wage policy and work schedule). The relevance of this study lies on the important role that health professionals play on the Health Care Network. Additionally, the study of satisfaction level can provide a search for improvements, considering that satisied professionals not only improve service quality, but also show greater creativity, commitment, and performance.
The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the microregions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.
Authors such as Araújo and Lima (2007), for example, demonstrated that the most intense process of economic growth occurs when products with higher technology are exported, mainly due to the elasticity-income of the exports being higher and the generation of externalities that lead to more intense learning processes, fostering increases in productivity and international competitiveness. Regarding the Brazilian microregions, the number of microregions internationally inserted with the production of these goods is growing. Clearly, when compared to the other segments, this evolution is modest, but has been increasing, which is an important result for the dynamics of the domestic growth of the country.
The research was conducted in the municipality of Curralinho, in the Marajó archipelago, state of Pará, Brazil (Figure 1). Marajó is located on the Amazon coast, comprising 16 municipalities, which comprise the micro-regions of Arari (Cachoeira do Arari, Chaves, Muaná, Ponta de Pedras, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure), Furos de Breves (Afuá, Anajás, Breves, Curralinho and São Sebastião da Boa Vista) and Portel (Bagre, Gurupá, Melgaço and Portel) (AMARAL et al., 2012). The hydrography of Marajó consists of drainage networks of recent channels, such as: streams, basins, channels, meanders, lakes and streams, among which the Amazon, Pará, Anapu, Jacundá and Anajás rivers stand out, with their numerous tributaries. Curralinho has a territorial extension of 3,620,279 km2 and its population was estimated at 33,893 people for 2018 (IBGE, 2010). The majority of this population is settled in rural communities along the “holes”, small rivers that surround the city and nearby islands, with an emphasis on fishermen, extractivists, aquaculture and family farmers.
As informações contidas nas Tabelas 1 e 3 permitem o seguinte raciocínio: se a multiplicação bacteriana é sem- pre crescente e se na temperatura de 8°C, foi verificada maior atividade proteolítica, é provável que haja uma ati- vidade lipolítica mínima. Caso contrário, haveria mais bac- térias a 8°C do que a 12°C, já que se trata de uma microbiota essencialmente lipoproteolítica. Izidoro et al. (2010) já haviam verificado um brusco predomínio de atividade proteolítica no leite, nessa faixa de temperatura. Além dis- so, Sørhaug & Stepaniak (1997) descrevem uma inversão na microbiota do leite, a 8°C: o gênero Pseudomonas é suplantado por Bacillus. Não é apenas uma substituição de micro-organismos que está sendo reportada, está im- plícita uma inversão metabólica, pois, embora sejam im- portantes micro-organismos proteolíticos, Pseudomonas são preferencialmente lipolíticos, enquanto o gênero Bacillus é predominantemente proteolítico (Silveira et al., 1998; Zacharov & Helpern, 2007).
31 o efeito que ocorre é o alinhamento dos dipolos ou íons das amostras ao longo da direção do campo elétrico (figura 7). Devido às escalas de tempo de orientação e de desorientação dos dipolos com a radiação micro-ondas, diferentes quantidades de calor são produzidas através da perda dielétrica, ou seja, ondas eletromagnéticas geram campos elétricos positivos e negativos alternados e é provocada a desordem e a agitação das moleculas dipolares, transformando em calor a energia absorvida para o realinhamento das moléculas. Portanto, o que ocorre é uma rápida mudança de posição das moléculas. Quando o campo eletrico é removido, ocorre o retorno das moléculas ao grau de desordem e energia térmica é gerada 35; 36 .
This work follows several previous ones resulting from a long lasting cooperation between the Central Laboratory of Metrology of the Portuguese Institute of Quality (LVO) and the Faculty of Science and Technology of the New University of Lisbon – Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (FCT/UNL-DEMI). This dissertation presents the design and the development of a primary standard for measuring micro flow, with the objective of allowing traceability and calibration of such equipments at LVO. This type of system is still under study in Europe and it is intended, after being developed, its implementation as a Portuguese National Standard for measuring micro flows at the Portuguese Quality Institute.
A fruticultura é um segmento de destaque no agronegócio brasileiro. Aproximadamente 53% da produção são comercializadas como frutas frescas e 47% destinam-se às indústrias de fabricação de sucos, doces e geleias. O Brasil se encontra entre os maiores produtores mundiais de frutas, inclusive de acerola, alimento rico em vitaminas e compostos antioxidantes. O processamento de frutas gera, anualmente, toneladas de resíduos que, normalmente, não possuem descarte adequado. O reaproveitamento desses resíduos, além de evitar impactos negativos ao meio ambiente, possibilita a obtenção de compostos antioxidantes, que podem ser reutilizados pelas indústrias alimentícias e farmacêuticas. Entretanto, esse material possui elevado teor de umidade, que dificulta seu manuseio e reduz a vida útil do produto. A desidratação é uma operação unitária que envolve transferência de calor e de massa e pode ser aplicada para reduzir o teor de umidade a um nível que evite a proliferação microbiana e possibilite o reaproveitamento dos compostos bioativos. O método de secagem por micro-ondas vem sendo muito aplicado devido à redução do tempo de processo e do consumo energético. Porém, devido ao aquecimento heterogêneo, a associação com outro secador que confira movimento às partículas é uma opção que pode resultar em melhorias no processo. Diante do exposto, foi projetado, na FEQUI/UFU, um sistema composto por micro-ondas associado a tambor rotativo, a fim de aproveitar a eficiência de aquecimento do micro-ondas e a agitação fornecida pelo tambor rotativo. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar a eficiência do sistema na homogeneização e secagem de resíduos de acerola. Primeiramente, foi estudada a mistura em diferentes condições de velocidade de rotação, grau de enchimento do tambor rotativo e umidade do resíduo
Until very recently, the impact of inﬂ uenza on health was believed to be insigniﬁ cant in tropical regions. But this impression may be changing, in part thanks to the recent studies by Joseph S. M. Peiris and his colleagues from Hong Kong, one of which appears in this issue of PLoS Medicine . Hong Kong is a subtropical city located within the likely epicenter of pandemic inﬂ uenza in Southeast Asia .
Em 1999, Blagojevic, Murphy 12 compararam as propriedades de um homopolímero (TS1195), sem copolímeros ou agentes de ligação cruzada, e de duas resinas para base de prótese (Acron MC, Biocryl NR). Essas resinas foram polimerizadas utilizando-se irradiação com micro-ondas a 600W durante 3 min. ou banho de água a 700°C por 14 h e 3 h em temperatura de ebulição. Também foi avaliada uma resina autopolimerizável convencional (Croform) indicada para reembasamento ou reparo de próteses, a qual foi testada em duas condições: polimerização quimicamente ativada e polimerização quimicamente ativada seguida por irradiação com micro-ondas (600W por 3 min.). Após a polimerização, o acabamento dos corpos-de-prova foi realizado com lixa de granulação 600. A seguir, as amostras foram armazenadas em água a 37°C por 28 dias. As propriedades avaliadas foram peso molecular dos pós dos materiais, dureza Wallace, resistência ao impacto, módulo de elasticidade, monômero residual e temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg). Somente as análises de monômero residual foram realizadas sem saturação dos corpos-de-prova em água. Os resultados demonstraram que o peso molecular de todos os materiais foi maior que 1 X 10 5 , considerado como valor limite para que o polímero
At present time, analysis of training process building’s problem in team kinds of sports during annual macro- cycle, witnesses that the most practical foundation has theory of periodization of sports training. Main peculiarity of building of training process in team kinds of sports in competition period is schedule of competitions. The program of players’ preparation in meso- and micro-cycles is planned in compliance with it, as well as in the course of separate trainings [3; 6; 8; 9; 11]. Alongside with it, the need in correction of preparation to competition period still exists.