In the first case were requested several teachers who are specialist in Didactics and SpecialEducation fields from different Andalusian universities. They analysed the questionnaire and delivered their corrections. When objections were incorporated to the questionnaire (mainly they were about grammatical matters, drafting, elimination of some articles, new subject matter incorporation…), application of the pilot test was arranged.
Abstract —The presented paper provides an intelligent agent based classification system for diagnosing and evaluation of learning disabilities with specialeducation students. It provides pedagogy psychology profiles for those students and offer solution strategies with the best educational activities. It provides tools that allow class teachers to discuss psycho functions and basic skills for learning skills, then, performs psycho pedagogy evaluation by comprising a series of strategies in a semantic network knowledge base. The system’s agent performs its classification of student’s disabilities based on its past experience that it got from the exemplars that were classified by expert and acquired in its knowledge base.
Russian and Soviet Education historical data reveal how much importance was given to education of the new generation, since the school presented itself as a means to prepare the “society without classes”, a way to reeducate the young generation in the communist spirit. Social education, in a Marxist-Leninist perspective, should be an attentive one to objective life, to creative man, humanized by labor activity. The proposal to take the work as reference for educational process is defended by Soviet educators like Krupskaya, Pistrak, Blonsky, Lunatcharsky, Pinkevich, who regard the need to impregnate the school with the idea of work, with the concept of human relations and thereby inculcate the proletarian view of the world. It had marked the work of Vygotski (1997a), as defending that a person with disability could have the support for his work, which should not be only of craftsmanship. Imbued with the idea that everyone can learn and develop, he also argued that teaching must be good and revolutionary, transforming people with limitations into emancipated, free people. That is why the relation between Russian/ Soviet society and its educational model, to build a new society, is imperative to understand the potency of Vygotski’s work, his criticisms and propositions to Psychology and to common and SpecialEducation.
As mentioned before, Fundamentos de defectología has an important role in research carried out by RG 15 – SpecialEducation – and RG 20 – Psychology of Education – at ANPEd. Würfel (2015) provides data on discussions that have been developed in the area of SpecialEducation, mainly in relation to contributions given by the Cultural-Historical Psychology to this field. His research aimed to analyze how Vygotski’s theoretical reference was appropriated by researchers who participated in RG 15 – SpecialEducation at ANPEd. Its specific objectives were to identify Vygotski’s main works used in the research and map the themes that were prevalent in the studies presented in GT 15, from 1996 – the year of the enactment of LDBEN 9394/96, which has had direct impact on SpecialEducation – to 2013, the last year of ANPEd annual meetings, which became biennial. According to Würfel (2015), 29 out of 46 studies, which were deeply based on Vygotski and the Cultural- Historical Psychology, had the text Fundamentos de defectología as their reference 8 whereas 23 of them were
Another area for research relates to better understanding why teachers of color with specialeducation credentials are selecting schools that serve high-minority student popula- tions. School preferences have implications for not only creating a more diverse SET workforce but also ensuring that this diversity is distributed across schools. While teach- ers of color may have a personal interest in assisting chil- dren from similar cultural backgrounds, research shows that teachers tend to work in schools that are, on average, 15 miles away from the districts in which they graduated (Loeb & Reininger, 2004). If proximity to home is a factor in school preference for SETs of color, then this will likely affect how they are distributed to schools and districts. Furthermore, if few students of color from these communi- ties become SETs, then this will affect both the supply and the distribution (Reininger, 2012). External incentives may be needed to recruit SETs of color from outside the com- munity in these cases. More research is needed to distin- guish geographic preferences from other intrinsic considerations for SETs of color. Future studies should also examine whether current district and school policies may be excluding SETs of color from consideration for recruitment and hiring. As noted earlier, teachers may select schools according to personal preference, but districts and schools also play role in what opportunities are available. More research is needed in disentangling personal preference from structural issues within districts and schools that limit professional choices for SETs of color.
“Specialeducation and rehabilitation – science and / or practice” was the topic of the first international conference held in Sombor, the Republic of Serbia, in the period between the 22 nd and 24 th of October 2010. The conference was organized by the Association of special educators and rehabilitators of Vojvodina, the Department for motor impairments (somatopedy), the Faculty of specialeducation and rehabilitation at the University of Belgrade, the UG Resource centre for specialeducation and rehabilitation at the University of Belgrade and the Association of special educators and rehabilitators in Sombor.
Some actions have been taken to meet the demand of students with different characteristics in Brazilian public schools, from the perspective of attention to diversity. In order to teach SpecialEducation students, the Multifunctional Resource Rooms Program was implemented, among other procedures. The Rooms offer specialized educational assistance (AEE) in the public school network. This paper aims to analyse some aspects of the Multifunctional Resource Rooms Program as a way developed by the federal government to provide specialized service. It includes the analysis of educational documents and the survey, organization and analysis of educational indicators from the Ministry of education. The analyses show an increase in the number of enrolments of specialeducation students and in the number of places offering educational specialized care. However, the scope of the Program is fairly restricted in relation to the existing demand, which emphasizes the fact that a considerable amount of the students may not be getting specialized educational care. If, on the one hand, the increase represents advancement for the actions in public schools, on the other, continuous improvement is required, under the risk that the enrolment alone will not ensure the access to effective schooling for that population.
It is possible to relate the ideas discussed so far to practice. The concept of disability, if understood as a lack of certain qualities, implies two basic targets of specialeducation. Quality is a relational term, it implies, in this context, an individual and his/her environment organized in a certain way. Lack of a certain important for adaptation quality means that an individual is not able to relate to a specific form of an environment. Commonly the target of specialeducation is to support the development of lacking qualities so that an individual learns to relate to those forms of environment otherwise not available for him/her. There is, however, another way to overcome the same disability: an environment can be organized so that missing qualities are not necessary. If a person in a wheelchair cannot reach high cupboards, then the cupboards can be placed lower so that the individual can use them. If a person is not able to create a plan, for instance how to prepare a meal, then this plan can be made for him/her in the form of a picture- book or special arrangement of things in the kitchen. So specialeducation can support overcoming specialeducation needs either by supporting the emergence of lacking qualities or by reorganizing the environment for the disabled individual so that the missing qualities are not necessary.
The professional moral of special teachers has also emphasized ethical meaning. The Special Ed uca- tion and Rehabilitation is an example for profes- sional ethics. The personal moral dimension of special teachers is their very important bioethical function. Most human activities only require well performance. In SpecialEducation and Rehabilita- tion, the ethics is included in the nature of the ac- tivities – there is no well-done SpecialEducation and Rehabilitation activity without high moral aim, because the pragmatic side of the activity requires implementation of moral aims, strict ethical inspi- ration of the doer and high bioethical ambitions of the profession itself. The moral of people who de- vote themselves to SpecialEducation and Reha- bilitation activities is a substantial source of their decision for such activity, even more when this activity is chosen to be their life career. Therefore, the SpecialEducation and Rehabilitation is not only a profession (fulfillment of task is not the end of human work) it is an appeal. It is an inspiration in people’s lives, when their lives are defined as per sonal care and struggle to help disabled people, i.e. a complete care for better living.
In view of the above, it seems urgent to reflect on SRM in the con- text of mainstream education, even though one might assume such reflection already happens at the education system level. These class- rooms require greater attention and monitoring, especially when their teachers are novices, since, as is often seen, they do not have the nec- essary theoretical and practical grounding to cope with unusual situ- ations. Disregarding such demands negatively influences the learning process of novice specialeducation teachers and, consequently, their professional development.
The Institute of SpecialEducation and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje, in 2013 year celebrates the anniversary “20 years from the beginning specialeducation and rehabilitation studies” and in that occasion it is organizing the 4 th International Conference with the main topic “Modern aspects of the specialeducation and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities”. The Conference will be held from 17 th until 19 th of October in Ohrid, the city of UNESCO, also known as Balkan and European Jerusalem. A Book of abstracts and a Book of papers (only from the papers which will be presented) will be published from the Conference. One person can be an author of maximum one paper, and a co-author of maximum three papers. The deadline for submission of the abstracts is 31 st of March, 2013 year and the deadline for submission of the whole paper is 31 st of May, 2013 year. Abstracts and papers received after the deadline will not be considered and included in the Conference program and in the Book of abstracts and the Book of papers.
The debate about inclusive education was re‐ignited in 2005 when Mary Warnock published a pamphlet entitled, Special Educational Needs: A New Look. More recently, in an edited book by Terzi (2010) with the same title, the original Warnock publication is reprinted as the first chapter. In this Warnock discusses the history of the development of provision for children with SEN in the UK and critically evaluates the issue of inclusion. She concludes that inclusive education should be rethought and redefined in order to allow children with SEN to be included in the “…common educational enterprise of learning, wherever they can learn best” (p.14). In the following chapter Norwich presents a detailed analysis of the issues raised by Warnock, and on the issue of inclusive education he suggests a continuum of provision for children with SEN but with special schools being based on the same site as mainstream schools. Warnock then responds by pointing out that her current views do not represent a u‐turn on her part, as she had published her, “…misgivings about the more hard‐line inclusionists as long ago as 1993” (Terzi, 2010, p. 117). She goes on to address the continued need for special schools for some children with SEN and states, “...the dogmatic special school closure lobby must recognize that for some children special schools are the best or indeed the only option” (Terzi, 2010, p. 129).
Individuals with low visual acuity involving low contrast perception may have problems with mobility, whereas individuals with low visual acuity of high contrast perception may have difficulty with nearby tasks such as reading. People with low vision and blindness may have aids to make better use of residual vision, and also to adapt to the condition in a process called visual rehabilitation. Visual rehabilitation is important in several ways. In addition to the direct visual impact, we must also consider the psychological, self-care and labor issues. Blindness or low vision in childhood is even more problematic since it is an individual with a longer life expectancy who will have to deal with the difficulties inherent to the condition for a longer time. The reading ability can make a big difference in education, future employment, and well-being for these individuals. (15)
The importance of reading hability has already been greatly shown throughout time and has been studied and understood through scientific research. In the case of people with low vision, reading can be the guarantee of access to education and, consequently, to citizenship. Therefore, allowing good reading ability has become the object of study of several researchers. The challenge of ensuring good reading is even greater for people with low vision, and often optical and technological aids are needed to make reading possible and fluid. Several tables, such as MNRead, Radner, Bailey-Lovie, among others, have been used to evaluate reading ability, minimum letter size for fluent reading, and maximum reading speed in words or characters per minute. These tables have been developed and calibrated according to international standards, becoming standardized and suitable for the acquisition of data that can be used in reproducible scientific research anywhere in the world. The tables have versions in several languages, and the only table standardized and translated into Brazilian Portuguese currently available is MNRead-P. We discuss here the different tables, the importance of their calibration, and their practical use. The measurements obtained with the reading tables are of great importance for planning the treatment and follow-up of individuals with low vision, since the comparisons are made from an individual parameter, between the individual’s measurements, at different moments, indicating improvement or worse reading quality. The literacy of visually impaired individuals is part of the full exercise of their citizenship. Education is the lens through which the person is seen and sees society. Educating people with disabilities is in itself a form of inclusion. Therefore, assisting low vision sufferers may be a differential in their development, allowing adequate composition of the individual’s identity core.
The CRID, Resource Center for Digital Inclusion, is a regional project reference in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to people with Special Needs. This center, located in the School of Education and Social Sciences, is equipped with a wide range of equipment that allows people with special needs access to ICT and, consequently, benefit from a support level of qualified technical advice and evaluation.
Based on the idea that the fields of talent are yet to become clear among preschool children (Ataman, 2000), the earliest level in which gifted children can be identified is the elementary school. Classroom teachers play the most important role in diagnosing the gifted students in elementary schools. As a result of the diagnosing process, students nominated by their classroom teachers are entitled to receive specialeducation they need at Science-Art Centers (SAC). Provided that the first-, second- and third-grade students are nominated by the classroom teachers as of the academic year of 2016-2017, they will be able to receive education at SAC. Accordingly, classroom teachers' abilities to identify gifted students become important. The earlier gifted children are identified and provided with the necessary specialeducation, the more they can contribute to humanity. The most crucial task falling to the classroom teachers is to help diagnose the gifted and to offer in-class applications in accordance with their talents because the development of gifted children who are guided at early ages is a lot faster and those who are not guided may become destructive individuals that may harm themselves and others later (Akarsu, 2004). In this context, a classroom teacher should be able to know about gifted children's mental, physical, social, personal and occupational characteristics and evaluate them according to these characteristics (Çağlar, 2004).