Scuba diving

Top PDF Scuba diving:

Can reef conservation programmes help reducing SCUBA diving damage to coral reefs? A case study in Thailand

Can reef conservation programmes help reducing SCUBA diving damage to coral reefs? A case study in Thailand

Worldwide, 10% of world GDP is created by travel and tourism industry. In Thailand, according to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the contribution of travel and tourism to the GDP is expected to rise from 14.1% (1,280.5 bn THB or 38.3 bn US$) in 2008 to 15.4% (THB 2,974.7 bn or US$ 78.7 bn) by 2018 (WTTC, 2008). Reef tourism is a major global industry in expansion and it is the major foreign exchange earner for the country. The relative increase in expendable capital from developed countries combined with the gradual increase in leisure time, the expansion of global tourism and the reduction of long haul flights from Europe and other countries, to tourist hubs such as Thailand have fuelled both the dive and snorkelling industries (TAT, 2005). Paradoxically, technical advances in equipment paired with an increased trend in environmental issues, nature conversation and outdoor pursuits have, according to Barker and Roberts (2004), resulted in an increase in the popularity of coral reef recreation and in particular in SCUBA diving. More than 12 million visitors from around the world, travel to Thailand´s 26 marine parks (which cover 50% of its reefs, Main and Dearden, 2007) each year (TAT, 2006). One of the main reasons for this influx of visitors to Thailand specifically is the diversity of its marine life, including a rich abundance of soft and hard corals and reef and pelagic fish. Dive tourism in Thailand has rapidly increased by more than twenty times from 25,000 divers in 1985 (TAT, 2008). Thailand now welcomes over 550,000 dive tourists each year and is home to over 80,000 certified divers of its own. The island of Phuket for example is a main center for the diving industry in Thailand and in 2000 there were over 85 dive companies operating through the Andaman Sea (Bennett, 2002).
Mostrar mais

89 Ler mais

Mobility, expansion and management of a multi-species scuba diving fishery in East Africa.

Mobility, expansion and management of a multi-species scuba diving fishery in East Africa.

into two distinct segments based on the mode of operation and trade organization – the village based artisanal near-shore segment and the more industrialized mobile roving bandit style scuba diving segment. While the breath-hold divers often operate from boats they are not as mobile and cannot harvest at the same high effort or depth as scuba divers can [28]. They also normally trade with the same middlemen as the village gleaners do. Hence, we consider them as part of the artisanal segment. Although the two segments of the fishery are inter-connected as the products transit via the same exporters, this definition of the two segments is crucial because of their different management requirements. Studies on roving bandits in fisheries have normally addressed global scales [7,10,21], however, our results show that roving dynamics takes place at considerably smaller spatial scales embedded in the global scale trade. Despite the smaller spatial scale, the management challenges to address such mobility are still substantial. For example, at the local level the divers impact the artisanal segment of the fishery by targeting other villages’ fishing grounds, illustrating a loss of resource equity as the mobile divers can evade local management and social control through their mobility. While reformed local management may suffice for improving the situation of the artisanal segment of the fishery [28], navigating available recommendations [19,29,30,44], aspects of spatial scales and different actors must be considered for the industrialized scuba diving segment.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Assessing the land- and seascape determinants of recreational diving: evidence for Portugal's south coast

Assessing the land- and seascape determinants of recreational diving: evidence for Portugal's south coast

The present study aimed to assess which land- and seascape features influence the practice of SCUBA diving in a specific location. Based on a thorough literature review, we selected possible explanatory variables of recreational SCUBA diving site preferences and collected data for mainland Portugal’s south coast in order to model recreational dive site occurrence probability. In an initial step, three logistic regression models were estimated separately, pertaining to land cover, seabed sediment, and distance to relevant features types of variables. These three models isolated the three contexts to examine which ones were significant in explaining dive sites’ presence. A fourth logistic model, including all types of variables, was also developed using a stepwise approach. With this holistic model, we found a set of statistically sig- nificant variables that predict the occurrence of recreational dive sites. We consider these results to be highly valuable in the scope of recrea- tional diving activities’ management, since they allow us to interpret the reasons that justify the occurrence of known dive sites, and to identify options of interesting diving experiences in the remaining seascape that could be explored, in order to alleviate pressures on the most vulnerable spots. As referred by Rangel et al. [23], recreational diving allows un- derwater visitation of natural and cultural resources and should be used as a tool for integrated coastal management, by promoting environ- mental awareness. Likewise, Townsend [48] stated that environmental education and interpretative tools, within the diving activity, can be used as “soft” management tools.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Barotrauma ocular durante mergulho autônomo.

Barotrauma ocular durante mergulho autônomo.

O barotrauma ocular é uma condição potencial- mente ameaçadora à visão, que pode ocorrer no mergulho autônomo (scuba diving), quando há diferença de pressão entre o interior da máscara e a coluna de água, em determinada profundidade, poden- do haver acometimento dos olhos e estruturas perioculares. Pode ser desencadeado pela má adapta- ção da máscara ao rosto, bem como pela técnica de mer- gulho inadequada (1) . É pouco descrito na literatura. No

3 Ler mais

Underwater ecotourism in the Algarve, South of Portugal: implementation and divers' perceptions

Underwater ecotourism in the Algarve, South of Portugal: implementation and divers' perceptions

The main aims of this study on underwater ecotourism, the first in Portugal, were: 1) to develop and implement a network of underwater routes (snorkelling and scuba diving) in the Algarve, South of Portugal; 2) identify the economic valuation of snorkelling routes; 3) analyse the degree of satisfaction of users in relation to the routes and to the support infrastructures; 4) understand if the routes increase environmental awareness of divers. Three snorkelling routes were implemented in Marinha Beach along with two scuba diving routes, “B24” (off Faro city), the wreck of a World War II bomber, and “Poço” (off Armação de Pêra city), a rocky outcrop rich in biodiversity and landscaped features. All the routes were implemented in 2008, with interpretive slates at fixed locations along the route. Researchers were at the sites to answer any questions, carry out the pre diving environmental briefing, and questionnaire surveys. Based on the travel cost technique, and assuming a carrying capacity of 1000 dives per year, a total economic value for the 3 snorkelling routes of 250000€ was estimated. Most respondents perceived the existence of routes to be good for the preservation of the local biodiversity and reported this experience as “good” or “excellent”. Overall, both snorkelling and scuba routes seem to be an effective tool for developing ecological awareness in tourists, as they enhance the preservation and the understanding of the marine coastal environment. Results show that in situ education and interpretation can raise environmental awareness if properly addressed. Also, the interpretative and educational tools used seem to please visitors, resulting in a satisfactory way of engaging snorkelers in the protection of the visited environments. Overall, divers seem to consider that diving within the routes framework is more pleasant than diving without this infrastructure.
Mostrar mais

230 Ler mais

Ouvindo o silêncio: a construção identitária por meio da prática do mergulho scuba como consumo hedônico

Ouvindo o silêncio: a construção identitária por meio da prática do mergulho scuba como consumo hedônico

This work aims to explore the context and emotions related to the experience of scuba diving as hedonic consumption, as well as to understand in which conditions the benefit arising from the regular practice of this activity impact the identity construction of the practitioner. Through in-depth interviews, data were collected from scuba divers living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, during the months of January and February of 2008. In order to obtain the expected objectives, the chosen methodology of research was qualitative, with priority of the subject and the subjectivity, using an interpretative approach for the data analysis. The research results confirm some benefits of high-risk sports practice such as flow, self-evolution and communitas. Two additional benefits are presented: the condition of alterity of the “underwater world”, which attributes extraordinany meaning to scuba diving and impacts identity construction, and the scuba “buddy” practice, that helps to build-up an overall sense of trust to the other. The work is concluded with some managerial recommendations aiming the development of scuba diving industry and related tourism. These above mentioned suggestions include a new industry positioning, integrated marketing communications with specific references to alterity and flow, market segmentation, the creation of gathering spaces and a gradation scale among practitioners.
Mostrar mais

94 Ler mais

Flavio do Nascimento Coelho, Hudson Tercio Pinheiro, Robson Guimarães dos Santos, Cristiano Queiroz de Albuquerque and Agnaldo Silva Martins

Flavio do Nascimento Coelho, Hudson Tercio Pinheiro, Robson Guimarães dos Santos, Cristiano Queiroz de Albuquerque and Agnaldo Silva Martins

In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites ar[r]

6 Ler mais

Tourism and Algarve underwater archaeological heritage valorisation: a case study

Tourism and Algarve underwater archaeological heritage valorisation: a case study

The private entities are Schools or Diving Centers included in the Portuguese Classification of Economic Activities (CAE) / INE (2007), which are associated to the recreation and leisure Services, other sport activities, organization of animation activities and other amusement and recreational activities. The Schools or Diving Centers selected were: Algarve Divexperience (Praia do Carvoeiro), Blue Ocean Divers (Lagos), Centro de Mergulho da Universidade de Faro, Deep Blue (Faro), Delphinus Divers (Armação de Pera), Divers Cove – Escola de Mergulho (Lagoa), Diverscape (Sagres), Dive Spot (Armação de Pera), Dive Time International (Lagos), Easy Divers (Albufeira), Exclusive Divers (Alvor), Hidroespaço (Faro), Indigo Divers (Albufeira), Isla Subvrsa (Vila Real de Santo António), Mar Ilimitado (Sagres), Open Waters Dive (Quarteira), Pinguim Sub Lda (Portimão), Portisub (Portimão), Subnauta (Portimão), Scuba Tour (Armação de Pera), Sudeste Scuba Diving (Sagres), Torpedo Diving (Quarteira), Udiving (Faro).
Mostrar mais

29 Ler mais

Overlooked habitat of a vulnerable gorgonian revealed in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic by ecological niche modelling

Overlooked habitat of a vulnerable gorgonian revealed in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic by ecological niche modelling

distributional limits. Yet, detailed knowledge about habitat requirements is crucial for conservation of sensitive gorgonians. Here we use Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) relating thirteen environmental predictors and a highly comprehensive presence dataset, enhanced by SCUBA diving surveys, to investigate the suitable habitat of an important structuring species, Paramuricea clavata, throughout its distribution (Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic). Models showed that temperature (11.5–25.5 °C) and slope are the most important predictors carving the niche of P. clavata. Prediction throughout the full distribution (TSS 0.9) included known locations of P. clavata alongside with previously unknown or unreported sites along the coast of Portugal and Africa, including seamounts. These predictions increase the understanding of the potential distribution for the northern Mediterranean and indicate suitable hard bottom areas down to >150 m depth. Poorly sampled habitats with predicted presence along Algeria, Alboran Sea and adjacent Atlantic coasts encourage further investigation. We propose that surveys of target areas from the predicted distribution map, together with local expert knowledge, may lead to discoveries of new P. clavata sites and identify priority conservation areas.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Effects of fishery protection on biometry and genetic structure of two target sea cucumber species from the Mediterranean Sea

Effects of fishery protection on biometry and genetic structure of two target sea cucumber species from the Mediterranean Sea

Turkish sea cucumber fisheries started in 1996 and reached around 600 tonnes in 2011; H. polii repre- sented the 80% of these catches (Gonza´lez-Wan- gu¨emert et al., 2014). They are mainly exported to Asian countries as frozen, dried, and salted products (Aydin, 2008; Aydin et al., 2011). Hookah diving vessels are the most commonly used to catch sea cucumbers through underwater breathing devices. Such practices have been described as a ‘‘human and environmental disaster’’, mainly due to the high risk of personnel accidents and indiscriminate harvesting (Maillaud, 1999; Ruffez, 2008; Eriksson et al., 2012a). Despite that scuba diving for sea cucumbers is being carried out commonly in the Western Indian Ocean and nowadays also in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Turkey), only one systematic study has been done focusing on this category of mobile fishing in Zanzibar (Eriksson et al., 2012a). Therefore, sea cucumber fisheries in Turkey is a matter of concern, considering those three factors: (1) new target species are being caught without any previous data about their ecology,
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes)

The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes)

We study the origin and phylogeography of the European widespread species in one of these running water lineages, the diving beetle genus Deronectes Sharp (family Dytiscidae). With c. 60 described species (Nilsson & Hájek, 2015), Deronectes is the largest clade of Palaearctic diving beetle entirely confined to running waters. It has a predominantly Mediterranean distribution, ranging from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula over most parts of Europe and the Middle East, with some species reaching central Asia (Nilsson, 2001). The genus has many narrow range Mediterranean species, including some island endemics, but also a few species widespread in central and northern Europe, showing their potential for range expansion. A recent molecular phylogeny of the genus (García-Vázquez et al., 2016) supported the existence of two main lineages, mostly corresponding to species with a western or eastern distribution. The widespread European species were also shown to be of Pleistocene origin, in agreement with other works with the genus (Ribera, Barraclough & Vogler, 2001; Ribera, 2003; Ribera & Vogler, 2004; Abellán & Ribera, 2011).
Mostrar mais

23 Ler mais

A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation

A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation

considerations during diving, such as depth, water clarity, current flow rate and boat traffic limited the possible search area within known seahorse sites (Curtis and Vincent 2005; Curtis et al. 2017). All new study sites were chosen because seahorses had previously been observed at them, therefore abundance presented is artificially inflated. The choice of search method has also been shown to influence abun- dance recorded, which in most cases will have also inflated abundance reported (Correia et al. 2016). However, mean density for H. hippocampus from new data presented here are within values extrapolated from previous studies of H. hippocampus (Otero-Ferrer et al. 2015a). Data from both species combined (Goffredo et al. 2004) suggests that this method could be useful for surveys and comparisons with distance transect measures, should be a priority. Densities reported in previous studies are from transects or focal grids. The latter are often chosen to encompass areas of high sea- horse density (e.g. Bell et al. 2003) and therefore seahorse densities from focal studies would be artificially higher com- pared to randomly placed transects. The seahorse densities given per area surveyed in the present study were generally similar to those previously reported in these species (e.g. Gristina et al. 2015), but greater than those reported for other seahorse species (Foster and Vincent 2004). This may be an artefact of the sampling protocol as mentioned above, a species-specific characteristic or peculiarity of sample location. Both abundance measures (ind. diver hour −1 , ind.
Mostrar mais

19 Ler mais

Increased cortical thickness in sports experts: a comparison of diving players with the controls.

Increased cortical thickness in sports experts: a comparison of diving players with the controls.

Sports experts represent a population of people who have acquired expertise in sports training and competition. Recently, the number of studies on sports experts has increased; however, neuroanatomical changes following extensive training are not fully understood. In this study, we used cortical thickness measurement to investigate the brain anatomical characteristics of professional divers with extensive training experience. A comparison of the brain anatomical characteristics of the non-athlete group with those of the athlete group revealed three regions with significantly increased cortical thickness in the athlete group. These regions included the left superior temporal sulcus, the right orbitofrontal cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the mean cortical thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus and the training experience was detected, which might indicate the effect of extensive training on diving players’ brain structure.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

During the day, dive duration peaked soon after sunrise and then decreased throughout the rest of daylight hours. The concurrent decrease in post-dive duration was matched with increasing dive rate indicating individuals made more frequent, shorter dives throughout daylight hours. Australian fur seals from Kanowna Island forage primarily in the central Bass Strait basin, an area with an extremely uniform bathymetric profile [33,34]. This results in consistent benthic dive depths (average modal depth 79.8 m with 70% of dives occurring within 6.2 m of the mode) and, thus, a reduction in dive duration would represent a decrease in foraging time on the sea floor rather than a change in maximum dive depth. This reduction of time at the sea floor is counter- intuitive in the context of optimal diving models that suggest an individual (particularly in benthic foraging species) should be maximizing its time at the bottom portion of the dive [19,65]. The observed pattern, therefore, of decreasing dive and post-dive duration while maintaining/increasing dive rate could reflect either a change in prey availability [20,66] and/or physiological capacity [67,68] throughout daylight hours.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Montenegro with new records and description of the female of Hydroporus Macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006

Predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Montenegro with new records and description of the female of Hydroporus Macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006

During a survey of the aquatic beetle fauna of Montenegro, 40 diving beetle species of the Dytis- cidae were collected, including 12 species and one subspecies new for national fauna. he aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about the

9 Ler mais

Recursive filtering for zero offset correction of diving depth time series with GNU R package diveMove.

Recursive filtering for zero offset correction of diving depth time series with GNU R package diveMove.

Zero offset correction of diving depth measured by time-depth recorders is required to remove artifacts arising from temporal changes in accuracy of pressure transducers. Currently used methods for this procedure are in the proprietary software domain, where researchers cannot study it in sufficient detail, so they have little or no control over how their data were changed. GNU R package diveMove implements a procedure in the Free Software domain that consists of recursively smoothing and filtering the input time series using moving quantiles. This paper describes, demonstrates, and evaluates the proposed method by using a ‘‘perfect’’ data set, which is subsequently corrupted to provide input for the proposed procedure. The method is evaluated by comparing the corrected time series to the original, uncorrupted, data set from an Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella Peters, 1875). The Root Mean Square Error of the corrected data set, relative to the ‘‘perfect’’ data set, was nearly identical to the magnitude of noise introduced into the latter. The method, thus, provides a flexible, reliable, and efficient mechanism to perform zero offset correction for analyses of diving behaviour. We illustrate applications of the method to data sets from four species with large differences in diving behaviour, measured using different sampling protocols and instrument characteristics.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Relationship between chlorophyll a concentration, light attenuation and diving depth of the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina.

Relationship between chlorophyll a concentration, light attenuation and diving depth of the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina.

Many studies have been able to relate oceanographic conditions to the prey availability and to predators [8,10,15,17,19,22,23,46].However, to our knowledge, this is the first study showing that light level within the water column is a critical determinant of diving depth of SES. During daylight hours nearly sixty percent of the variance in daylight DBD of SES could be explained by the light level at 150 m. Previous studies have shown that moonlight affects the diving depth of Galapagos fur seals, with these mammals diving deeper during full moon nights Figure 4. Relationship between summed chlorophyll a concentration and the mean depth of the bottom dive of elephant seals. Observations (black) are stack to linear regression line (red). The regression coefficient (r 2 ) between the regression line and the observation is noted
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species (common and thick-billed murres) breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species (common and thick-billed murres) breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

swim faster as they grow (Hurst, 2007). Diving seabirds are considered to feed mostly during the diving bottom phase (Elliott et al., 2008). The deeper diving depths in the daytime and more frequent wing strokes during the bottom phase of COMU dives, com- bined with higher trophic levels of prey, suggests that COMU tended to forage on more mobile prey such as large fishes, compared to TBMU. There are several possible fac-

33 Ler mais

Mergulho em águas rasas e lesão medular: uma abordagem educativa e preventiva = Diving in shallow waters and spinal cord injury: a preventive and educational approach

Mergulho em águas rasas e lesão medular: uma abordagem educativa e preventiva = Diving in shallow waters and spinal cord injury: a preventive and educational approach

Conclusion: Spinal cord lesion caused by diving has an elevated world incidence and high rates mainly during summer. Healthy young male individuals are involved. There is a strong association with the use of alcohol. Preventive educational methods are of utmost importance to decrease the amount of new cases every year.

4 Ler mais

Indicação de alcoolismo em pescadores vítimas de lesão medular por mergulho     Indication of alcoholism in fishermen victims of spinal cord injury by diving

Indicação de alcoolismo em pescadores vítimas de lesão medular por mergulho Indication of alcoholism in fishermen victims of spinal cord injury by diving

In the face of high rates of consumption of alcoholic beverages on the world stage, it was noted the importance of investigation of alcoholism in artisanal fisherfolk victims of SCI, in order, the damage suffered by them, which is responsible for generating motor disability and employment. Moreover, therefore, generates negative feelings, and may result in escape from reality through the consumption of alcohol too. So, question: what is the indication of alcohol use in artisanal fisherfolk victims of spinal cord injury by diving?

11 Ler mais

Show all 31 documents...